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Time course of metabolic, neuroendocrine, and adipose effects during 2 years of follow-up after gastric bypass in patients with type 2 diabetes
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 106, no 10, p. E4049-E4061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) markedly improves glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but underlying mechanisms and changes over time are incompletely understood.

Objective: Integrated assessment of neuroendocrine and metabolic changes over time inT2D patients undergoing RYGB.

Design and Setting: Follow-up of single-center randomized study.

Patients: Thirteen patients with obesity andT2D compared to 22 healthy subjects.

Interventions: Blood chemistry, adipose biopsies, and heart rate variability were obtained before and 4, 24, and 104 weeks post-RYGB.

Results: After RYGB, glucose-lowering drugs were discontinued and hemoglobin A1c fell from mean 55 to 41 mmol/mol by 104 weeks (P < 0.001). At 4 weeks, morning cortisol (P < 0.05) and adrenocorticotropin (P = 0.09) were reduced by 20%. Parasympathetic nerve activity (heart rate variability derived) increased at 4 weeks (P < 0.05) and peaked at 24 weeks (P < 0.01). C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells were rapidly reduced (P < 0.01). At 104 weeks, basal and insulin-stimulated adipocyte glucose uptake increased by 3-fold vs baseline and expression of genes involved in glucose transport, fatty acid oxidation, and adipogenesis was upregulated (P < 0.01). Adipocyte volume was reduced by 4 weeks and more markedly at 104 weeks, by about 40% vs baseline (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: We propose this order of events: (1) rapid glucose lowering (days); (2) attenuated cortisol axis activity and inflammation and increased parasympathetic tone (weeks); and (3) body fat and weight loss, increased adipose glucose uptake, and whole-body insulin sensitivity (months-years; similar to healthy controls).Thus, neuroendocrine pathways can partly mediate early glycemic improvement after RYGB, and adipose factors may promote long-term insulin sensitivity and normoglycemia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2021. Vol. 106, no 10, p. E4049-E4061
Keywords [en]
Adipose effects, Neuroendocrine changes, RYGB, T2D
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-188901DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab398ISI: 000705200500042PubMedID: 34086911Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85117353255OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-188901DiVA, id: diva2:1606015
Funder
Ernfors FoundationSwedish Diabetes Association, DIA2019-490Novo Nordisk, NNF20OC0063864Available from: 2021-10-26 Created: 2021-10-26 Last updated: 2022-05-10Bibliographically approved

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