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Bozaghian Bäckman, M., Rebbling, A., Kuba, M., Larsson, S. H. & Skoglund, N. (2024). Bed material performance of quartz, natural K-feldspar, and olivine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion of barley straw. Fuel, 364, Article ID 130788.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bed material performance of quartz, natural K-feldspar, and olivine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion of barley straw
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2024 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 364, article id 130788Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study investigates how three different silicate-based bed materials behave in bubbling fluidized bed combustion of a model agricultural residue with respect to ash composition, namely barley straw. Quartz, natural K-feldspar, and olivine were all used in combustion at 700 °C, and the resulting layer formation and bed agglomeration characteristics were determined. Based on this, a general reaction model for bed ash from agricultural residues was proposed, taking into account the reactivity of the different silicates investigated towards the main ash-forming elements K, Ca, and Si. The proposed reaction model links bed material interaction with K-rich bed ash to the degree of polymerization of the silicate bed material, where addition reactions occur in systems with high polymerization, predominately in quartz, and substitution reactions dominate for depolymerized silicates such as K-feldspar and olivine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Agglomeration, Agricultural residue, Bed particle, Bioenergy, Layer formation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221657 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.130788 (DOI)2-s2.0-85185562136 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019- 00217Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency, 46533-1
Available from: 2024-03-04 Created: 2024-03-04 Last updated: 2024-03-04Bibliographically approved
Hannl, T. K., Skoglund, N., Priščák, J., Öhman, M. & Kuba, M. (2024). Bubbling fluidized bed co-combustion and co-gasification of sewage sludge with agricultural residues with a focus on the fate of phosphorus. Fuel, 357, Article ID 129822.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bubbling fluidized bed co-combustion and co-gasification of sewage sludge with agricultural residues with a focus on the fate of phosphorus
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2024 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 357, article id 129822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the fate of the ash-forming elements during bubbling fluidized bed combustion and gasification of P-rich sewage sludge (SS) and mixtures with either Si-K-rich wheat straw (WS) or K-Ca-rich sunflower husks (SH) were investigated. The focus of the study was assessing the feasibility of using fuel blends in fluidized bed systems and potential P recovery from the resulting ashes. The used fuels were pure SS and mixtures including 90 wt.% WS (WSS) and 85 wt.% SH (SHS). The analyzed operating conditions were combustion (930–960 °C, λ: 1.2–1.5) and gasification (780–810 °C, λ: 0.4–0.7) in a 5 kW bench-scale reactor. Residual ash and char fractions were collected from different parts of the 5 kW bubbling fluidized bed (bed, cyclone, filter) and analyzed by CHN, SEM/EDS, XRD, and ICP-AES.

The conversion of the fuel mixtures achieved a steady state under the used process conditions except for the combustion of WSS, which led to the formation of large bed agglomerates with the bed material. The morphology of ash samples after combustion showed that SS fuel pellets mostly maintained their integrity during the experiment. In contrast, the ash and char particles from fuel mixtures were fragmented, and larger quantities were found in the cyclone, the filter, or on interior reactor surfaces. The fate of P was dominated by crystalline Ca-dominated whitlockites in all ash fractions, partially including K for the fuel mixtures SHS and WSS. 76–81 % of ingoing P was found in the bed residue after combustion and gasification of the SS-fuel. After conversion of the fuel mixtures SHS and WSS, the share was lower at 22–48 %, with larger shares of P in the entrained fractions (25–34 %). The quantity of identified crystalline compounds was lower after gasification than combustion, likely due to the limited interaction of ash-forming elements in the residual CHN matrix. Altogether, the results show that fuel mixtures of sewage sludge with agricultural residues could expand the fuel feedstock and enable P recovery. This may be used in the fuel and process design of upscaled fluidized bed processes or systems employing both combustion and gasification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Ash, Biosolids, Combustion, Gasification, Nutrient recovery, Phosphate
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214762 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129822 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171736501 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018‐00194Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331
Available from: 2023-10-13 Created: 2023-10-13 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Strandberg, A., Thyrel, M., Falk, J., Öhman, M. & Skoglund, N. (2024). Morphology and phosphate distribution in bottom ash particles from fixed-bed co-combustion of sewage sludge and two agricultural residues. Waste Management, 177, 56-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphology and phosphate distribution in bottom ash particles from fixed-bed co-combustion of sewage sludge and two agricultural residues
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2024 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 177, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to provide detailed knowledge of the morphological properties of ash particles, including the volumetric fractions and 3D distributions of phosphates that lay within them. The ash particles came from digested sewage sludge co-combusted with K- and Si-rich wheat straw or K-rich sunflower husks. X-ray micro-tomography were combined with elemental composition and crystalline phase information to analyse the ash particles in 3D.

