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Polychlorinated alkanes in paired blood serum and breast milk in a Swedish cohort study: matrix dependent partitioning differences compared to legacy POPs
Department of Environmental Science (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2088-6756
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9599-2580
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2024 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) constitute a large group of individual congeners originating from commercial chlorinated paraffin (CP) products with carbon chain lengths of PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, and PCAs-C18-32, occasionally containing PCAs-C6-9 impurities. The extensive use of CPs has led to global environmental pollution of PCAs. This study aimed to quantify PCAs in paired serum and breast milk of lactating Swedish mothers, exploring their concentration relationship.

METHODS: Twenty-five paired samples of mothers' blood serum and breast milk were analysed and concentrations were determined for PCAs C6-32 and compared to 4,4'-DDE, the PCB congener 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

RESULTS: The median concentrations of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs in serum were 14, 790, 520, 16 and 1350 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, and in breast milk 0.84, 36, 63, 6.0 and 107 ng/g lw. Levels of 4,4'-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were comparable in the two matrices, serum and breast milk at 17, 12 and 4.9 ng/g lw. The results show significant differences of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17 in breast milk with 22- and 6.2-times lower lw-based concentrations than those measured in serum. On wet weight the differences serum/breast milk ratios of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs were 1.7, 3.2, 1.0, 0.4 and 1.6, respectively, while the ratio for 4,4'-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were each close to 0.1.

CONCLUSION: Swedish lactating mothers had high serum concentrations of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17, with the ΣPCAs median serum concentration of 1350 ng/g lw. The breast milk concentration, although considerably lower at 107 ng/g lw, still surpassed those of 4,4'-DDE, CB-153 and HCB, suggesting an exposure risk of infants to PCAs. The variation in blood and breast milk accumulation between PCAs and studied legacy POPs, is rarely discussed but warrants further studies on partitioning properties as well as associated toxicological implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024. Vol. 183, article id 108440
Keywords [en]
Human exposure, Lactation, Milk/serum partitioning, NorthPop, POPs
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220474DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2024.108440PubMedID: 38232504Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85183468429OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-220474DiVA, id: diva2:1835693
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 215-20-007Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved

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Andersson, Patrik L.West, Christina E.Domellöf, Magnus

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