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Large variations of oxygen delivery in self-inflating resuscitation bags used for preoxygenation - a mechanical simulation
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Region of Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Region of Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Östersund Hospital, Region of Jämtland Härjedalen, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
2021 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 29, no 1, article id 98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags (SIRB) are common and essential tools in airway management and ventilation. They are often used in resuscitation and emergency anaesthesia outside the operating theatre. There is a common notion that all SIRBs applied with a tight sealed mask will deliver close to 100 % oxygen during spontaneous breathing. The aim of the study was to measure the oxygen delivery of six commonly used SIRBs in a mechanical spontaneous breathing adult in vitro model.

Methods: Three SIRBs of each of the six models were evaluated for oxygen delivery during simulated breathing with an adult mechanical lung. The test was repeated three times per device (54 tests in total). The breathing profile was fixed to a minute volume of 10 L/min, a tidal volume of 500 mL and the SIRBs supplied with an oxygen fresh gas flow of 15 L/min. The fraction of delivered oxygen (FDO2) was measured over a three-minute period. Average FDO2 was calculated and compared at 30, 60 and 90 s.

Results: At 90 s all models had reached a stable FDO2. Average FDO2 at 90 s; Ambu Oval Plus 99,5 %; Ambu Spur II 99,8 %; Intersurgical BVM Resuscitator 76,7 %; Laerdal Silicone 97,3 %; Laerdal The Bag II 94,5 % and the O-Two Smart Bag 39,0 %. All differences in FDO2 were significant apart from the two Ambu models.

Conclusions: In simulated spontaneous breathing, four out of six (by Ambu and Laerdal) Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags delivered a high fraction of oxygen while two (Intersurgical and O-two) underperformed in oxygen delivery. These large variations confirm results reported in other studies. It is our opinion that underperforming Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags might pose a serious threat to patients’ health if used in resuscitation and anaesthesia. Manufacturers of Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags rarely provide information on performance for spontaneous breathing. This poses a challenge to all organizations that need their devices to deliver adequate oxygen during spontaneous breathing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2021. Vol. 29, no 1, article id 98
Keywords [en]
BVM, Emergency anaesthesia, Oxygen delivery, Preoxygenation, Self-inflating resuscitation bags
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186436DOI: 10.1186/s13049-021-00885-3ISI: 000675817900004PubMedID: 34281616Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85110811811OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-186436DiVA, id: diva2:1582506
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationAvailable from: 2021-08-02 Created: 2021-08-02 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, JoakimDrevhammar, Thomas

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