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Design friction in autonomous drive: exploring transitions between autonomous and manual drive in non-urgent situations
AD Safe Experience, Volvo Cars, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
AD Safe Experience, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
AD Safe Experience, Volvo Cars, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1476-3952
2023 (English)In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 2291-2305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the ongoing turn to automation, the growing trend towards the design of conditionally and highly automated vehicles (C/HAV) is evident. In a CAV, the driver no longer needs to partake in the driving. However, the vehicle might send a takeover request (TOR) when the CAV's system reaches its operational boundaries, i.e. a call for a transition from autonomous to manual drive. Previous research on TORs has focused on the context of urgent situations, e.g. hazards and unpredictable events. Furthermore, it has been noted that drivers’ situation awareness (SA) deteriorates after being in autonomous drive. However, less is known about TORs in non-urgent situations. Motivated by this need, the study explores how design friction can serve as a guiding concept for transferring control between autonomous and manual drive in non-urgent situations to increase situation awareness. Design friction is defined as elements of interactions that steer attention and guides the driver to take informed decisions. The work resulted in prototypes that leveraged design friction as part of a takeover sequence. The proposed design was empirically evaluated in a fixed-base medium-fidelity driving simulator. The results indicated that the level of friction might have been too extensive, as some annoyance was expressed. However, participants claimed to feel calm and aware of their surroundings at the moment of regaining control of the vehicle. This suggests that design friction is a promising tool for guiding concept design to enhance transitions from autonomous to manual drive.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023. Vol. 27, no 6, p. 2291-2305
Keywords [en]
Conditionally autonomous vehicles, Design friction, Interaction design, Situation awareness, Takeover request
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217714DOI: 10.1007/s00779-023-01780-7Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85178300708OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-217714DiVA, id: diva2:1819498
Funder
Vinnova, 2020-02914Available from: 2023-12-14 Created: 2023-12-14 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Wiberg, Mikael

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