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Optimizing stem cells for reconstructive surgery
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention.
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Optimering av stamceller för rekonstruktiv kirurgi (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Fat grafting has become an established method in plastic surgery for treating soft tissue defects. The results for survival of the fat being transplanted is unpredictable and supplementation of the graft with the Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) or cultures Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can enhance graft viability. The ASCs are a heterogenous group of cells with various cell membrane markers, and differing growth promoting and differentiation characteristics of the stem cells derived from the fat. It is of high importance when expanding cells prior to the transplantation of the cells into patients, that the culture conditions are well defined and ideally are xenofree, avoiding use of animal-derived products. Furthermore, the procedures must be safe and not increase risk for recurrence of cancer after reconstructive surgeries. This thesis explores the phenotypic properties of a selected population of ASCs, with a view to determining their suitability for transplantation into fat grafts. ASCs were isolated from SVF of human abdominal fat and CD146+ cells were selected using immunomagnetic beads. The proliferation, angiogenic and adipogenic properties were significantly higher in the CD146+ cells. Stem cells were also isolated from lipoaspirate obtained using two different liposuction methods. Waterjet lipoaspirates yielded the greatest number of CD146+ cells with high adipogenic potential and angiogenic activity. The cells could also be successfully isolated using a closed processing system. Cells were expanded in either foetal bovine serum, platelet lysate or a chemically defined xenofree (XV) medium. Cultures in XV medium proliferated the fastest, expressed the highest number of CD146+ cells, and showed the best adipogenic and angiogenic properties. To test possible ASCs interactions with cancer cells, co-cultures with MCF-7 breast cancer cells were established. Conditioned medium from co-cultures significantly increased the migration of the cancer cells but not their proliferation, and there was increased expression of Tenascin-C in these cultures. The research in this thesis work has shown more optimal ways to isolate and expand ASCs, potentially offering new therapeutic reconstructive treatment options for a variety of medical conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2024. , p. 64
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2281
Keywords [en]
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells, liposuction, oncological safety, xenofree growth medium
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Research subject
Human Anatomy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220039ISBN: 9789180702638 (electronic)ISBN: 9789180702621 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-220039DiVA, id: diva2:1831747
Public defence
2024-02-23, Sal N410, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-02-02 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-01-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells with enhanced angiogenic and adipogenic properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells with enhanced angiogenic and adipogenic properties
2017 (English)In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 2490-2502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autologous fat grafting is a popular method for soft tissue reconstructions but graft survival remains highly unpredictable. Supplementation of the graft with the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) or cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can enhance graft viability. In this study we have examined the phenotypic properties of a selected population of cells isolated from ASCs, with a view to determining their suitability for transplantation into grafts. ASCs were isolated from the SVF of human abdominal fat (n = 8 female patients) and CD146(+) cells were selected using immunomagnetic beads. The angiogenic and adipogenic properties of the positively selected cells were compared with the negative fraction. CD146(+) cells expressed the immunophenotypic characteristics of pericytes. With prolonged in vitro expansion, CD146(-) cells exhibited increased population doubling times and morphological signs of senescence, whereas CD146(+) cells did not. CD146(+) cells expressed higher levels of the angiogenic molecules VEGF-A, angiopoietin-1 and FGF-1. Conditioned medium taken from CD146(+) cells significantly increased formation of in vitro endothelial cell tube networks, whereas CD146(-) cells did not. CD146(+) cells could be differentiated into adipocytes in greater numbers than CD146(-) cells. Consistent with this, differentiated CD146(+) cells expressed higher levels of the adipocyte markers adiponectin and leptin. These results suggest that CD146(+) cells selected from a heterogeneous mix of ASCs have more favourable angiogenic and adipogenic properties, which might provide significant benefits for reconstructive and tissue-engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Adipogenesis, adult stem cell, angiogenesis, fat grafting, pericyte, regeneration
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133355 (URN)10.1002/term.2147 (DOI)000411481600006 ()26833948 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957592586 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
2. Water jet-assisted lipoaspiration and Sepax cell separation system for the isolation of adipose stem cells with high adipogenic potential
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water jet-assisted lipoaspiration and Sepax cell separation system for the isolation of adipose stem cells with high adipogenic potential
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, ISSN 1748-6815, E-ISSN 1878-0539, Vol. 74, no 10, p. 2759-2767Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Water jet-assisted liposuction has gained popularity due to favourable fat grafting outcomes. In this study, we compared stem cells obtained from fat isolated with manual or the water jet-assisted procedure.

