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Integrating the CARD (Comfort Ask Relax Distract) system in a mass vaccination clinic to improve the experience of individuals during COVID-19 vaccination: a pre-post implementation study
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6833-7601
School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
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2022 (English)In: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, ISSN 2164-5515, E-ISSN 2164-554X, Vol. 18, no 5, article id 2089500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many people have negative experiences with vaccination due to stress-related reactions including fear and pain. We used a pre-post study design to evaluate the impact of implementing a modified version of the CARD (Comfort-Ask-Relax-Distract) system on stress-related reactions in individuals aged 12 y or older undergoing COVID-19 vaccinations in mass vaccination clinics. Vaccine recipients reported their level of pain, fear and dizziness during vaccination. Clinic staff reported their attitudes about CARD and use of CARD interventions. CARD improved client symptoms across genders and ages with an average reduction in needle pain, fear and dizziness of 75%, 40% and 44%, respectively. CARD was more effective in younger individuals. Clinic staff reported positive attitudes about CARD and uptake of selected CARD interventions. In summary, the modified CARD system reduced stress-related responses in a general population undergoing COVID-19 vaccinations in a mass vaccination clinic, was feasible and acceptable to staff. Future implementation efforts are recommended that include more diverse cultural contexts and incorporate education of individuals about CARD ahead of time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022. Vol. 18, no 5, article id 2089500
Keywords [en]
CARD system, COVID-19, fear, health services research, Immunization stress-related responses, pain, vaccination
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203051DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2022.2089500ISI: 000813680100001PubMedID: 35723609Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85132406638OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-203051DiVA, id: diva2:1728031
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved

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Tetui, Moses

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