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Falls and Fear of Falling in Shunted Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: The Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Comorbidity and Risk Factors Associated With Hydrocephalus Study
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Neurovetenskaper.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4423-9465
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Neurovetenskaper. Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0125-9589
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2031-722X
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för fysioterapi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-8310-3923
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 122-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Gait and balance impairment are typical symptoms of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), implicating that falls may afflict these patients.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate falls, related injuries, and associated psychological features, before and after shunt surgery for INPH and compared to the general population.

METHODS: The study included 176 patients shunted for INPH and 368 age- and sex-matched controls. Falls, fear of falling (FOF), fall-related injuries (mild-severe), confidence in avoiding falls (Swedish Falls Efficacy Scale (FES(S)), quality of life (QoL; EuroQoL 5-dimension 5 level instrument), and symptoms of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15) were investigated. Pre- and postoperative observational times were 12 mo before surgery and 21 mo after (mean). Recurrent fallers fell ≥2 times.

RESULTS: More INPH patients than controls were recurrent fallers (67% vs 11%; P < .001). They feared falling more often (FOF, mean ± standard deviation: 3.3 ± 1.1 vs 1.6 ± 0.9; P < .001) and had lower confidence in avoiding falls (FES(S) 78 ± 40 vs 126 ± 14; P < .001). After surgery, INPH patients improved in all parameters but they did not reach the levels of the controls. Among fallers there was no difference between patients and controls in the severity of injuries suffered. Low QoL and symptoms of depression were more common among recurrent fallers than one-time or nonfallers in both shunted patients and controls (P ≤ .001).

CONCLUSION: Falls, FOF, and low confidence in avoiding falls are considerable problems in INPH that may be reduced by shunt surgery. We suggest that remaining risk of falling and preventative measures are routinely considered in postoperative follow-ups and rehabilitation planning.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Oxford University Press, 2021. Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 122-128
Nyckelord [en]
Accidental falls, Case-control studies, Cognitive dysfunction, Depression, Gait disorders, neurologic, Quality of life, Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
Nationell ämneskategori
Neurologi Geriatrik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-185377DOI: 10.1093/neuros/nyab094ISI: 000671548600056PubMedID: 33830219Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85108303856OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-185377DiVA, id: diva2:1575104
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Västerbotten, 7003576Tillgänglig från: 2021-06-29 Skapad: 2021-06-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Population-based studies of higher-level gait disorders and hydrocephalus: focused on brain ventricular morphometry and patient outcomes following shunt surgery
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Population-based studies of higher-level gait disorders and hydrocephalus: focused on brain ventricular morphometry and patient outcomes following shunt surgery
2022 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Alternativ titel[sv]
Populations-baserade studier om högre ordningens gångstörningar och hydrocefalus : med fokus på ventrikelmorfometri i hjärnan och utfall av shuntkirurgi
Abstract [en]

Background: To study gait is of great importance for the health of the aging population. Higher-level gait disorders (HLGD) are characterized by a slow, symmetrical, unsteady gait. Its cause is most often unknown. HLGD in combination with ventriculomegaly (i.e., large brain ventricles) is obligatory for the diagnosis of Idiopathic Normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), a syndrome that is sometimes treatable with insertion of a CSF shunt. It is therefore important to investigate the prevalence of HLGD in the population and brain morphometry in individuals with HLGD. Further, self-perceived confidence in gait and balance among patients with HLGD and INPH is unknown and important to study as slow gait velocity is associated with falls, injuries, and death. CSF shunts in INPH are associated with adverse events and little is known about epilepsy after surgery or minor and moderate adverse events such as headache and abdominal pain.

Objective: In the older population investigate the prevalence of HLGD, and its association to ventriculomegaly. To investigate quality of life (QoL), depressive symptoms, and balance confidence in an HLGD population. In patients shunted for INPH, assess falls, fear of falling, balance confidence and prevalence of the possible adverse events headache, epilepsy, and abdominal pain after shunt surgery. 

