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Diagnostic challenges during inflammation and cancer: current biomarkers and future perspectives in navigating through the minefield of reactive versus dysplastic and cancerous lesions in the digestive system
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Mobile Genomes, Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases (CiMUS), University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Medical School, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
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2024 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 25, no 2, article id 1251Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the setting of pronounced inflammation, changes in the epithelium may overlap with neoplasia, often rendering it impossible to establish a diagnosis with certainty in daily clinical practice. Here, we discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms driving tissue response during persistent inflammatory signaling along with the potential association with cancer in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, extrahepatic bile ducts, and liver. We highlight the histopathological challenges encountered in the diagnosis of chronic inflammation in routine practice and pinpoint tissue-based biomarkers that could complement morphology to differentiate reactive from dysplastic or cancerous lesions. We refer to the advantages and limitations of existing biomarkers employing immunohistochemistry and point to promising new markers, including the generation of novel antibodies targeting mutant proteins, miRNAs, and array assays. Advancements in experimental models, including mouse and 3D models, have improved our understanding of tissue response. The integration of digital pathology along with artificial intelligence may also complement routine visual inspections. Navigating through tissue responses in various chronic inflammatory contexts will help us develop novel and reliable biomarkers that will improve diagnostic decisions and ultimately patient treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024. Vol. 25, no 2, article id 1251
Keywords [en]
artificial intelligence, biomarkers, cancer, digital pathology, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry, inflammation, molecular biology, pathology, reactive atypia, tissue response
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220457DOI: 10.3390/ijms25021251PubMedID: 38279253Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85183424720OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-220457DiVA, id: diva2:1834596
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 23 2814 PjThe Kempe Foundations, 2021 JCK-3110Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved

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Bergonzini, AnnaFrisan, Teresa

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Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR)Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine)Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology)
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cell and Molecular BiologyCancer and Oncology

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