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Bacterial Toxins Are a Never-Ending Source of Surprises: From Natural Born Killers to Negotiators
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5385-5665
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1209-0942
2021 (English)In: Toxins, ISSN 2072-6651, E-ISSN 2072-6651, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 426Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The idea that bacterial toxins are not only killers but also execute more sophisticated roles during bacteria-host interactions by acting as negotiators has been highlighted in the past decades. Depending on the toxin, its cellular target and mode of action, the final regulatory outcome can be different. In this review, we have focused on two families of bacterial toxins: genotoxins and pore-forming toxins, which have different modes of action but share the ability to modulate the host's immune responses, independently of their capacity to directly kill immune cells. We have addressed their immuno-suppressive effects with the perspective that these may help bacteria to avoid clearance by the host's immune response and, concomitantly, limit detrimental immunopathology. These are optimal conditions for the establishment of a persistent infection, eventually promoting asymptomatic carriers. This immunomodulatory effect can be achieved with different strategies such as suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, re-polarization of the immune response from a pro-inflammatory to a tolerogenic state, and bacterial fitness modulation to favour tissue colonization while preventing bacteraemia. An imbalance in each of those effects can lead to disease due to either uncontrolled bacterial proliferation/invasion, immunopathology, or both.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021. Vol. 13, no 6, article id 426
Keywords [en]
bacterial genotoxins, pore-forming toxins, immunoregulation, cytokines, polarization immune response, innate and adaptive immunity
National Category
Immunology in the medical area Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187370DOI: 10.3390/toxins13060426ISI: 000665917200001PubMedID: 34204481Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85109964915OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-187370DiVA, id: diva2:1592729
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 2017/315, 20 0699 PjFSwedish Research Council, 2018-02521The Kempe Foundations, JCK-1826Cancerforskningsfonden i Norrland, AMP20- 993, AMP 17-884Available from: 2021-09-09 Created: 2021-09-09 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved

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Lopez Chiloeches, MariaBergonzini, AnnaFrisan, Teresa

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Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR)Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine)Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology)
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Toxins
Immunology in the medical areaInfectious MedicineMicrobiology in the medical area

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