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Stream metabolism controls diel patterns and evasion of CO2 in Arctic streams
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden. (Arcum)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7853-2531
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5758-2705
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden. (Arcum)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5102-4289
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
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2020 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1400-1413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Streams play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, accounting for a large portion of CO2 evaded from inland waters despite their small areal coverage. However, the relative importance of different terrestrial and aquatic processes driving CO2 production and evasion from streams remains poorly understood. In this study, we measured O-2 and CO2 continuously in streams draining tundra-dominated catchments in northern Sweden, during the summers of 2015 and 2016. From this, we estimated daily metabolic rates and CO2 evasion simultaneously and thus provide insight into the role of stream metabolism as a driver of C dynamics in Arctic streams. Our results show that aquatic biological processes regulate CO2 concentrations and evasion at multiple timescales. Photosynthesis caused CO2 concentrations to decrease by as much as 900 ppm during the day, with the magnitude of this diel variation being strongest at the low-turbulence streams. Diel patterns in CO2 concentrations in turn influenced evasion, with up to 45% higher rates at night. Throughout the summer, CO2 evasion was sustained by aquatic ecosystem respiration, which was one order of magnitude higher than gross primary production. Furthermore, in most cases, the contribution of stream respiration exceeded CO2 evasion, suggesting that some stream reaches serve as net sources of CO2, thus creating longitudinal heterogeneity in C production and loss within this stream network. Overall, our results provide the first link between stream metabolism and CO2 evasion in the Arctic and demonstrate that stream metabolic processes are key drivers of the transformation and fate of terrestrial organic matter exported from these landscapes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020. Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1400-1413
Keywords [en]
Arctic, carbon cycle, carbon processing, CO2 evasion, stream metabolism
National Category
Ecology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Limnology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158880DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14895ISI: 000499301300001PubMedID: 31667979Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85076165577OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-158880DiVA, id: diva2:1315359
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biophysical controls on CO2 evasion from Arctic inland waters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biophysical controls on CO2 evasion from Arctic inland waters
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

CO2 evasion to the atmosphere from inland waters is a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Yet spatial patterns of CO2 evasion and the sources of C that fuel evasion remain poorly understood. In this thesis, I use detailed measurements of biological and physical drivers of CO2 evasion to assess how C is transformed and evaded from inland waters in the Arctic (Northern Scandinavia and Alaska). I found that lake size was a master variable controlling lake CO2 evasion in an Arctic catchment and that large lakes play a major role at the landscape scale. In stream networks, I found that catchment topography shapes patterns of CO2 evasion by dictating unique domains with high lateral inputs of C, other domains where biological processes were dominant, and domains where physical forces promoted degassing to the atmosphere. Together, these topographically driven domains created a strong spatial heterogeneity that biases regional and global estimates of CO2 evasion. Further, I found that photosynthetic activity in Arctic streams can produce a large change in CO2 concentrations from night to day, and as a result CO2 evasion is up to 45% higher during night than day. The magnitude of the diel change in CO2 was also affected by the turbulence of the stream and photo-chemical production of CO2. Overall, this thesis offers important insights to better understand landscape patterns of CO2 evasion from inland waters, and suggests that stream metabolic processes largely determine the fate of the C delivered from Arctic soils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2019. p. 32
Keywords
Inland waters, carbon dioxide, organic carbon, inorganic carbon, arctic, CO2 evasion, DOC, DIC, streams, metabolism, oxygen
National Category
Physical Geography Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Limnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158882 (URN)978-91-7855-075-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-14, Carl Kempe Salen, KBC, Umeå University, Umeå, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2021-08-17Bibliographically approved

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Rocher-Ros, GerardSponseller, Ryan A.Bergström, Ann-KristinMyrstener, MariaGiesler, Reiner

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