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Class a penicillin-binding protein-mediated cell wall synthesis promotes structural integrity during peptidoglycan endopeptidase insufficiency in vibrio cholerae
Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, NY, Ithaca, United States; Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, NY, Ithaca, United States.
Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, NY, Ithaca, United States; Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, NY, Ithaca, United States.
Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, NY, Ithaca, United States.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2429-7542
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2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id e03596-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The bacterial cell wall is composed primarily of peptidoglycan (PG), a poly-aminosugar that is essential to sustain cell shape, growth, and structural integrity. PG is synthesized by class A/B penicillin-binding proteins (a/bPBPs) and shape, elongation, di-vision, and sporulation (SEDS) proteins like RodA (as part of the Rod system cell elongation machinery) and degraded by "autolytic" enzymes to accommodate growth processes. It is thought that autolysins (particularly endopeptidases [EPs]) are required for PG synthesis and incorporation by creating gaps that are patched and paved by PG syn-thases, but the exact relationship between autolysins and PG synthesis remains incom-pletely understood. Here, we have probed the consequences of EP depletion for PG synthesis in the diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We found that EP depletion resulted in severe morphological and division defects, but these cells continued to increase in mass and aberrantly incorporated new cell wall material. Mass increase proceeded in the presence of Rod system inhibitors, but cells lysed upon inhibition of aPBPs, suggesting that aPBPs are required for structural integrity under these conditions. The Rod system, although not essential for the observed mass increase, remained functional even after prolonged EP depletion. Last, heterologous expression of an EP from Neisseria gonorrhoeae fully complemented growth and morphology of an EP-insufficient V. cholerae, highlighting the possibility that the PG synthases may not necessarily function via direct interaction with EPs. Overall, our findings suggest that during EP insufficiency in V. cholerae, aPBPs become essential for structural integrity while the Rod system is unable to promote proper cell expansion.

IMPORTANCE: Synthesis and turnover of the bacterial cell wall must be tightly coordinated to avoid structural integrity failure and cell death. Details of this coordination are poorly understood, particularly if and how cell wall turnover enzymes are required for the activity of the different cell wall synthesis machines, the aPBPs and the Rod system. Our results suggest that in Vibrio cholerae, one class of turnover enzymes, the endopeptidases, are necessary for proper cell elongation and division. aPBPs become essential for maintaining structural integrity during EP insufficiency, while the Rod system remains active but contributes little to cell expansion under these conditions. Our results suggest that aPBPs are more versatile than the Rod system in their ability to recognize cell wall gaps formed by autolysins other than the major endopeptidases, adding to our understanding of the coordination between autolysins and cell wall synthases. A detailed understanding of autolysin biology may promote the development of antibiotics that target these essential turnover processes.

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American Society for Microbiology, 2021. Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id e03596-20
Nyckelord [en]
Autolysin, Cell wall, Endopeptidase, LysM, M23, MreB, Penicillin-binding protein, Penicillin-binding proteins, Peptidoglycan
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicinsk bioteknologi (med inriktning mot cellbiologi (inklusive stamcellsbiologi), molekylärbiologi, mikrobiologi, biokemi eller biofarmaci) Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182386DOI: 10.1128/mBio.03596-20ISI: 000643734600005PubMedID: 33824203Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85103493734OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-182386DiVA, id: diva2:1546744
Tillgänglig från: 2021-04-23 Skapad: 2021-04-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad

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Alvarez, LauraCava, Felipe

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mBio
Medicinsk bioteknologi (med inriktning mot cellbiologi (inklusive stamcellsbiologi), molekylärbiologi, mikrobiologi, biokemi eller biofarmaci)Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området

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