Methods: Two population-based case-controlled cohorts were studied. In the first study, the "Ventriculomegaly and gait disturbance in the senior population in the region of Västerbotten" (VESPR) study, individuals (65-84 years) were recruited through a questionnaire (n=6467 dispatched). The final population consisted of 798 cases with gait disorders and 249 controls without gait disorders, age- and sex-matched to individuals with HLGD. All had been examined by a physician and were categorized: 1. "HLGD"; 2. "neurological gait disorder"; 3. "non-neurological gait disorder" or; 4. "no gait disorder". Participants were assessed with: the Swedish modification of the Falls-Efficacy Scale (FES(S)), the Modified Gait-Efficacy Scale (mGES), the Euro Quality of Life 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ5D5L) instrument (EQ5D5L index and Euro Quality of life visual analogue scale (EQ VAS)) and the Geriatric depression scale 15 (GDS-15). Cases and controls had an MRI of the brain and ventricular size was measured. 

The second study, the "Comorbidities and vascular risk factors associated with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus" (INPH-CRasH) study, consisted of 176 shunted INPH patients and 368 age- and sex-matched controls. Mean age was 74 years in INPH and 73 in controls. All had a visit to a healthcare facility. Information regarding adverse events, falls and fear of falling were gathered through a questionnaire. Additional information on diagnoses and prescribed drugs were obtained from the Swedish national patient- and drug registries. Data was compared between the groups, and before- and after surgery for INPH. 

Results: In the VESPR study, 87 individuals were categorized as HLGD, corresponding to a prevalence of 5.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6-7.0) in the older population. A definite cause was found in 13% (n=11) of individuals with HLGD, but ventriculomegaly was present in 63% (n=46/73, controls: 38%, n=70/184; OR 2.8 95% CI 1.6-4.9, p<0.001). HLGD had more depressive symptoms and lower quality of life (QoL), compared with individuals without gait disorder (GDS-15: 3.9±3.4 vs. 2.5±2.8, p=0.004; EQ VAS: 63±17 vs. 71±18; p<0.001; EQ5D5L index: 0.671±0.188 vs. 0.840±0.126, p<0.001). HLGD had low confidence in gait and to avoid falls compared to those without gait disorder (mGES: 60±22 vs. 74±21; p<0.001; FES(S): 93±32 vs. 111±25 p<0.001). 

The INPH-CRasH study revealed that patients with INPH feared falling more often (3.3±1.1) and had lower balance confidence (78±40) than controls (fear of falling: 1.6±0.9, balance confidence: 126±14; p<0.001 in both comparisons). After surgery, the proportions were reduced in INPH (p<0.001). More INPH than controls were fallers (before surgery: 67% vs. 11% OR 15.48 95% CI 9.85-24.32; after surgery: 35% vs 11% OR 4.15 95% CI 2.65-6.50, p<0.001). The proportion was reduced after surgery (p<0.001). In shunted INPH, epilepsy, antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and headache was more common than in controls (epilepsy: 4.5% vs. 1.1% OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3-14.6, p=0.023; AED treatment: 14.8% vs. 7.3% OR 0.5 95% CI 0.3-0.8, p=0.010; headache: 36.1% vs 11.6% OR 0.2 95% CI 0.2-0.4, p<0.001). Forty percent INPH (n=70) had abdominal pain after surgery. 

Conclusions: HLGD was common in the general older population and associated to ventriculomegaly. HLGD was also associated with low quality of life and depressive symptoms. Both individuals with HLGD and patients with INPH had low confidence in their balance but it was less common after surgery for INPH. However, patients shunted for INPH still had more problems with low balance confidence, falls, and fear of falling than controls. After shunt surgery for INPH, a significant portion of patients developed epilepsy, headache, and abdominal pain. The findings motivate investigations of causal relationships between HLGD and ventriculomegaly and if treatment options exist for HLGD. The observed adverse events in patients shunted for INPH should be considered in pre- and postoperative evaluations of shunt surgery, and in the development of new techniques for shunt placement. Additional interventions directed towards low balance confidence, falls and fear of falling should be considered for patients with INPH, and for individuals with HLGD.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå University, 2022. s. 81
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2208
Nyckelord
Higher-level gait disorder, Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Ventriculomegaly, Falls, Fear of Falling, Self-efficacy, Depression, Quality of life, Adverse events, Headache, Epilepsy, Abdominal pain
Nationell ämneskategori
Neurologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201153 (URN)9789178559268 (ISBN)9789178559275 (ISBN)
Disputation
2022-12-16, Hörsal Berga, Målpunkt Q0, By27, Plan 0, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2022-11-25 Skapad: 2022-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-12-20Bibliografiskt granskad

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Larsson, JennyIsraelsson Larsen, HannaEklund, AndersLundin-Olsson, LillemorMalm, Jan

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