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A multi-method assessment to support energy efficiency decisions in existing residential and academic buildings
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. (Energy efficiency)
2021 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)Alternativ tittel
Multimetodiska bedömningar för att främja hållbart beslutsfattande för bostäder och akademiska byggnader (svensk)
Abstract [en]

Rapid decarbonization of building stock is essential for the energy transition required to mitigate climate change and limit the global temperature rise below 1.5 °C. The decision-making for the adoption of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is often complex and involves lasting consequences and risks. The strategy to direct and support the decision makers can significantly increase the adoption rate of EEMs in buildings. This Ph.D. project focuses on facilitating sustainability improvement in buildings by supporting the decision makers who are accountable for the consequences of adopting the EEMs. Energy efficiency improvement is decided and managed differently in various types of buildings and contexts and encounters different challenges and opportunities. Accordingly, it is required to understand the needs to select adequate strategies and to devise effective supporting interventions for energy efficiency improvement.

The owners of single-family houses are often the occupants who are in charge of the most decisions to improve energy efficiency in their dwellings. The situation is rather different in multi-family buildings and academic buildings in which organizational management adds more complexity and the decisions affect various stakeholders. The studies in this project are based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from single-family houses, multi-family buildings, and university buildings in northern Sweden. Surveys were used to elicit the decision makers' perceptions of different types of buildings. Moreover, sensor data from university buildings were used in the case studies to develop informative metrics for space use efficiency and to analyze the effect of sensor positioning on monitored data.

The initial work involved understanding the opportunities and challenges of improving energy efficiency in buildings and the tradeoffs between the perceived benefits and barriers. This part of the thesis provided the foundation and inspiration for the rest of the project, including investigating how to bundle several measures and use information and communication technologies (ICT) for building sustainability. The findings show lack of information and evidence that could justify the beneficial outcomes of EEMs is a major barrier for effective decision-making. Clear information on potential improvements allows sharing the responsibilities among different stakeholders and increases the management capacity to handle projects and adopt EEMs. Using feedback tools (for example, space use and/or energy use visualizations) might be an effective strategy to influence decision makers.

Various studies incorporated in this multidisciplinary Ph.D. thesis develop and investigate strategies to support decision makers to improve energy efficiency in buildings. The findings provide insights to policymakers and businesses to devise intervention strategies for energy efficiency in buildings.

Abstract [sv]

En snabba minskning av koldioxidutsläppen från bebyggelsen är avgörande i den energiomställning som krävs för att minska takten på klimatförändringen och begränsa den globala temperaturökningen till 1,5° C. De beslut som behöver tas för att införa energieffektivitetsåtgärder (EEM) är till sin natur ofta komplicerade och förknippade med långtgående konsekvenser och risker. Strategier för att styra och stödja beslutsfattarna kan avsevärt öka införandet av EEM i byggnader. Denna doktorsavhandling är fokuserad på att främja förbättring av hållbarhet i bebyggelsen genom att stödja beslutsfattare som är ansvariga för de konsekvenserna som är förknippade med införandet av EEM.  Energieffektivisering beslutas och hanteras på olika sätt för olika typer av byggnader, i olika sammanhang, vilket i sin tur medför olika utmaningar och möjligheter. Följaktligen är det nödvändigt att förstå betydelsen av att välja lämpliga strategier och att utforma effektiva stödåtgärder för att uppnå ökad energieffektivitet.

Vanligen bebos småhus av ägaren, vilken samtidigt ofta har ansvar för att fatta nödvändiga beslut för att förbättra energieffektiviteten för bostaden. Situationen är ganska annorlunda för flerfamiljshus och offentliga byggnader, som universitetsbyggnader, där organisatoriska strukturer innebär ökad komplexitet och de beslut som fattas påverkar olika intressenter. De presenterade studierna baseras på kvalitativa och kvantitativa data som samlats in från enfamiljshus, flerfamiljshus och universitetsbyggnader i norra Sverige. De undersökningar som genomförts har utformats för att identifiera beslutsfattares uppfattningar för olika typer av byggnader. Dessutom har sensordata från universitetsbyggnader använts olika i fallstudier för att utveckla illustrative nyckeltal för lokalanvändningseffektivitet och för att analysera hur sensorpositionering kan påverka insamling av mätdata.

Den inledande delen av arbetet innefattade att förstå möjligheterna och utmaningarna som följer av att förbättra energieffektiviteten i byggnader, samt skillnaderna mellan de upplevda fördelarna och hindren. Den delen av arbete gav grunden och inspiration för resten av projektet, vilket inkluderade att undersöka hur flera åtgärder kan förenas och användningen av informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) för hållbart byggande. Resultaten visar att brist på information och evidens för de positiva resultaten av EEM kan vara ett hinder för att motivera beslutsfattande. Tydlig information om potentiella förbättringar kan möjliggöra att ansvarsområden delas mellan olika intressenter och kapaciteten att genomföra projekt och införa EEM kan förbättras. Att använda metoder att återkoppling, med exempelvis visualisering av lokalanvändning och/eller energianvändning, kan vara en del i en effektiv strategi för att påverka beslutsfattare.

