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Herpes simplex viral infection doubles the risk of dementia in a contemporary cohort of older adults: a prospective study
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research, Västmanland and County Hospital, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9094-319x
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 1841-1850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Evidence indicates that herpes simplex virus (HSV) participates in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Objective: We investigated AD and dementia risks according to the presence of herpesvirus antibodies in relation to anti-herpesvirus treatment and potential APOE ε4 carriership interaction.

Methods: This study was conducted with 1002 dementia-free 70-year-olds living in Sweden in 2001–2005 who were followed for 15 years. Serum samples were analyzed to detect anti-HSV and anti-HSV-1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G, anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG, anti-HSV IgM, and anti-HSV and anti-CMV IgG levels. Diagnoses and drug prescriptions were collected from medical records. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were applied.

Results: Cumulative AD and all-cause dementia incidences were 4% and 7%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of participants were anti-HSV IgG carriers, of whom 6% received anti-herpesvirus treatment. Anti-HSV IgG was associated with a more than doubled dementia risk (fully adjusted hazard ratio = 2.26, p = 0.031). No significant association was found with AD, but the hazard ratio was of the same magnitude as for dementia. Anti-HSV IgM and anti-CMV IgG prevalence, anti-herpesvirus treatment, and anti-HSV and -CMV IgG levels were not associated with AD or dementia, nor were interactions between anti-HSV IgG and APOE ε4 or anti-CMV IgG. Similar results were obtained for HSV-1.

Conclusions: HSV (but not CMV) infection may be indicative of doubled dementia risk. The low AD incidence in this cohort may have impaired the statistical power to detect associations with AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2024. Vol. 97, no 4, p. 1841-1850
Keywords [en]
Aged 80 and over, Alzheimer disease, apolipoprotein E, cognitive disorder, cohort study, cytomegalovirus, dementia, Herpes simplex, human herpesvirus 1, neurocognitive disorder
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Neurology Geriatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221788DOI: 10.3233/JAD-230718PubMedID: 38306033Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85185225398OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-221788DiVA, id: diva2:1845418
Funder
Gun och Bertil Stohnes StiftelseThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedSwedish Society of MedicineMärta Lundqvists FoundationRegion UppsalaStiftelsen Gamla TjänarinnorThe Swedish Brain FoundationAvailable from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved

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Olsson, JanElgh, FredrikLövheim, Hugo

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