Analyses of differences in the X-ray attenuation enabled calculation of 3D phosphate distributions that showed high heterogeneity in the slag particles. This is underscored by a distinct absence of phosphates in iron-rich and silicon-rich parts. The slag from silicate-based wheat straw mixtures had lower average attenuation than that from sunflower husks mixtures, which contained more calcium. Calculated shares of phosphates between 7 and 17 vol% were obtained, where the highest value for a single assigned phosphate was observed in hard slag from wheat straw with 10 % sewage sludge. The porosity was notably higher for particles from pure wheat straw combustion (62 vol%), compared to the other samples (15–35 vol%). A high open pore volume fraction (60–97 vol%) indicates that a large part of the pores can be accessed by the surroundings. For all samples, more than 60 % of the discrete (closed) pores had an equivalent diameter < 30 μm, while the largest volume fraction consisted of pores with an equivalent diameter > 75 μm. Slag from sunflower husk mixtures had larger pore volumes and a greater relative number of discrete pores >75 µm compared to wheat straw mixtures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221008 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2024.01.040 (DOI)38290348 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85184148796 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry (KSLA), GFS2018-0099Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Bio4EnergySwedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613
Available from: 2024-03-06 Created: 2024-03-06 Last updated: 2024-03-06Bibliographically approved
Valizadeh, A., Skoglund, N., Forsberg, F., Lycksam, H. & Öhman, M. (2024). Role of surface morphology in bed particle layer formation on quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass. Fuel, 357, Article ID 129702.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of surface morphology in bed particle layer formation on quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass
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2024 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 357, article id 129702Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of quartz bed particle surface morphology on the bed particle layer and crack layer formation process in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass was investigated in this work. Bed material samples were collected at different sampling times from the startup with a fresh bed in industrial scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, both utilizing woody biomass. X-ray microtomography (XMT) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) were employed to characterize bed particle layers and crack layers in the samples. Results showed that there is a noticeable difference between the bed layer characteristics over the so-called “concave” and “convex”-shaped morphologies on the bed particle surface with respect to layer formation. The concave areas are mainly covered with a thin inner layer, whilst the convex display a comparably thick inner layer and an outer layer. In addition, 3D images of the particles revealed that the crack layers mainly originate from concave areas where the particle is less protected by an outer bed particle layer in conjunction with cracks in the inner layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Bed material, Industrial-scale, Time-resolved, X-ray tomography
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214409 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.129702 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170026881 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 46533-1
Note

Corrigendum: Ali Valizadeh, Nils Skoglund, Fredrik Forsberg, et al,. Corrigendum to “Role of surface morphology in bed particle layer formation on quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass” [Fuel 357(Part A) (2024) 129702], Fuel, Volume 364, 2024, Article 131320. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2024.131320

Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
Elbashir, S., Broström, M. & Skoglund, N. (2024). Thermodynamic modelling assisted three-stage solid state synthesis of high purity β-Ca3(PO4)2. Materials & design, 238, Article ID 112679.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamic modelling assisted three-stage solid state synthesis of high purity β-Ca3(PO4)2