Olika studier är införlivade i detta tvärvetenskapliga avhandlingsarbete för att utveckla och undersöka strategier som kan vara till stöd till beslutsfattare att förbättra energieffektiviteten i byggnader. Resultaten delger insikter till företrädare för myndigheter och näringslivet till att utveckla och utforma strategier för energieffektivitet i bebyggelsen.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Umeå: Umeå University , 2021. , s. 80
Emneord [en]
residential dwellings, institutional buildings, sustainability, energy renovation, adoption of technology, decision-making, smart solutions, ICT, IoT
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
hållbarhet
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186657ISBN: 978-91-7855-596-3 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7855-597-0 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-186657DiVA, id: diva2:1585377
Disputas
2021-09-13, Triple Helix, Umeå University, Samverkanshuset, Umeå, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horizon 2020, 731198European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), 303-5806-2015Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-08-23 Laget: 2021-08-17 Sist oppdatert: 2021-08-19bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. A management perspective on energy efficient renovations in Swedish multi-family buildings
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A management perspective on energy efficient renovations in Swedish multi-family buildings
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 132, s. 994-999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden has around 2.5 million dwellings in multi-family buildings, which constitute about 55% of the total dwelling units. The multi-family building ownership in Sweden can be categorized into municipal, private and co-operative ownership. Approximately 40% of apartments in multi-family buildings belong to municipal housing companies, while the rest is equally shared by private companies and co-operative housing associations. These organizations have different priorities, limitations and concerns related to energy renovations. Accordingly, in this sector the decisions to invest in energy efficiency improvement depends to a large extent on the type of ownership.

In this study we analyzed the perspectives of different types of building ownership on energy efficient renovation. The analysis is based on detailed interviews of 4 senior managers representing the multi-family buildings under different ownership categories. Along with this we also interviewed a municipality energy adviser. All the interviewees are based in in North Sweden. The drivers to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy renovation in such buildings are discussed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2017
Emneord
Energy renovations, barriers, multi-family buildings, decisions, Sweden
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133613 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.699 (DOI)000426435500166 ()2-s2.0-85033386266 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-04-14 Laget: 2017-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2023-08-28bibliografisk kontrollert
2. A multi-stakeholder perspective on opportunities and challenges for energy efficiency improvement in university buildings
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A multi-stakeholder perspective on opportunities and challenges for energy efficiency improvement in university buildings
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: E3S Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 2021, artikkel-id 05006Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

University buildings are relatively energy-intensive. In Sweden, universities usually operate in rented buildings. In this study, interviews were carried out among three categories of stakeholders in a Swedish university to understand their perceptions of energy use and challenges to improve energy efficiency. As per most interviewees, the university's top management and Akademiska Hus, which owns the buildings, have the main responsibility to reduce the buildings' energy and carbon footprint. The heads of departments raised the concern on the non-availability of energy data to take actions to reduce energy use. The use of sensors and information technologies to monitor space use, energy use, and indoor environment are attractive to different stakeholders. The implications of the interview results are discussed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
EDP Sciences, 2021
Serie
Cold Climate HVAC and Energy, ISSN 2555-0403, E-ISSN 2267-1242 ; 246
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181943 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/202124605006 (DOI)000668011100028 ()2-s2.0-85103588529 (Scopus ID)
Konferanse
2021 Cold Climate HVAC & Energy, Online, April 20-21, 2021
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-04-02 Laget: 2021-04-02 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Analysing the house-owners’ perceptions on benefits and barriers of energy renovation in Swedish single-family houses
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Analysing the house-owners’ perceptions on benefits and barriers of energy renovation in Swedish single-family houses
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 198, s. 187-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Single-family houses offer a large potential for energy savings by energy renovation (ER). Homeowners’ motivation to implement ER derives from the benefits and barriers they perceive. Benefits are the positive consequences that can motivate homeowners to act and barriers are the challenges that demotivate them to undertake ER. Different benefits and barriers do not homogenously affect every homeowner. Identifying motivating benefits and demotivating barriers for each specific group among homeowners can shed lights on ER decision-making and enable policies that are more effective. The objective of this study is to contextualize the implementation of ER by understanding how the perceived benefits and barriers influence homeowners. This study links the expected consequences, which are benefits and barriers to the influential factors on ER, which are used to group the homeowners.

