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Utbildning för samer: ambitioner och praktiker i nomad- och sameskolan från 1950-tal till 2010-tal
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Várdduo – Centre for Sámi Research.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6702-6975
2023 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Education for Sámi : ambitions and school practices in the nomad and Sámi school from 1950s to 2010s (English)
Abstract [en]

This thesis examines the development of nomadic and Sámi school education between the 1950s and the 2010s and contributes new knowledge about educational goals, educational ambitions and partly also their implementation and principles for knowledge transfer. It has previously been shown that the educational policy objectives for Sámi education, from the 1962 school reform onwards, have been characterized by linguistic and cultural preservation considerations. In relation to that research, this thesis shows what these overall political decisions meant in a concrete sense, both in terms of knowledge content and more concrete goals with the education in the nomadic and Sámi schools. 

The thesis is based on curricula theory and examines the knowledge content and the concrete goals of Sámi education during the studied period. The educational ambitions, i.e., what was expressed in the curricula as the purpose and goal of education, have been studied based on Gert Biesta's theoretical framework on educational domains (qualification, socialization, and subjectification). The analysis on how collective Sámi identities have been portrayed in the curricula is based on theories of identification and imagined communities by Benedict Anderson and Thomas Hylland Eriksen. The methods used in the thesis are inspired by thematic analysis and content analysis.

