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Title [sv]
Varianter av fred
Title [en]
Varieties of Peace
Abstract [sv]
Forskningsprogrammet Varianter av fred syftar till att undersöka de långsiktiga konsekvenserna av fredsprocesser i konflikter som avslutades under 1990-talet. Den centrala frågan är: Varför leder vissa fredsprocesser till robust fred medan andra fredsprocesser leder till skör fred? Fredsprocesser har oftast studerats i kortare perspektiv, vanligtvis i ?lessons-learned? utvärderingar 5 år efter konfliktens slut, med utgångspunkt i forskning om konflikter. Det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet är ett ambitiöst initiativ som tar sin utgångspunkt i förståelsen av fred, dess variationer gällande kvalité och karaktär, och betraktar freden som en dynamisk samhällsförändrande process. Programmet Varianter av fred vill nu, 25?30 år efter att 1990-talets fredsprocesser påbörjades, undersöka framgångsrika, delvis framgångsrika och misslyckade processer i ett komparativt perspektiv, för att nå en djupare teoretisk och generaliserbar kunskap om vad fred är och hur den kan nås. Denna kunskap ska uppnås genom studier av fem huvudsakliga förklaringsfaktorer: 1) civilsamhällets agerande, kapacitet och resiliens, 2) avtalens undertecknare, deras intressen och strategier, 3) avtalens mål och innehåll 4) samhällets institutioner och dess resiliens, samt 5) internationell inblandning. Dessa faktorer kommer att studeras i tio sub-projekt, med ambitionen att fånga och förklara fredsprocessernas variation, interna dynamik och slutligen resultat, sett över en längre tidsperiod.
Abstract [en]
The Varieties of Peace research program aims to analyze long-term effects of peace processes in conflicts that ended in the 1990s. The central research question is: Why some peace processes lead to a robust and resilient peace while others lead to a fragile peace? Peace processes have been studied in shorter perspective, usually in ?lessons-learned? evaluations 5 years after conflict termination, and usually with theories of conflict as a starting point. The Varieties of Peace research program is an ambitious initiative, which starts from a theoretical understanding of peace, its quality and character, and views peace as a dynamic transformative process. It will investigate and evaluate successful, partly successful, and failed processes from a comparative perspective 25?30 years after they started, with the ambition of producing generalizable knowledge about peace, what it is and how it can be achieved. The most important explanatory variables at the core of research activities are: 1) the actions, capacity and resilience of civil society, 2) the interests and strategies of the signatories of the agreements, 3) the aims and character of the agreements, 4) the societies? institutions and resilience, and 5) international involvement. These issues will be studies in ten sub-projects, with the ambition to capture and explain variation, internal dynamics and ultimately the results and effects of peace processes, studied over a longer period of time.
Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Olivius, E. & Hedström, J. (2023). "They treat us like visitors in our own house": relational peace and local experiences of the state in Myanmar. In: Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo (Ed.), Relational peace practices: (pp. 127-149). Manchester University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"They treat us like visitors in our own house": relational peace and local experiences of the state in Myanmar
2023 (English)In: Relational peace practices / [ed] Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo, Manchester University Press, 2023, p. 127-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Between 2011 and 2021, political reforms and renewed peace efforts significantly reduced violence in many of Myanmar’s conflict-affected regions. Despite this, people living in these areas did not agree that they enjoyed peace; rather, this period is described as a continuation of the war’s many injustices, marked by discrimination, marginalization, and fear. This chapter argues that a relational analysis of peace can enable us to make sense of this gap between drastically different assessments of peace and conflict. The analysis draws on focus group discussions, interviews, and participant observation with local civilians, civil society activists, and members of non-state armed groups conducted in 2019 in two regions, Kayah and Mon States. A relational perspective uncovers the fact that the fundamental logics of key conflict relationships, between the Myanmar state and ethnic minority groups and communities, have not been transformed by the peace process but instead manifest themselves in new ways, whereby armed violence has been replaced by other forms of domination, underpinned by inequality, non-recognition, and distrust. Exploring these relational dynamics enables us to pinpoint areas and issues that prevent the emergence of a sustainable and legitimate peace, and demonstrate the importance of relational aspects for people’s experiences of everyday peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Manchester University Press, 2023
Series
New approaches to conflict analysis
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-213528 (URN)10.7765/9781526168979.00012 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170161131 (Scopus ID)9781526168962 (ISBN)9781526168979 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-1494:1
Available from: 2023-08-24 Created: 2023-08-24 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved
Hedström, J. & Olivius, E. (2022). Tracing temporal conflicts in transitional Myanmar: life history diagrams as methodological tool. Conflict, Security and Development, 22(5), 495-515
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing temporal conflicts in transitional Myanmar: life history diagrams as methodological tool
