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Contribution of gas concentration and transfer velocity to CO2 flux variability in northern lakes
Department of Thematic Studies—Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Thematic Studies—Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Thematic Studies—Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Thematic Studies—Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
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2024 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 818-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The CO2 flux (FCO2) from lakes to the atmosphere is a large component of the global carbon cycle and depends on the air–water CO2 concentration gradient (ΔCO2) and the gas transfer velocity (k). Both ΔCO2 and k can vary on multiple timescales and understanding their contributions to FCO2 is important for explaining variability in fluxes and developing optimal sampling designs. We measured FCO2 and ΔCO2 and derived k for one full ice-free period in 18 lakes using floating chambers and estimated the contributions of ΔCO2 and k to FCO2 variability. Generally, k contributed more than ΔCO2 to short-term (1–9 d) FCO2 variability. With increased temporal period, the contribution of k to FCO2 variability decreased, and in some lakes resulted in ΔCO2 contributing more than k to FCO2 variability over the full ice-free period. Increased contribution of ΔCO2 to FCO2 variability over time occurred across all lakes but was most apparent in large-volume southern-boreal lakes and in deeper (> 2 m) parts of lakes, whereas k was linked to FCO2 variability in shallow waters. Accordingly, knowing the variability of both k and ΔCO2 over time and space is needed for accurate modeling of FCO2 from these variables. We conclude that priority in FCO2 assessments should be given to direct measurements of FCO2 at multiple sites when possible, or otherwise from spatially distributed measurements of ΔCO2 combined with k-models that incorporate spatial variability of lake thermal structure and meteorology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024. Vol. 69, no 4, p. 818-833
National Category
Ecology Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221779DOI: 10.1002/lno.12528ISI: 001163039500001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85185669928OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-221779DiVA, id: diva2:1845552
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0083EU, Horizon 2020, 725546Swedish Research Council, 2016-04829Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01794Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-06-19Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, Jan

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