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Effects of controlled supramaximal high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness and global cognitive function in older adults: the Umeå hit study-a randomized controlled trial
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6206-3099
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2023 (English)In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 78, no 9, p. 1581-1590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of regulated and controlled supramaximal high-intensity interval training (HIT) adapted for older adults, compared to moderate-intensity training (MIT), on cardiorespiratory fitness; cognitive, cardiovascular, and muscular function; and quality of life.

METHODS: Sixty-eight nonexercising older adults (66-79 years, 44% males) were randomized to 3 months of twice-weekly HIT (20-minute session including 10 × 6-second intervals) or MIT (40-minute session including 3 × 8-minute intervals) on stationary bicycles in an ordinary gym setting. Individualized target intensity was watt controlled with a standardized pedaling cadence and individual adjustment of the resistance load. Primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o2peak) and global cognitive function (unit-weighted composite).

RESULTS: V̇o2peak increased significantly (mean 1.38 mL/kg/min, 95% CI [0.77, 1.98]), with no between-group difference (mean difference 0.05 [-1.17, 1.25]). Global cognition did not improve (0.02 [-0.05, 0.09]), nor differed between groups (0.11 [-0.03, 0.24]). Significant between-group differences in change were observed for working memory (0.32 [0.01, 0.64]), and maximal isometric knee extensor muscle strength (0.07 N·m/kg [0.003, 0.137]), both in favor of HIT. Irrespective of the group, there was a negative change in episodic memory (-0.15 [-0.28, -0.02]), a positive change in visuospatial ability (0.26 [0.08, 0.44]), and a decrease in systolic (-2.09 mmHg [-3.54, -0.64]) and diastolic (-1.27 mmHg [-2.31, -0.25]) blood pressure.

CONCLUSIONS: In nonexercising older adults, 3 months of watt-controlled supramaximal HIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular function to a similar extent as MIT, despite half the training time. In favor of HIT, there was an improvement in muscular function and a potential domain-specific effect on working memory.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03765385.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023. Vol. 78, no 9, p. 1581-1590
Keywords [en]
Aerobic capacity, HIIT, Moderate-intensity training, SIT, Sprint interval training
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214207DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glad070ISI: 000959356800001PubMedID: 36972981Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85169177109OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-214207DiVA, id: diva2:1795522
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-00912Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2020-00159The Kamprad Family FoundationThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedFoundation for the Memory of Ragnhild and Einar LundströmThe Kempe FoundationsUmeå UniversityAvailable from: 2023-09-08 Created: 2023-09-08 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved

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Simonsson, EmmaLevik Sandström, SofiHedlund, MattiasHolmberg, HenrikJohansson, BengtLindelöf, NinaBoraxbekk, Carl-JohanRosendahl, Erik

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Simonsson, EmmaLevik Sandström, SofiHedlund, MattiasHolmberg, HenrikJohansson, BengtLindelöf, NinaBoraxbekk, Carl-JohanRosendahl, Erik
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