2024 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 238, article id 112679Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A three-stage solid state synthesis assisted by thermodynamic modelling was developed to prepare highly pure (>99 %) beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder. The optimal synthesis temperature was experimentally determined to be 1000 °C in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The synthesis design described here has substantially improved the product quality and eliminated the presence of secondary phosphate phases compared to one- and two-stage methods investigated in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the material's structural, vibrational, and morphological characteristics was conducted. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data confirmed the high purity of the samples. The crystal structure of the prepared β-TCP was determined and the refined unit cell parameters agreed well with the reference values. From infrared and Raman spectral analyses, the characteristics of β-TCP were observed and discussed in details. Furthermore, the morphology and elemental composition of the products were examined and found to be homogenous and impurity free. The reproducibility of the material was scrutinized and showed no significant data variations. Using our three-stage synthesis method, it is possible to produce β-TCP powder of high purity with consistent repeatability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Calcium phosphate, FTIR, Raman, Rietveld refinement, Solid state synthesis, Thermodynamics, β-TCP
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220444 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2024.112679 (DOI)2-s2.0-85183319047 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613Bio4Energy
Available from: 2024-02-09 Created: 2024-02-09 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved
Valizadeh, A., Skoglund, N., Forsberg, F., Lycksam, H. & Öhman, M. (2023). A comparative study in 3D of bed particle layer characteristics in quartz and K-feldspar from fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass using X-ray microtomography. Fuel, 342, Article ID 127707.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study in 3D of bed particle layer characteristics in quartz and K-feldspar from fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass using X-ray microtomography
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2023 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 342, article id 127707Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bed particle layer and crack layer characteristics at different ages were studied for quartz and K-feldspar bed particles from a 30 MWth bubbling fluidized bed and a 90 MWth circulating fluidized bed, both using woody biomass as fuel. X-ray microtomography (XMT) was utilized to determine the bed particle layer distribution on the bed particles' surface. For each bed particle type, the average bed particle layer thickness as well as average volume fractions of the bed particle layer and crack layers to the entire bed particle volume were determined at three different bed particle ages by utilizing XMT analysis. Comparison of the two different bed particle types showed that K-feldspar retains a thinner bed particle layer in both conversion processes compared to quartz. Crack layers were observed extensively in quartz bed particles to the extent of 19.3 vol% and 32.1 vol% after 13 days in the BFB and the CFB, respectively, which could cause deposition of the bed particle fragments. On the contrary, K-feldspar has almost no tendency toward forming crack layers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Bed particle layer formation, Combustion, Fluidized bed, Woody biomass, X-ray microtomography
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205343 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.127707 (DOI)000946690800001 ()2-s2.0-85148664496 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 46533-1
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-04-03Bibliographically approved
Falk, J., Hannl, T. K., Öhman, M., Hedayati, A. & Skoglund, N. (2023). Ash transformation during fixed-bed co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues with a focus on phosphorus. ACS Omega, 8(14), 13162-13176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash transformation during fixed-bed co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues with a focus on phosphorus
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2023 (English)In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 14, p. 13162-13176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work investigates the ash transformation during fixed-bed co-combustion of sewage sludge mixtures with the agricultural residues wheat straw and sunflower husks, focusing on the fate of phosphorus (P) in the resulting ash fractions. The study aims to determine suitable process parameters for fixed-bed combustion of fuels previously investigated in single-pellet experiments. The pure fuels and fuel mixtures were combusted in a 20 kWth residential pellet burner while monitoring the flue gas composition, temperature, and particulate matter formation. Subsequently, the different ash fractions were collected and characterized by CHN, SEM/EDS, and XRD analysis. The results showed that co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues reduced the formation of particulate matter as well as the formation of slag. Co-combustion of sewage sludge with either agricultural residue resulted in a change in phosphate speciation, displaying