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Scalable grid-wide capacity allocation with the SweGrid accounting system (SGAS)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2633-6798
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2008 (English)In: Concurrency and Computation, ISSN 1532-0626, E-ISSN 1532-0634, Vol. 20, no 18, p. 2089-2122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS) allocates capacity in collaborative Grid environments by coordinating enforcement of Grid-wide usage limits as a means to offer usage guarantees and prevent overuse. SGAS employs a credit-based allocation model where Grid capacity is granted to projects via Grid-wide quota allowances that can be spent across the Grid resources. The resources collectively enforce these allowances in a soft, real-time manner. SGAS is built on service-oriented principles with a strong focus on interoperability and Web services standards. This article covers the SGAS design and implementation, which, besides addressing inherent Grid challenges (scale, security, heterogeneity, decentralization), emphasizes generality and flexibility to produce a customizable system with lightweight integration into different middleware and scheduling system combinations. We focus the discussion around the system design, a flexible allocation model, middleware integration experiences and scalability improvements via a distributed virtual banking system, and finally, an extensive set of testbed experiments. The experiments evaluate the performance of SGAS in terms of response times, request throughput, overall system scalability, and its performance impact on the Globus Toolkit 4 job submission software. We conclude that, for all practical purposes, the quota enforcement overhead incurred by SGAS on job submissions is not a limiting factor for the job-handling capacity of the job submission software. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Vol. 20, no 18, p. 2089-2122
Keywords [en]
Grid accounting, Grid capacity allocation, quota enforcement, service virtualization, service-oriented architecture (SOA), Web services, Globus Toolkit
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-5530DOI: 10.1002/cpe.1310ISI: 000261134600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-58049201902OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-5530DiVA, id: diva2:145072
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 343-2003-953Swedish Research Council, 621-2005-3667Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2022-05-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Capacity allocation mechanisms for grid environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capacity allocation mechanisms for grid environments
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the past decade, Grid computing has gained popularity as a means to build powerful computing infrastructures by aggregating distributed computing capacity. Grid technology allows computing resources that belong to different organizations to be integrated into a single unified system image – a Grid. As such, Grid technology constitutes a key enabler of large-scale, crossorganizational sharing of computing resources. An important objective for the Virtual Organizations (VOs) that result from such sharing is to tame the distributed capacity of the Grid in order to manage it and make fair and efficient use of the pooled computing resources.

Most Grids to date have, however, been completely unregulated, essentially serving as a “source of free CPU cycles” for authorized Grid users. Whenever unrestricted access is admitted to a shared resource there is a risk of overexploitation and degradation of the common resource, a phenomenon often referred to as “the tragedy of the commons”. This thesis addresses this problem by presenting two complementary Grid capacity allocation systems that allow the aggregate computing capacity of a Grid to be divided between users in order to protect the Grid from overuse while delivering fair service that satisfies the individual computational needs of different user groups.

These two Grid capacity allocation mechanisms constitute the core contribution of this thesis. The first mechanism, the SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS), addresses the need for coordinated soft, real-time quota enforcement across Grid sites. The SGAS project was an early adopter of the serviceoriented principles that are now common practice in the Grid community, and the system has been tested in the Swegrid production environment. Furthermore, SGAS has been included in the Globus Toolkit, the de-facto standard Grid middleware toolkit. SGAS employs a credit-based allocation model where research projects are granted quota allowances that can be spent across the Grid resources, which charge users for their resource consumption. This enforcement of usage limits thus produces real-time overuse protection.

The second approach, employed by the Fair Share Grid (FSGrid) system, uses a share-based allocation model where project entitlements are expressed in terms of hierarchical share policies that logically divide the Grid capacity between user groups. By coordinating local job scheduling to maintain these global capacity shares, the Grid resources collectively strive to schedule users for a “share of the Grid”. We refer to this cooperative scheduling model as decentralized Grid-wide fairshare scheduling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Datavetenskap, 2006. p. 34
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 06.38
Keywords
Grid computing, capacity allocation, allocation enforcement, accounting, Grid-wide fairshare scheduling, Web services
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-927 (URN)91-7264-216-5 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-11-14 Created: 2006-11-14 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved

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Gardfjäll, PeterElmroth, Erik

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