2022 (English)In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 495-515Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article adds to the emerging ‘temporal turn’ in peace studies by addressing methodological questions about how temporality can be captured and explored in empirical studies. Developing our methodological tools for exploring time and temporality, we argue, is critical to move beyond the supposed linear temporality of peace processes, and make visible alternative temporal frameworks that shape everyday experiences and contestations around peace in conflict-affected contexts. Drawing on a study of two conflict-affected areas in Myanmar, we contribute towards this aim through a discussion of how life history diagrams helped us trace temporal conflicts between overarching narratives of political transition and everyday experiences of insecurity. This facilitated a deeper understanding of how relationships between war and peace, and between past, present and future, were manifested and made sense of in people’s everyday lives. Our use of life history diagrams revealed temporal conflicts between the dominant, linear temporality of the Myanmar transition, and more complex and cyclical temporal frameworks people used to describe their realities. Life history diagrams also facilitated narratives that troubled an events-based temporality focused on macro-political shifts such as ceasefire agreements and elections, and instead foregrounded everyday experiences of continuous insecurity and struggle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
Temporality, peace, transition, Myanmar, life history interviews, life history diagrams, visual methods
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199746 (URN)10.1080/14678802.2022.2124847 (DOI)000859695500001 ()2-s2.0-85139146772 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1
Available from: 2022-09-28 Created: 2022-09-28 Last updated: 2022-12-30Bibliographically approved
Åkebo, M. & Bastian, S. (2021). Beyond Liberal Peace in Sri Lanka: Victory, Politics, and State Formation. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(1), 70-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond Liberal Peace in Sri Lanka: Victory, Politics, and State Formation
2021 (English)In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 70-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2009, the war between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ended through a military victory for the government. Features of the post-war peace - including persistent militarization, strengthened nationalism, and communal violence - have commonly been attributed to a failed attempt at liberal peacebuilding followed by an authoritarian backlash. In contrast, this study shows how the post-war peace has been shaped by historical processes of state formation aimed at consolidating the Sri Lankan state. The article takes a long-term approach to analysing peace in Sri Lanka through the lens of state formation. The analysis centres on four key aspects: (1) post-war security, (2) state–minority relations, (3) socio-economic aspects, and (4) electoral politics. We conclude that there are currently few signs of any substantial state reform that would accommodate the continuous demand for social justice and minority rights that has spurred violent conflicts in Sri Lanka.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
peace, Sri Lanka, war victory, state formation, liberal peacebuilding, state–society relations, nationalism
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177630 (URN)10.1177/1542316620976121 (DOI)2-s2.0-85097265127 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1 and P19-1494:1
Available from: 2020-12-15 Created: 2020-12-15 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Cardenas, M. L. & Olivius, E. (2021). Building Peace in the Shadow of War: Women-to-Women Diplomacy as Alternative Peacebuilding Practice in Myanmar. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 15(3), 347-366
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building Peace in the Shadow of War: Women-to-Women Diplomacy as Alternative Peacebuilding Practice in Myanmar
2021 (English)In: Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, ISSN 1750-2977, E-ISSN 1750-2985, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 347-366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventional assumptions locating peacebuilding temporally after violence have largely prevented exploration of how peacebuilding is practiced amidst conditions of ongoing violence. This article addresses this gap by analysing how Myanmar women's activists have devised strategies in pursuit of peace, amidst ongoing armed conflict, from the 1990s and onwards. The findings demonstrate that women's inter-ethnic cooperation contributed to transform conflict divides long before the initiation of formal national peace negotiations in 2011. Further, theorizing these peacebuilding practices, the article provides new insights into the dynamics of women's peace activism of relevance beyond the case of Myanmar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2021
Keywords
Women's activism, gender equality, inter-ethnic dialogue, Women's League of Burma, Peacebuilding
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-183911 (URN)10.1080/17502977.2021.1917254 (DOI)000653555700001 ()2-s2.0-85104696714 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01756Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Swedish Research Council, 2013-06334
Available from: 2021-06-04 Created: 2021-06-04 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, L., Olivius, E. & Hedström, J. (2021). Care and Silence in Women's Everyday Peacebuilding in Myanmar. Conflict, Security and Development, 21(3), 223-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Care and Silence in Women's Everyday Peacebuilding in Myanmar
