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Title [sv]
Förutsättningar för grön strukturomvandling. Den svenska miljösektorns utveckling 1970-2015
Title [en]
Conditions for Green Structural Change. The evolution of the Environmental Goods and Service Sector in Sweden 1970-2015
Abstract [en]
Mirroring the need to achieve green economic growth, the Environmental Goods and Service Sector (EGSS) has become a new European statistical standard. Sweden has together with the Netherlands been one of the first countries to produce statistics on the EGSS. As the first estimates of the Swedish EGSS were published, it was evident that the sector was a sizeable one, with a turnover of 220 billion SEK. Later historical reconstructions of the sector showed that it was large already in 2002, which indicates that the EGSS must have started to grow earlier. The purpose of this project is to explore the growth of the environmental goods and service sector, EGSS, in Sweden c 1970-2014 from a perspective of long-term economic structural change. We do so by combining macro and micro perspectives through methodologies from economic history and business history as well as further extension of data from Statistics Sweden. As structural change and economic growth are long-term phenomena by definition, historical perspectives are necessary for addressing this type of issues. Specifically, we will analyze the growth of the EGSS by focusing on: a) its growth characteristics in relation to other sectors since the 1970s b) the development of entrepreneurship and key innovations within the sector and c) the importance of governmental policies and market drivers behind start ups and scaling up of the firms within this sector.
Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Lindmark, M. (2022). Förutsättningar för den cirkulära ekonomins framväxt: ett historiskt-strukturanalytiskt perspektiv. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förutsättningar för den cirkulära ekonomins framväxt: ett historiskt-strukturanalytiskt perspektiv
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This working paper deals with the conditions for the emergence of a circular economy from the perspective of structural change and economic growth. To do this, the economy is divided into a tangible and intangible sector whose growth and contribution to GDP have been studied since the early 20th century. The overall conclusion is that the sectors have experienced similar growth for a long time, while the non-material sector's contribution to GDP is significantly greater today than before. The circular economy is linked to the material sector and must therefore grow faster than the total economy in order for the degree of circularity to increase.

Abstract [sv]

Rapporten behandlar förutsättningarna för framväxten av en cirkulär ekonomi ur perspektiv av strukturomvandling och ekonomisk tillväxt. För att göra detta delas ekonomin in i en materiell och icke-materiell sektor vars tillväxt och bidrag till BNP studeras sedan tidigt 1900-tal. Den övergripande slutsatsen är att sektorerna sedan lång tid tillbaka har upplevt en likartad tillväxt samtidigt som den icke-materiella sektorns bidragtill BNP är betydligt större idag än tidigare. Den cirkulära ekonomin är knuten till den materiella sektorn och måste således växa snabbare än den totala ekonomin för att graden av cirkularitet ska kunna öka. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2022. p. 22
Series
Umeå papers in economic history, ISSN 1653-7378 ; 51
Keywords
Cirkulär ekonomi, strukturomvandling, avmaterialisering, ekonomisk historia, Sverige
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199264 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03024
Available from: 2022-09-09 Created: 2022-09-09 Last updated: 2022-09-12Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. (2022). Historical Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts (EPEA) for Sweden 1972 to 2016. Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts (EPEA) for Sweden 1972 to 2016
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents reconstructions of historical environmental accounts for Sweden for the period after 1970 with the purpose of both presenting key-methodological issues pertaining to historical environmental accounting and documenting methodological issues and considerations behind the figures. The paper also offers preliminary analyses of the series.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2022. p. 24
Series
Umeå papers in economic history, ISSN 1653-7378 ; 2022:52
Keywords
Environmental accounting, Historical National Accounts, Sweden, Economic Growth
National Category
Social Sciences Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193765 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03204
Available from: 2022-04-13 Created: 2022-04-13 Last updated: 2022-04-13Bibliographically approved
Honningdal Grytten, O., Lindmark, M. & Minde, K. B. (2020). The wealth of nations and sustainable development: energy intensity and the environmental Kuznets curve. Environmental Economics, 11(1), 110-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The wealth of nations and sustainable development: energy intensity and the environmental Kuznets curve
2020 (English)In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 110-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scholars warn that wealth leads to unsustainable environmental development. However, over the last decades, studies have shown an increase in environmental degradation at the initial stage of economic growth, and then a decline when economic growth reaches a certain level. This first acceleration and then deceleration create an inverted U-shaped curve between pollution and economic growth, called the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Environmental degradation can be measured by different factors. This paper deals with two of them, i.e. energy consumption and energy intensity (EI). The latter is measured as the ratio between energy consumption and GDP. The relationship of energy consumption and intensity to economic growth can serve as a tool for examining whether an EKC exists.

