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The Synergistic Cooperation between TGF-Cancer and Fibrosis
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6737-7230
2022 (English)In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 635Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine regulating homeostasis and immune responses in adult animals and humans. Aberrant and overactive TGF-β signaling promotes cancer initiation and fibrosis through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as the invasion and metastatic growth of cancer cells. TGF-β is a key factor that is active during hypoxic conditions in cancer and is thereby capable of contributing to angiogenesis in various types of cancer. Another potent role of TGF-β is suppressing immune responses in cancer patients. The strong tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β and its profibrotic effects make it a focus for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against cancer and fibrosis as well as an attractive drug target in combination with immune regulatory checkpoint inhibitors. TGF-β belongs to a family of cytokines that exert their function through signaling via serine/threonine kinase transmembrane receptors to intracellular Smad proteins via the canonical pathway and in combination with co-regulators such as the adaptor protein and E3 ubiquitin ligases TRAF4 and TRAF6 to promote non-canonical pathways. Finally, the outcome of gene transcription initiated by TGF-β is context-dependent and controlled by signals exerted by other growth factors such as EGF and Wnt. Here, we discuss the synergistic cooperation between TGF-β and hypoxia in development, fibrosis and cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022. Vol. 12, no 5, article id 635
Keywords [en]
cancer, fibrosis, HIF-1α/2α, hypoxia, Smad, TGF-β, TRAF6
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194472DOI: 10.3390/biom12050635ISI: 000802711300001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85128728480OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-194472DiVA, id: diva2:1656669
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 20 0964 PjFProstatacancerförbundet, 2019The Kempe Foundations, SMK-1866Novo Nordisk, NNF19OC0059307Available from: 2022-05-06 Created: 2022-05-06 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Mallikarjuna, PramodZhou, YangLandström, Maréne

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CiteExportLink to record
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