higher shares of Ca and lower shares of Fe and Al in the formed orthophosphates as well as amorphous phases containing higher shares of K. The formation of K-bearing phosphates was hindered by the spatial association of P with Ca and Fe in the sewage sludge, the incorporation of available K in K-Al silicates, and the depletion of K in the P-rich melt phase. Compared to mono-combustion, co-combustion experiments showed the potential for improving the combustion performance and reducing the risk of slag formation. The outcome suggests that co-combustion is a feasible path to integrate waste streams in fixed-bed energy conversion with simultaneous formation of phosphates enabling P recovery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206791 (URN)10.1021/acsomega.3c00415 (DOI)000966980600001 ()37065071 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151894910 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194Bio4EnergySwedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613
Available from: 2023-04-20 Created: 2023-04-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Skoglund, N., Thyrel, M., Perrin, J. & Strandberg, A. (2023). Characterisation of ash particles from co-combustion of bark and sludges from pulp and paper industry. Fuel, 340, Article ID 127597.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of ash particles from co-combustion of bark and sludges from pulp and paper industry
2023 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 340, article id 127597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recycling phosphorus from waste streams for fertilization purposes could contribute to a sustainable society. The production in the pulp and paper industry results in several waste streams, among others nutrient-rich sludges in different forms. This study presents a detailed chemical and 3D characterization of ash from co-combustion of bark and two types of sludges from a paper mill; mixed sludge and biosludge. The combustion performance was investigated for these experiments and advanced analysis methods were used to characterise the ashes to correlate chemical and physical properties relevant for nutrient recycling. The elemental composition was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; dominating crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction; and morphology, porosity, pore size distribution and active surface area of the slag were analysed with synchrotron-based X-ray micro-tomography and image analysis. Slag was formed in all combustion experiments to a large extent with increasing amounts with a higher proportion of sludge. Nutrient amounts indicate that slag particles from co-combustion of both biosludge and mixed sludge can be useful either as a soil improvement directly or for recovery processes. Slag from combustion of 30 wt% biosludge and 70 wt% bark contained the highest amount of phosphorus, 9 at% on a C and O free basis. Evaluation of tomography data showed that discrete and open pores could be distinguished on a micrometre scale. The porosity of the slag varied between the replicates and fuel mixtures, on average between 17 and 23 vol% for the bark and sludge mixtures. Open pore volume displayed large variations, on average 39–56 vol% of the pores were open pores connected to the surrounding volume. For all samples, 90 % of the pores were small, with an equivalent diameter under 30 μm, but the largest pore volume (80–90 %) consists of pores with an equivalent diameter over 75 μm. In soils, pores with a minimum equivalent diameter over 30 μm generally transmit water and the smaller pores store water. The slag particles have relatively thick walls, with few pore openings to the surroundings, indicating that the slag needs to be pre-treated by milling or crushing before application in the soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Ash particle, Biosludge combustion, Micro-CT, Nutrient recycling, Synchrotron-based analysis, X-ray micro-tomography
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204511 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.127597 (DOI)000926426100001 ()2-s2.0-85146730790 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 637020–MOBILE FLIPBio4EnergySwedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017- 01613
Available from: 2023-02-07 Created: 2023-02-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Ismail, N., Zhou, Q., Wang, Q., Cui, Z., Skoglund, N. & Tavajohi, N. (2023). Dibasic esters as green solvents for PVDF membrane preparation. Green Chemistry, 25(18), 7259-7272
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dibasic esters as green solvents for PVDF membrane preparation