The paper presents continuous series of energy consumption energy intensity and gross domestic product for the Norwegian mainland economy 1835–2019. The series are used to examine the possible existence of relative and absolute environmental Kuznets curves (EKC). Time series are established using available data and annual figures for 1835–2019, which are presented for the first time. They depict a development that, first, reflects an almost constant downward trend in EI, and, second, the existence of EKCs. The paper also proposes a polynomial regression model to discuss the relationship between environmental degradation as measured by energy consumption and intensity on the one hand, and economic growth on the other. It is concluded that there are both relative and absolute EKC-relations between environmental degradation and economic growth, with 1975 as relative and 2002 as absolute turning point.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sumy, Ukraine: CPC Business Perspectives, 2020
Keywords
Norway, energy consumption, economic growth, environmental studies, economic history
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175489 (URN)10.21511/ee.11(1).2020.10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85097904267 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-30 Created: 2020-09-30 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. (2019). Greening the national accounts: basic concepts and a case study of historical environmental accounting for Sweden. In: Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan (Ed.), Handbook of green economics: (pp. 1-18). Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greening the national accounts: basic concepts and a case study of historical environmental accounting for Sweden
2019 (English)In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents reconstructions of historical environmental accounts for Sweden for the period after 1970 with the purpose of both presenting key methodological issues pertaining to historical environmental accounting and demonstrating how historical series can be used for analysis of long-term economic and environmental change. The chapter also demonstrates how historical environmental accounts may be created by piecing together various data sources. Main empirical findings are that Swedish carbon emissions have decreased at approximately the discount rate suggested by William Nordhaus and that Environmental Protection Expenditures since 1972 have nearly been constant as a share of GDP, suggesting that environmental expenditure may have Cobb-Douglass characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2019
Keywords
Environmental accounting, Historical National Accounts
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165991 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-816635-2.00001-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85123658036 (Scopus ID)978-0-12-816635-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 1429
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2022-05-31Bibliographically approved
Warde, P. & Lindmark, M. (2019). Heat in a Cold Climate: Household Energy Choices in the Scandinavian North, 1890–1970. Journal of Northern Studies, 3(1), 61-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat in a Cold Climate: Household Energy Choices in the Scandinavian North, 1890–1970
2019 (English)In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 61-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines the timing, scale and cause of transitions between different kinds of household energy use and especially heating in northern Sweden, with a focus on Norrbotten, between the late nineteenth century and 1970. It examines the related but separate histories of the adoption of new heating technologies, such as stoves and boilers, and the choice of fuels, such as firewood, coke, oil, and electricity, providing new data on the scale of consumption and timing of transition. The article demonstrates the important linkage between domestic fuel choice and labour markets, whether labour in farm and forest affecting stove use in the nineteenth century, or increased female labour participation outside the home and rising wages in the twentieth. The article goes beyond discussions of price and technology to consider the wider contexts of domestic use not only in terms of home life, but also industrial development and labour markets in northern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019
Keywords
energy, labour, heating, coal, oil, electricity, environment, Norrbotten, Sweden
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167303 (URN)10.36368/jns.v13i1.942 (DOI)
Projects
MISTRA Arctic Sustainable Development
Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2024-03-08Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Acar, S. (2019). Riders on the storm: how hard did Robert Gordon’s environmental headwind blow in the past?. In: Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan (Ed.), Handbook of green economics: (pp. 135-151). Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Riders on the storm: how hard did Robert Gordon’s environmental headwind blow in the past?
2019 (English)In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2019
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165992 (URN)978-0-12-816635-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-12-06 Created: 2019-12-06 Last updated: 2022-03-28Bibliographically approved
Lindmark, M. & Olsson Spjut, F. (2019). The transformation of the organic energy system: the Swedish perspective. Historia Agraria, 77, 59-80
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The transformation of the organic energy system: the Swedish perspective
2019 (English)In: Historia Agraria, ISSN 1139-1472, E-ISSN 2340-3659, Vol. 77, p. 59-80Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the historical conversion of the Swedish organic energy system into a mineral one. The main argument is that there was a dynamic interaction between the two systems during the Swedish industrialization process. For one, growth of the mineral energy system contributed to open previously inaccessible organic resources in the forests of northern Sweden. Secondly, the development of the pulp and paper industry contributed to the switch from charcoal to coke in the iron manufacturing industry. Thirdly, the development of hydropower, itself an organic source of energy, further contributed to the emergence of a mixed energy system. One can therefore perceive the Swedish transition from an organic to a mineral energy system as a shift from a traditional organic energy system to an industrialized one, that is, an organic energy system dependent on the technologies and organizational structures of the mineral energy system in order to function.

Abstract [es]

En este artículo se analiza en perspectiva histórica la transición de un sistema energético orgánico a otro mineral para el caso de Suecia. Los principales argumentos son que en el proceso de industrialización sueco hubo una interacción dinámica entre ambos sistemas. En primer lugar, observamos que la expansión del sistema energético mineral facilitó el acceso a recursos orgánicos en el norte de Suecia, antes inaccesibles. En segundo lugar, comprobamos que el auge de la industria papelera fue un factor clave en la transición de le industria del hierro desde el carbón vegetal al coque. En tercer lugar, el desarrollo de la energía hidráulica, una fuente de energía orgánica, contribuyó adicionalmente a la coexistencia de un sistema energético mixto. Planteamos, por tanto, que la transición de un sistema energético orgánico a uno mineral en Suecia puede entenderse como el cambio de un sistema de energía orgánica tradicional a otro también orgánico pero industrializado, esto es, a un sistema energético que para su funcionamiento era dependiente de tecnologías y estructuras organizativas del sistema mineral.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universidad de Murcia, 2019
Keywords
organic energy system, energy history, Sweden, firewood, sistema energético orgánico, historia de la energía, Suecia, leña
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153784 (URN)10.26882/histagrar.077e03 (DOI)000475980500003 ()2-s2.0-85062907357 (Scopus ID)881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2022-03-28Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorLindmark, Magnus
Coordinating organisation
Umeå University
Funder
Period
2017-01-01 - 2020-12-31
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:1429Project, id: 2016-03024_VR

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