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Genetic compensation between Pax3 and Pax7 in zebrafish appendicular muscle formation
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0885-6586
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
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2022 (English)In: Developmental Dynamics, ISSN 1058-8388, E-ISSN 1097-0177, Vol. 251, no 9, p. 1423-1438Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Migrating muscle progenitors delaminate from the somite and subsequently form muscle tissue in distant anatomical regions such as the paired appendages, or limbs. In amniotes, this process requires a signaling cascade including the transcription factor paired box 3 (Pax3).

Results: In this study, we found that, unlike in mammals, pax3a/3b double mutant zebrafish develop near to normal appendicular muscle. By analyzing numerous mutant combinations of pax3a, pax3b and pax7a, and pax7b, we determined that there is a feedback system and a compensatory mechanism between Pax3 and Pax7 in this developmental process, even though Pax7 alone is not required for appendicular myogenesis. pax3a/3b/7a/7b quadruple mutant developed muscle-less pectoral fins.

Conclusions: We found that Pax3 and Pax7 are redundantly required during appendicular myogenesis in zebrafish, where Pax7 is able to activate the same developmental programs as Pax3 in the premigratory progenitor cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022. Vol. 251, no 9, p. 1423-1438
Keywords [en]
appendicular myogenesis, limb development, muscle regeneration
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187293DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.415ISI: 000691719300001PubMedID: 34435397Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85113911054OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-187293DiVA, id: diva2:1591807
Funder
Swedish Cancer SocietyUmeå University
Note

Special Issue

Available from: 2021-09-07 Created: 2021-09-07 Last updated: 2023-12-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Genetic studies of zebrafish muscles: clues to protection in muscle disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic studies of zebrafish muscles: clues to protection in muscle disease
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Genetiska studier av zebrafiskarnas muskler : ledtrådar om skydd mot muskeldystrofier
Abstract [en]

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are caused by dysregulation of over 40 proteins but commonly share features of muscle weakness, myofiber death and regeneration, loss of ambulation and premature death. A MD involves a broken link anywhere in the connection from extracellular matrix through the sarcolemma to the sarcomere. Thus, any protein which is a part of this link causes MD if misfolded, dysregulated or absent. In MD, the most common causes of death are cardiac or respiratory failure, when the muscles involved in these processes fail. Although MDs affect 1:3500-5000 births worldwide there are currently no cures available. Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are strikingly not affected by MDs, however, the mechanisms behind this native resistance remain elusive. We have recently shown that the EOMs cytoskeleton differs significantly from that of other muscles and hypothesized that investigation of their cytoskeleton in MD models would provide important clues. Furthermore, we hypothesized that application of the EOMs strategies to trunk muscle tissue would decrease the detrimental impact of MD overall.

The zebrafish model system has recently increased vastly in popularity, and has quickly become a MD model. Due to its compatibility with the CRISPR/Cas9 method, genetic knockout studies can be utilized to generate novel mutant lines tailored to fit various aspects in studies of the zebrafish skeletal muscle. In this thesis I present nine new zebrafish lines which I used to study muscle biology processes, including muscle regeneration and the EOM cytoskeleton. 

Our results clearly demonstrate the need for understanding compensatory mechanisms in biology. Interestingly, pax3 and pax7 were shown to functionally compensate for each other both in appendicular muscle formation and in muscle regeneration, respectively, two processes where these individual genes have great impact in other organisms. This finding would also prove to be important in aiding our understanding of the EOM biology in adaptive strategies towards MDs. Furthermore, our results show that zebrafish EOMs are a good model to study cytoskeletal composition, as they share important features with human EOMs. Utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique, I developed several knockout models of cytoskeletal proteins (desmin, obscurin, plectin) and studied their importance for the function of the EOMs.  In studies of zebrafish EOMs lacking obscurin, we found that EOMs functionally adapt their myosin composition over time via upregulation of myh7, a cardiac specific myosin. Furthermore, an RNA-sequencing screen on a CRISPR/Cas9 induced desminopathy model (desma; desmb double mutant) identified several protective genes of interest. We show that a four and a half LIM-domain protein (Fhl2) is upregulated in EOMs in several muscular dystrophy models and that fhl2b protects EOMs from excessive myonuclei turnover and hypertrophy. Furthermore, its ectopic expression in trunk muscle can also protect an additional muscle dystrophy model (dmd) from acute early death, improve myofiber function and stabilize neuromuscular junctions. Importantly, this protein was also detected in both human and mouse EOMs, indicating a potentially conserved role in the EOMs across species.

In summary, we identified several novel strategies of adaptation to disease progression in the EOMs. Together, these findings have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the EOMs and suggest new treatment strategies for MD that may have important future clinical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2023. p. 75
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2275
Keywords
zebrafish, muscle, extraocular muscles, intermediate filaments, bioinformatics, genetics, CRISPR/Cas9
National Category
Ophthalmology Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
ophthalmology; cell research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218166 (URN)9789180702362 (ISBN)9789180702379 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-01-26, Aula Biologica - BIO.E.203, Biologihuset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2023-12-21 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved

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Nord, HannaKahsay, AbrahaDennhag, NilsDomellöf, Fatima Pedrosavon Hofsten, Jonas

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