The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey mailed to 1550 owners of single-family houses in northern Sweden. The perceptions of homeowners on benefits and barriers of ER are significantly different between the groups that are motivated and unmotivated to implement ER. Despite the perceived importance of some of the benefits such as energy cost reduction, they may not be determinative for the homeowners’ decision to undertake ER. The homeowners are more likely to implement ER for reasons other than energy use reduction such as for improving the indoor environment. The barriers such as the difficulty of finding a low-interest loan and reliable information sources are found to impede the intention to implement ER among different groups. Policy implications to facilitate ER in single-family houses are discussed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2019
Emneord
Energy efficient renovation, Investment decision, Perceptions, Implementation, House-owners, Sweden
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160337 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.05.034 (DOI)000477091800015 ()2-s2.0-85066929243 (Scopus ID)
Prosjekter
renovatin center
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-17 Laget: 2019-06-17 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Adoption of Energy Efficiency Measures in Renovation of Single-Family Houses: A Comparative Approach
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Adoption of Energy Efficiency Measures in Renovation of Single-Family Houses: A Comparative Approach
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 22, artikkel-id 6042Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Inclusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in the renovation of the single-family housing stock can unlock the potential for much-needed energy efficiency to tackle climate change. Energy renovation (ER) in single-family houses is often promoted as an aggregate process, and EEMs are treated homogenously without sufficient attention to their differences. This study applies a comparative analysis on common EEMs using chi-square test to investigate the influence of factors already found affecting the implementation of ER. This paper addresses the “personal” and “house-related” factors influencing the adoption of EEMs regardless of motives or barriers leading the adopters’ decisions. This strategy is useful to highlight the contexts leading to an increase in the adoption rate of different EEMs. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey mailed in spring 2017 to 1550 single-family homeowners in the northern region of Sweden. Approximately 60% of respondents showed interest in adopting at least one EEM if they implement a major renovation. About 46% of respondents stated to have at least one indoor environmental problem (IEP) in their houses, and IEPs are found to have significant relations with homeowners’ interest to adopt several different EEMs. The policy implications related to different EEMs are discussed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
MDPI, 2020
Emneord
energy renovation, influential factors, implementation, homeowners’ perception, indoor environmental quality
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176886 (URN)10.3390/en13226042 (DOI)000594104500001 ()2-s2.0-85106560201 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

This paper is an extended and improved version of a study presented in ACEEE 2018 Conference, Pacific Groove, CA, USA, 12–17 August 2018.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-11-19 Laget: 2020-11-19 Sist oppdatert: 2023-08-28bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Demand-controlled energy systems in commercial and institutional buildings: a review of methods and potentials
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Demand-controlled energy systems in commercial and institutional buildings: a review of methods and potentials
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: eceee 2019 Summer Study on energy efficiency:: Is efficient sufficient?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2019, s. 1444-1450Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) are by farthe most energy intensive systems in commercial and institutionalbuildings with office spaces. This makes HVAC systemsattractive targets for energy efficiency improvement. New technologicaladvancements can play significant role on improvingenergy efficiency. Such advancements have been also emergedin form of novel management and control strategies, whichmight lead to considerable energy savings with relatively minorinvestments. This paper evaluates demand control HVAC andlighting to assess the energy saving potential of upgrading theconventional building energy systems.

This paper provides a summary of different methods and occupancydetection technologies. A range of technologies andmethods are covered that vary in complexity, limitations andenergy saving potential. Additional benefits such as demandresponse are evaluated and other emerging applications arediscussed. Based on the review of methods and potentials, thepaper assesses the state of the art in demand controlled energysystems and suggests areas for further research.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2019
Serie
eceee Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 1653-7025, E-ISSN 2001-7960
Emneord
occupancy detection, demand-side management
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160341 (URN)978-91-983878-5-8 (ISBN)978-91-983878-4-1 (ISBN)
Konferanse
eceee 2019 Summer Study, Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France, 03–08 June, 2019
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-17 Laget: 2019-06-17 Sist oppdatert: 2021-08-17bibliografisk kontrollert
6. Application of Internet of Things in academic buildings for space use efficiency using occupancy and booking data
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Application of Internet of Things in academic buildings for space use efficiency using occupancy and booking data
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 186, artikkel-id 107355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental sustainability in academic buildings can be improved with management interventions such as improving space use efficiency supported by large data from the Internet of Things (IoT). Due to the potentials, the interest in the use of IoT tools for facility management is high among universities. However, empirical studies on this topic are scarce. To address the knowledge gap in this area, this study proposes and examines a process model with steps to measure space use and to improve space use efficiency by IoT tools in academic buildings. The applicability of the model is investigated in 8 lecture halls in a university building by using occupancy and booking data from IoT tools. Four space use indicators are developed to visualize the data and quantify space use, and based on them, the strategies and interventions for space use efficiency are proposed and discussed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2020
Emneord
Space use monitoring, Data-driven facility management, Smart campus, Occupancy detection, Energy saving
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175779 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.107355 (DOI)000600276900008 ()2-s2.0-85092196869 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-10-08 Laget: 2020-10-08 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
7. Effect of the positioning of multi-sensor devices on occupancy and indoor environmental monitoring in single-occupant offices
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effect of the positioning of multi-sensor devices on occupancy and indoor environmental monitoring in single-occupant offices
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
data reliability, sensor placement, IoT, sensor accuracy, PIR sensors, sensor fusion
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
hållbarhet
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186231 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-07-18 Laget: 2021-07-18 Sist oppdatert: 2021-08-19

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