2021 (English)In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 223-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article draws on feminist perspectives on the everyday to explore women’s everyday experiences of peace in Kayah state in Myanmar. We locate the daily practices women engage in to maintain life and minimise violence, making visible women’s contributions to everyday peace. In addition, we examine the ways in which women are disproportionally affected by war and prevented from benefitting from post-war changes. Our findings demonstrate that practices of care and silence are key avenues for women’s everyday peacebuilding, through which women sustain peace, ensure survival, and minimise violence in their families and wider communities. At the same time, however, these practices are conditioned by and may contribute to gendered insecurity and marginalisation for women. Through this focus, our analysis shows how women’s positioning in gendered relations of power may both enable their agency in peacebuilding and reinforce their gendered inequality and marginalisation in the post-war period. We conclude that while everyday peace practices may hold the potential for positive change, these can also contribute to the reproduction of inequality, oppression and structural violence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2021
Keywords
Everyday peace, women, gendered peace gaps, peacebuilding, care, silence, Myanmar
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-183908 (URN)10.1080/14678802.2021.1933031 (DOI)000657198500001 ()2-s2.0-85107521523 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297-1Swedish Research Council, 2015-01756
Available from: 2021-06-04 Created: 2021-06-04 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Olivius, E. & Åkebo, M. (2021). Exploring Varieties of Peace: Advancing the Agenda. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(1), 3-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Varieties of Peace: Advancing the Agenda
2021 (English)In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within peace and conflict research, the study of peace has received far less scholarly attention than the study of war and violence (Gleditsch et al., 2014). Moreover, among the studies that pay particular attention to peace, a negative peace conception, which equates peace with the absence of direct violence between formerly warring parties, has generally dominated. Consequently, peace itself is underconceptualised. Existing conceptions of peace do not provide analytical tools that can systematically describe, compare, and explain how peace varies across contexts. By way of illustration, the peace in Sri Lanka is evidently different from the peace in South Africa or the peace in Cambodia, and peace in all of these contexts has also evolved in different ways over time. Postwar processes of peacebuilding and development are complex and messy, and the outcomes are both unpredictable and highly diverse. This situation has prompted recent calls for the development of new theoretical frameworks, analytical tools, and methodologies that can enable nuanced empirical analyses and assessments of peace across empirical cases (e.g., Davenport et al., 2018; Diehl, 2016; Höglund & Söderberg Kovac, 2010; Jarstad et al., 2019).

This special issue, titled Exploring Varieties of Peace, responds to these calls and seeks to advance conceptual understandings as well as empirical analyses of peace that provide new insights into the ways in which peace is manifested, experienced, and understood. The special issue originates from the Varieties of Peace research programme and network, which was launched in 2017 at Umeå University, Sweden, with support from the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences.1 Several of the contributions were discussed at the Varieties of Peace Asia Conference, which was organised in Jakarta, Indonesia, October 22–24, 2019, in cooperation with the Centre for Strategic and International Studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
peace, post-war, qualitative research, case studies, peacebuilding
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182256 (URN)10.1177/1542316621995641 (DOI)2-s2.0-85103878849 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297-1
Available from: 2021-04-14 Created: 2021-04-14 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Olivius, E. & Hedström, J. (2021). Spatial Struggles and the Politics of Peace: the Aung San Statue as a Site for Post-War Conflict in Myanmar’s Kayah State. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(3), 275-288
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial Struggles and the Politics of Peace: the Aung San Statue as a Site for Post-War Conflict in Myanmar’s Kayah State
2021 (English)In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores processes of place-making and space-making around the erection of the Aung San statue in Kayah state in Myanmar and draws out the competing visions of peace that are articulated through them. The raising of the statue unleashed widespread public protest, which was largely met by repression by the Myanmar authorities. Drawing on interviews, focus groups, and documentary sources, we argue that the statue constitutes an attempt to establish a post-war political order centred on the reassertion of government authority in ethnic minority areas and the creation of unity through the imposition of one national identity. However, the statue has also been appropriated as a key site for the articulation of alternative visions of peace and development. The conflict around the statue thereby makes visible ongoing struggles over the meaning of peace and shows how these post-war struggles are fought on and through space and place.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
post-war, peace, space, place, monuments, peacebuilding, Kayah/Karenni state, Myanmar
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-178745 (URN)10.1177/1542316620986133 (DOI)2-s2.0-85099359876 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1
Available from: 2021-01-14 Created: 2021-01-14 Last updated: 2022-01-12Bibliographically approved