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2023 (English)In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 25, no 18, p. 7259-7272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solvent toxicity is a major barrier to sustainable fabrication of polymeric membranes. This study introduces three dibasic esters (DBEs) as alternative membrane fabrication solvents that are biodegradable, non-carcinogenic, non-corrosive, and non-hazardous. The use of DBEs in fabrication processes shifts the monotectic point in the phase diagram of PVDF/solvent systems towards higher polymer concentrations, enabling membrane formation by liquid–liquid phase inversion to produce a bicontinuous structure that confers outstanding performance. The best-performing membrane prepared in this way had an exceptional flux of 42.40 kg m−2 h−1 and a high rejection rate (>99%) in the decontamination of synthetic nuclear wastewater. Compared to membranes prepared previously using toxic and non-toxic solvents, membranes fabricated in DBEs exhibited superior mechanical performance due to their bicontinuous structure, which effectively distributes external forces throughout the membrane. Moreover, DBEs are cheaper than toxic conventional solvents and are readily available in bulk, making them attractive options for industrial-scale membrane production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212698 (URN)10.1039/D3GC02366D (DOI)001050714900001 ()2-s2.0-85169506965 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations, JCK22-0008
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form with title: "Exploring the potential of dibasic esters as green solvents for PVDF membrane preparation"

Available from: 2023-08-08 Created: 2023-08-08 Last updated: 2023-12-12Bibliographically approved
Faust, R., Fürsatz, K., Aonsamang, P., Sandberg, M., Kuba, M., Skoglund, N. & Knutsson, P. (2023). Early layer formation on K-feldspar during fluidized bed combustion with phosphorus-rich fuel. Fuel, 331, Article ID 125595.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early layer formation on K-feldspar during fluidized bed combustion with phosphorus-rich fuel
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2023 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 331, article id 125595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

K-feldspar was utilized as bed material for fluidized bed combustion of bark, chicken manure, and their mixture. Bed samples were extracted after 4 and 8 h and the samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy to study the impact of P-rich chicken manure on the bed material. The results were compared to fixed bed exposures with different orthophosphates to investigate their influence in detail. The fresh bed material used for this study exhibited an uneven surface with many cavities which facilitated the deposition and retention of the fuel ash. Utilizing pure chicken manure as fuel led to the formation of Ca- and P-rich particles which accumulated in these cavities. At the same time, larger ash particles were formed which consisted of the elements found in chicken manure ash. The co-combustion of bark and chicken manure led to the interaction of the two ash fractions and the formation of a thicker ash layer, which consisted of elements from both fuel ashes, namely Ca, P, Si, K and S. The layer appeared to be partially molten which could be favorable for the deposition of ash particles and thereby the formation of a mixed Ca/K-phosphate. Fixed bed exposures of the K-feldspar particles with Na3PO4 or K3PO4 caused particle agglomeration which means presence of alkali-phosphates should be limited. The co-combustion of bark with chicken manure showed promising results both regarding a shift from Ca-phosphates to more bioavailable Ca/K-phosphates and an acceleration in ash layer formation. The formation of an ash layer after only 4 h of exposure with the mixture of bark and chicken manure could be advantageous for catalytic activation of the bed material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Ash interaction, Biomass, Combustion, Fluidized bed, Layer formation, Phosphorus
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199098 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2022.125595 (DOI)2-s2.0-85136476715 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613Swedish Research Council Formas, JCK-2135Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Energy Agency, 50450-1
Available from: 2022-09-19 Created: 2022-09-19 Last updated: 2022-09-19Bibliographically approved
Projects
Fundamental studies of chemical speciation in ash fractions from thermal conversion of biomass and waste streams focusing on phosphates and heavy metals [2017-05331_VR]; Umeå University; Publications
Elbashir, S., Ramstedt, M., Thyrel, M., Broström, M. & Skoglund, N. (2022). Structural Study On The Chemical Environment Surrounding Phosphorus In Ash Fractions Suitable For Nutrient Recovery. In: ESPC4 & PERM5 2022 – Book of Abstracts: . Paper presented at European Sustainable Phosphorus Conference ESPC4, Vienna, Austria, June 20-22. Falk, J., Skoglund, N., Grimm, A. & Ohman, M. (2020). Systematic Evaluation of the Fate of Phosphorus in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass and Sewage Sludge. Energy & Fuels, 34(4), 3984-3995
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5777-9241

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