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Solution -based fabrication of the top electrode in light -emitting electrochemical cells
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. LunaLEC AB, Umeå, Sweden .ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2480-3786
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-3481-5163
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 84, artikel-id 105812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) has demonstrated capacity for cost- and material-efficient solution-based fabrication of the active material under ambient air. In this context, it is notable that corresponding reports on a scalable solution-based fabrication of the electrodes, particularly the top electrode, are rare. We address this issue through the demonstration of a transparent LEC, which is fabricated under ambient air by sequential spray deposition of a hydrophobic conjugated-polymer:ionic-liquid blend ink as the active material and a hydrophilic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) ink as the transparent top electrode. Such an optimized LEC delivers a luminance of 360 cd/m2 at a power efficacy of 1.6 lm/W, which is on par with the performance of a corresponding LEC device equipped with a vacuum-deposited and reflective metal top electrode. This implies that the entire LEC device indeed can be fabricated with solution-based processes and deliver a good performance, which is critical if the LEC technology is going to fulfil its low-cost potential.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2020. Vol. 84, artikel-id 105812
Nyckelord [en]
Solution-processed transparent electrode, Transparent light-emission device, Light-emitting electrochemical cellPEDOT, PSS
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173299DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2020.105812ISI: 000540714800015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85085275396OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-173299DiVA, id: diva2:1452275
Forskningsfinansiär
VetenskapsrådetEnergimyndighetenCarl Tryggers stiftelse för vetenskaplig forskning KempestiftelsernaVästerbottens läns landstingBertil & Britt Svenssons Stiftelse för BelysningsteknikTillgänglig från: 2020-07-06 Skapad: 2020-07-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-31Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Solution-processed light-emitting electrochemical cells: challenges and opportunities
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Solution-processed light-emitting electrochemical cells: challenges and opportunities
2023 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Our world is filling up with electronics. High-tech gadgets are integrated everywhere, from smart fridges able to track expiry dates and food usage, to microchip implants that let us unlock doors and pay with our hands. As innovative as they are, these new products and the many more to come impose new requirements on materials and fabrication methods. For instance, emerging electronic technologies that deliver light emission such as smart labels, authenticity features and light-based medical therapies, are often required to be flexible, see-through and low-cost, and in addition sustainable to fabricate, operate and recycle.

In response to these challenges, the light-emitting industry is turning to organic electronics for solutions, a field that promises resource-efficient fabrication using environmentally benign materials. An interesting proposal is that of the light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC), which, thanks to its simple structure, is well suitedfor high-throughput fabrication. The LEC is in many aspects a smart device, able to reorganize itself during operation via the electrochemical action of mobile ions, which create the injection and transport layers that require additional fabrication steps in other technologies. This elegant behavior makes the LEC tolerant to a large array of materials and fabrication methods, and hence a good fit for many applications.

Yet the LEC is still today a scientific curiosity rather than an actual commercial solution and among the very few prototypes available on the market, none are able to meet the combined performance, resource efficiency and sustainability criteria. As a matter of fact, of the three layers that make an LEC, i.e., two electrodes surrounding an active material, only the later meet these requirements thanks to a strong recent research effort. In comparison, the electrodes have received little attention and are almost exclusively comprising metals or metal oxides deposited by time- and energy-expensive fabrication methods, making the LEC as a whole unfit for many applications.

In an effort to push the LEC toward the untapped commercial niche of low-cost lighting, we tackle the problem of electrode fabrication with resource-efficiency in mind. We first show that up-scalable spray coating of inks under ambient air is a viable mean of fabrication for both active materials and electrodes alike. However, in doing so, we find that we create electrode interfaces that are open to ion transfer; an up-to-now overlooked issue that needs careful consideration when designing solution-processed LECs. Building on our discovery, we demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate an LEC entirely by using spray coating metal-free and organic inks; thereby demonstrating that an all-organic, metal-free and resource-efficient LEC is possible.

I hope that our efforts will encourage others to work on solution-processed LECs, electrodes included, and develop ready-to-use products.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå University, 2023. s. 50
Nyckelord
Light-emitting electrochemical cell, PEDOT:PSS, Photonics, Ion transfer, Solution-based fabrication
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan fysik
Forskningsämne
elektronik; materialvetenskap; jonfysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206243 (URN)978-91-8070-027-6 (ISBN)978-91-8070-026-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2023-04-26, Hörsal NAT.D.410, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:30 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-05 Skapad: 2023-03-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-31Bibliografiskt granskad

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Auroux, EtienneLarsen, ChristianLundberg, PetterWågberg, ThomasEdman, Ludvig

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