The nomad and Sámi school, from the 1950s until the 2010s, has changed from an educational institution that aimed to provide students with a practical and theoretical education for a future life within a Sámi reindeer herding community, to a school form aimed at a broader Sámi community. A change that also meant that the teaching content was reduced to focusing primarily on the Sámi language. This can be seen as a consequence of the fact that the curricula, for the Sámi school form, were developed and adapted in relation to contemporary societal ideals and to educational policy efforts to create a uniform education from the 1950s onwards. This means that education for the Sámi has moved from a clearly separate educational mission to becoming more of a complement to the general primary school education.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2023. , p. 150
Series
Umeå studies in history and education ; 27
Series
Skrifter från Várdduo – Centrum för samisk forskning, ISSN 1651-5455 ; 30
Keywords [en]
Nomad school, Sámi school, Indigenous, education, curricula, syllabi.
Keywords [sv]
Nomadskola, sameskola, urfolk, utbildning, läroplaner, kursplaner
National Category
History
Research subject
history of education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214105ISBN: 978-91-8070-154-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-8070-155-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-214105DiVA, id: diva2:1794177
Public defence
2023-09-29, NBVH A101, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Part of project
Educational democratization and ethnification in Swedish Sápmi - 1942 to the present, Swedish Research Council FormasAvailable from: 2023-09-08 Created: 2023-09-04 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Swedish Sámi boarding school reforms in the era of educational democratisation, 1956 to 1969
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Sámi boarding school reforms in the era of educational democratisation, 1956 to 1969
2021 (English)In: Paedagogica historica, ISSN 0030-9230, E-ISSN 1477-674X, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 799-817Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This comparative curricular study examines the educational functions of the Swedish Sámi nomad school curricula before and after a central school reform in the 1960s. Due to the reform, the nomad school, a boarding school system for the Indigenous Sámi people in Sweden, was formed to bring about systemic changes in the education of Sámi children, to be more inclusive, and to meet new democratic educational demands. This study presents an in-depth examination of the written curricula through a thematic analysis by scrutinising the nomad School syllabi of 1956 (UP56) and 1969 (Lgr69), with an emphasis on aspects of continuity and change. In theoretical terms, the study is inspired by Biesta’s educational functions. This study identified the continued importance of reindeer husbandry (RH), while the reform transformed the traditional RH context towards adaptation to the needs of the Swedish meat industry, in a period marked by intrusion into traditional Sámi lands. The study also found that although the education system set out to protect the Sámi language after the reform, the Sámi language was consistently given a low degree of importance in the curricula. Another source of tension concerns the explicit policy to open the Sámi education for all Sámi children at the same time, educating differentiation among Sámi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2021
Keywords
educational functions, indigenous education, sámi curricula, sámi culture, sámi language syllabi, samisk utbildning, samisk läroplan, samisk kultur, samiska språk, utbildningsfunktioner
National Category
History
Research subject
history of education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186786 (URN)10.1080/00309230.2021.1942935 (DOI)000669731400001 ()2-s2.0-85109700259 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2021-08-23 Created: 2021-08-23 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
2. Samiska fältstudier: undervisningspraktiker och principer för kunskapsöverföring i nomadkunskapsämnets implementering 1950–1970
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samiska fältstudier: undervisningspraktiker och principer för kunskapsöverföring i nomadkunskapsämnets implementering 1950–1970
(Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Pedagogical Work Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214115 (URN)
Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2023-09-05
3. Att öka samiskt inflytande och återaktualisera traditionella kunskaper: Sák96 och den samiska utbildningsambitionen i relation till Lpo94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att öka samiskt inflytande och återaktualisera traditionella kunskaper: Sák96 och den samiska utbildningsambitionen i relation till Lpo94
2023 (Swedish)In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 115-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To increase Sámi influence and re-actualize traditional knowledge. Sák96 and the Sámi educational ambition in relation to Lpo94. Throughout history, Sámi education has been governed by a Swedish state perspective through legislation and curricula. On one single occasion, an education directive has been published in Sweden based on a Sámi perspective, namely the Sámi syllabi 1996 (Sák96). Sák96 was formed for Sámi education and worked as a complement to the curriculum for the compulsory Swedish school system in 1994 (Lpo94). This study is based on thematic analysis of Sák96 and Lpo94. The purpose is to analyse the educational ambitions in Sák96 in relation to Lpo94 as well as in relation to Sámi identities expressed in the educational ambitions. The analysis is anchored in Gert Biesta’s theories about educational domains and ambitions of education as well as concepts about identification and imagined communities. The study shows that the main ambition with Sák96 was to protect and develop Sámi culture and language in a more detailed way than Lpo94. Sák96 also included additional historical perspectives on the Swedish society’s encroachment on traditional Sámi land, more detailed knowledge of Sámi society and Sámi knowledge traditions, and a desire to create conditions for increased Sámi influence. The Sámi community appears to be closely connected to reindeer husbandry communities according to Sák96. The Sámi communities are also presented as a people divided in four countries (northern Norway, Sweden, Finland as well as Kola Peninsula, Russia) with differentiated livelihood and conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2023
Keywords
Sámi school, Lpo94, Curricula history, Minority education, Educational domains, sameskola, Lpo94, läroplanshistoria, minoritetsutbildning, utbildningsdomäner
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214104 (URN)10.36368/njedh.v10i1.306 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172297012 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-04 Created: 2023-09-04 Last updated: 2023-10-16Bibliographically approved
4. Swedish school curricula and Sámi self-identification: the syllabus from 1960s to 2011
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish school curricula and Sámi self-identification: the syllabus from 1960s to 2011
2023 (English)In: History education at the edge of the nation: political autonomy, educational reforms, and memory-shaping in European periphery / [ed] Piero S. Colla; Andrea Di Michele, Palgrave Macmillan, 2023, , p. 23p. 125-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the book chapter the Swedish school system for the Indigenous Sámi’s from the 1960s to the 2000s is studied. This is done with a special focus on curriculum content of the Sami curriculum from 2011 (Lsam11) in relation to the Swedish primary school curriculum from the same year (Lgr11). The curriculums of 2011 are placed within a historical perspective of Sámi education in Sweden, and the analysis of the curricula and syllabi in history, civics and Sámi language is based on Biesta's educational functions qualification, socialisation and subjectification, as well as imagined communities and self-identification due to Anderson, Hylland Eriksen and Brubaker. The results show that the curriculum content tends to place Swedish identity as superior to the Sámi identity, something that becomes problematic due to the Swedish state's treatment of the Sámi throughout history. For example, all Sami social functions are sorted under cultural socialising expressions, something that diminishes the Sámi identity in relation to the Swedish identity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2023. p. 23
Series
Global Histories of Education, ISSN 2731-6408, E-ISSN 2731-6416
National Category
History Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212088 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-27246-2_6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163838871 (Scopus ID)9783031272455 (ISBN)9783031272486 (ISBN)9783031272462 (ISBN)
Projects
Utbildningshistoria
Available from: 2023-07-17 Created: 2023-07-17 Last updated: 2024-02-08Bibliographically approved

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Svonni, Charlotta

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