Methods: Liposuction of abdominal fat was performed using the two methods on each donor (n = 10). Aspirate samples were collagenase digested and the isolated cells seeded in vitro prior to proliferation, adipogenic differentiation and angiogenic activity analyses.

Results: Cells from either procedure proliferated at similar rates and exhibited a similar colony-forming ability. The cells expressed stem cell markers CD73, CD90 and CD105. In the water jet cell preparations, there were higher numbers of cells expressing CD146. Robust adipogenic differentiation was observed in cultures expanded from both manual and water jet lipoaspirates. Gene analysis showed higher expression of the adipocyte markers aP2 and GLUT4 in the adipocyte-differentiated water jet cell preparations, and ELISA indicated increased secretion of adiponectin from these cells. Both cell groups expressed vasculogenic factors and the water jet cells promoted the highest levels of in vitro angiogenesis. Given these positive results, we further characterised the water jet cells when prepared using an automated closed cell processing unit, the Sepax-2 system (Cytiva). The growth and stem cell properties of the Sepax-processed cells were similar to the standard centrifugation protocol, but there was evidence for greater adipogenic differentiation in the Sepax-processed cells.

Conclusions: Water jet lipoaspirates yield cells with high adipogenic potential and angiogenic activity, which may be beneficial for use in cell-assisted lipotransfers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
adipogenesis, angiogenesis, differentiation, fat grafting, stem cells
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-183242 (URN)10.1016/j.bjps.2021.03.025 (DOI)000709899500011 ()33994109 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85105758965 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-02130Region Västerbotten
Available from: 2021-05-19 Created: 2021-05-19 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
3. The influence of xeno-free culture conditions on the angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation profile of adipose tissue-derived stem cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of xeno-free culture conditions on the angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation profile of adipose tissue-derived stem cells
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220038 (URN)
Available from: 2024-01-26 Created: 2024-01-26 Last updated: 2024-01-26
4. Interaction of adipose-derived stem cells with active and dormant breast cancer cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction of adipose-derived stem cells with active and dormant breast cancer cells
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, ISSN 1748-6815, E-ISSN 1878-0539, Vol. 83, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Although autologous fat grafting is considered a successful method for the management of contour deformities, the fat graft could potentially induce cancer reappearance by fueling dormant breast cancer cells. Our aim was to characterize the role of adipose-derived stem cells on active and dormant breast cancer cell growth.

Methods: Cobalt chloride was used to induce dormancy in MCF-7 cancer cells. Proliferation of active and dormant cancer cells was determined in the presence of adipose-derived stem cells. A proteome array was used to detect cancer-related protein expression in the cell-conditioned medium. The migration of cancer cells was measured in response to conditioned medium from the adipose-derived stem cells.

Results: The adipose-derived stem cells showed variable effects on active MCF-7 cells growth and inhibited MCF-7 proliferation after the withdrawal of cobalt chloride. Of the 84 different proteins measured in the conditioned medium, only tenascin-C was differentially expressed in the co-cultures. MCF-7 cells alone did not express tenascin-C, whereas co-cultures between MCF-7 and adipose-derived stem cells expressed more tenascin-C versus adipose-derived stem cells alone. The conditioned medium from co-cultures significantly increased the migration of the cancer cells.

Conclusions: Adipose-derived stem cells themselves neither increased the growth or migration of cancer cells, suggesting that autologous fat grafting may be oncologically safe if reconstruction is postponed until there is no evidence of active disease. However, interactions between adipose-derived stem cells and MCF-7 cancer cells could potentially lead to the production of factors, which further promote cancer cell migration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), Autologous fat grafting (AFG), Dormant breast cancer cells, Tenascin-C
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209546 (URN)10.1016/j.bjps.2023.05.006 (DOI)001020879400001 ()37270997 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160658685 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Scandinavian Association of Plastic Surgeons Congress, Reykjavik, Iceland, June 13–15, 2022
Funder
Umeå UniversityRegion Västerbotten
Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved

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Lauvrud, Anne Therese

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