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Space weather disturbances in non-stormy times: occurrence of dB/dt spikes during three solar cycles
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2043-4442
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6968-5405
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7573-5165
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6598-0666
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 128, no 10, article id e2023JA031804Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatio-temporal variations of ionospheric currents cause rapid magnetic field variations at ground level and Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) that can be harmful for human infrastructure. The risk for large excursions in the magnetic field time derivative, “dB/dt spikes”, is known to be high during geomagnetic storms and substorms. However, less is known about the occurrence of spikes during non-stormy times. We use data from ground-based globally covering magnetometers (SuperMAG database) from the years 1985–2021. We investigate the spike occurrence (|dB/dt| > 100 nT/min) as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude (Mlat), and the solar cycle phases during non-stormy times (−15 nT ≤ SYM-H < 0). We sort our data into substorm (AL < 200 nT) intervals (“SUB”) and less active intervals between consecutive substorms (“nonSUB”). We find that spikes commonly occur in both SUBs and nonSUBs during non-stormy times (3–23 spikes/day), covering 18–12 MLT and 65°–80° Mlat. This also implies a risk for infrastructure damage during non-stormy times, especially when several spikes occur nearby in space and time, possibly causing infrastructure weathering. We find that spikes are more common in the declining phase of the solar cycle, and that the occurrence of SUB spikes propagates from one midnight to one morning hotspot with ∼10 min in MLT for each minute in universal time (UTC). Finally, we discuss causes for the spikes in terms of spatio-temporal variations of ionospheric currents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2023. Vol. 128, no 10, article id e2023JA031804
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215270DOI: 10.1029/2023ja031804Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85174460250OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-215270DiVA, id: diva2:1804971
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 81/17Swedish National Space Board, 108/18Swedish National Space Board, 194/19Swedish National Space Board, 118/17Swedish Research Council, 2018-03623Swedish Research Council, 2021-06683Available from: 2023-10-15 Created: 2023-10-15 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved

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Hamrin, MariaSchillings, AudreyOpgenoorth, Hermann J.Nesbit-Östman, SaraKrämer, EvaAraújo, Juan CarlosGunell, HerbertPitkänen, Timo

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Hamrin, MariaSchillings, AudreyOpgenoorth, Hermann J.Nesbit-Östman, SaraKrämer, EvaAraújo, Juan CarlosGunell, HerbertPitkänen, Timo
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Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics

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