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Ash Transformation during Fixed-Bed Combustion of Agricultural Biomass with a Focus on Potassium and Phosphorus
Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
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2022 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 3640-3653Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, ash transformation during fixed-bed combustion of different agricultural opportunity fuels was investigated with a special focus on potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The fuel pellets were combusted in an underfed fixed-bed pellet burner. Residual ashes (bottom ash and slag) and particulate matter were collected and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, and ion chromatography. The interpretation of the results was supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. For all fuels, almost all P (>97%) was found in residual-/coarse ash fractions, while K showed different degrees of volatilization, depending on fuel composition. During combustion of poplar, which represents Ca-K-rich fuels, a carbonate melt rich in K and Ca decomposed into CaO, CO2, and gaseous K species at sufficiently high temperatures. Ca5(PO4)3OH was the main P-containing crystalline phase in the bottom ash. For wheat straw and grass, representing Si-K-rich fuels, a lower degree of K volatilization was observed than for poplar. P was found here in amorphous phosphosilicates and CaKPO4. For wheat grain residues, representing P-K-rich fuels, a high degree of both K and P retention was observed due to the interaction of K and P with the fuel-bed constituents, i.e., char, ash, and slag. The residual ash was almost completely melted and rich in P, K, and Mg. P was found in amorphous phosphates and different crystalline phases such as KMgPO4, K2CaP2O7, K2MgP2O7, and K4Mg4(P2O7)3. In general, the results therefore imply that an interaction between ash-forming elements in a single burning fuel particle and the surrounding bed ash or slag is important for the overall retention of P and K during fuel conversion in fixed-bed combustion of agricultural biomass fuels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2022. Vol. 36, no 7, p. 3640-3653
Keywords [en]
Plant derived food, Redox reactions, Fuels, Particulate matter, Reaction products
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193834DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c04355ISI: 000797939400020Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85127329835OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-193834DiVA, id: diva2:1652752
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613Swedish Research Council, 2016-04380Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Energy Agency, 41875-1Available from: 2022-04-20 Created: 2022-04-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Boren, EleonoraLindgren, RobertSkoglund, NilsBoman, Christoffer

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