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Healthy Nordic diet and associations with plasma concentrations of metabolites in the choline oxidation pathway: a cross-sectional study from Northern Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9122-7240
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6677-1866
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Bevital AS, Bergen, Norway.
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2023 (English)In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The choline oxidation pathway and metabolites involved have been linked to diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. A healthy Nordic diet is a recently defined dietary pattern associated with decreased risk for these diseases. Our aim was to explore associations between adherence to a healthy Nordic diet and plasma concentrations of metabolites of the choline oxidation pathway.

Methods: The Healthy Nordic Food Index (HNFI) and Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) were applied to cross-sectional data (n = 969) from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Northern Sweden to score adherence to a healthy Nordic diet. Data included responses to a dietary questionnaire and blood sample analyses (1991–2008). Associations of diet scores with plasma concentrations of metabolites of the choline oxidation pathway and total homocysteine (tHcy), seven metabolites in total, were evaluated with linear regression, adjusting for age, BMI, education and physical activity.

Results: HNFI scores showed linear relationships with plasma choline (β = 0.11), betaine (β = 0.46), serine (β = 0.98) and tHcy (β = − 0.38), and BSDS scores with betaine (β = 0.13) and tHcy (β = − 0.13); unstandardized beta coefficients, all significant at P < 0.05. The regression models predicted changes in plasma metabolite concentrations (± 1 SD changes in diet score) in the range of 1–5% for choline, betaine, serine and tHcy. No other statistically significant associations were observed.

Conclusions: A healthy Nordic diet was associated with plasma concentrations of several metabolites of the choline oxidation pathway. Although relationships were statistically significant, effect sizes were moderate. Further research is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms and associations with health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023. Vol. 22, no 1, article id 26
Keywords [en]
Baltic Sea Diet Score, Choline oxidation pathway, Healthy Nordic diet, Healthy Nordic Food Index, One-carbon metabolism, Västerbotten Intervention Programme
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Nutrition and Dietetics
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URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209270DOI: 10.1186/s12937-023-00853-wISI: 000989184000001PubMedID: 37198607Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85159701990OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-209270DiVA, id: diva2:1764422
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2007-0925Wilhelm och Martina Lundgrens VetenskapsfondAvailable from: 2023-06-08 Created: 2023-06-08 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Winkvist, AnnaLindahl, BerntSchneede, JørnJohansson, Ingegerd

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