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Socioeconomic disparities in the burden of hypertension among Indonesian adults: a multilevel analysis
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0556-1483
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2022 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 2129131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Hypertension remains a problem of public health across various socioeconomic groups, despite its high prevalence. However, few studies account for geographical variation in examining socioeconomic inequalities and hypertension in Indonesia.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the burden of hypertension in Indonesia based on prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults; and assess whether or not the burdens vary according to geographical variation and socioeconomic status.

METHODS: In Wave 5 of the Indonesian Family Life Survey in 2015, 32,034 individuals aged 15 and over participated in the study. Concentration Curves (CC) and Concentration Indexes (CI) were used to analyse socioeconomic inequality. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess biological, geographical variation, and socioeconomic factors associated with the burden of hypertension, adjusting for potential covariates.

RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia was 26.1%, and only 26.9% of those with hypertension were aware of their condition. Approximately 22.5% of hypertensive patients received treatment, but only 28.2% had controlled blood pressure and reached the therapeutic goal. Low socioeconomic groups were more prone to hypertension (CI = -0.047 in urban and CI = -0.075 in rural). In contrast, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were more concentrated in higher socioeconomic groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of hypertension, low awareness of the condition, poor compliance with treatment, and poor control of the condition, as well as the existing socioeconomic inequality, make this a significant determinant of public health issue in Indonesia. There is a need for effective programs for the prevention of hypertension and better management of hypertensive patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022. Vol. 15, no 1, article id 2129131
Keywords [en]
concentration curve, concentration index, hypertension, Inequality, wealth index
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200378DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2022.2129131ISI: 000865875700001PubMedID: 36217968Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85139526966OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-200378DiVA, id: diva2:1709279
Available from: 2022-11-08 Created: 2022-11-08 Last updated: 2022-11-08Bibliographically approved

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