Johansson, P. & Saati, A. (2020). Different Methods for Analyzing Varieties of Peace. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different Methods for Analyzing Varieties of Peace
2020 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Peace can take many different forms and be expressed in a myriad of different ways that go well-beyond “peace as the absence of war”. Though recent scholarly contributions within this vein of research acknowledge the empirical reality of a variety of “peaces”, we are yet to understand how – methodologically – researchers can go about the endeavor of developing tools that allow us to describe and classify varieties of peace.  Our effort in this paper addresses this knowledge gap. We bring attention to different methods for empirically capturing varieties of peace when peace is approached as a situation, as a relationship or as an idea. Though our purpose is to illustrate a “smorgasbord of methods” for analyzing varieties of peace, we also argue that any effort to approach such an analysis ought to be based on theoretically coherent sets of types. This is so because it will allow the researcher to provide a more nuanced picture of different varieties of peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2020. p. 18
Series
Umeå Working Papers in Peace and Conflict Studies, ISSN 1654-2398 ; 13
Keywords
varieties of peace, methods, theoretically coherent sets of types
National Category
Globalisation Studies
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167296 (URN)978-91-7855-203-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-01-20Bibliographically approved
Hedström, J. & Olivius, E. (2020). Insecurity, Dispossession, Depletion : Women’s Experiences of Post-War Development in Myanmar. European Journal of Development Research, 32(2), 379-403
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insecurity, Dispossession, Depletion : Women’s Experiences of Post-War Development in Myanmar
2020 (English)In: European Journal of Development Research, ISSN 0957-8811, E-ISSN 1743-9728, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 379-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the gendered dynamics of Myanmar’s post-war economic reforms through an analysis of women’s experiences of development in Kayah (Karenni) state. In Myanmar, ceasefires and a reduction of armed violence combined with state-driven economic liberalization reforms are conditioned by, but also contribute to remake, gendered relations of power, privilege and marginalization. While new land legislation and development projects have contributed to loss of land and livelihoods among rural populations in general, our study demonstrates that women living in conflict-affected border areas are disproportionally affected. Drawing on interviews and participant observation, we show how this is directly related to an overarching gendered political economy defined by legacies of conflict, discrimination and uneven processes of development, which positions women as particularly vulnerable to new forms of insecurity, dispossession and depletion generated by post-war economic transformations. We argue that the political and economic legacies of war in the state has produced a gendered division of labor that positions women as responsible for unpaid and underpaid informal and social reproductive labor, weakens women’s access to land, and results in physical, material, and emotional depletion. Through this focus, our study adds to research on development and economic restructuring in post-war contexts in general, and to emergent scholarship on Myanmar’s economic reforms in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Post-war economic development, Gender, Feminist political economy. Informal labor, Land rights, Myanmar, Kayah/Karenni state
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170074 (URN)10.1057/s41287-020-00255-2 (DOI)000521910700001 ()2-s2.0-85082817217 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01756Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1
Available from: 2020-04-24 Created: 2020-04-24 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Olivius, E. & Strandh, V. (2020). Introduction: Exploring Varieties of Peace in Asia. Indonesian Quarterly, 48(1), 7-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: Exploring Varieties of Peace in Asia
2020 (English)In: Indonesian Quarterly, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 7-12Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This special edition highlights how notions of peace, as well as institutions, practices and relationships that can foster peace, are shaped by and need to be anchored in their specific context of implementation. All three articles show that the experience of peace differs between people in the same location along axes of inequality and difference such as gender, ethnicity, and religion. In exploring how peace varies, we thus need to attend to variation across space and place as well as to variation between differently positioned individuals and groups within society. Shedding new light on these issues in their respective empirical settings, these three articles constitute important contributions to an ongoing research effort aiming to provide a fuller picture of what peace is, how it is manifested, experienced, and understood, and how this varies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 2020
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173269 (URN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1
Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2020-07-01 Last updated: 2023-03-07Bibliographically approved
Co-InvestigatorÅkebo, Malin
Co-InvestigatorJarstad, Anna
Principal InvestigatorJarstad, Anna
Co-InvestigatorSöderström, Johanna
Co-InvestigatorSahovic, Dzenan
Coordinating organisation
Umeå University
Funder
Period
2017-01-01 - 2024-12-31
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)Globalization StudiesOther Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:488Project, id: M16-0297:1_RJ