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In situ determination of the penetration depth of mirrors in Fabry-Perot refractometers and its influence on assessment of refractivity and pressure
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5790-2185
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3261-9903
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5627-1497
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Measurement Science and Technology, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6824-3111
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2022 (English)In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 30, no 14, p. 25891-25906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A procedure is presented for in situ determination of the frequency penetration depth of coated mirrors in Fabry-Perot (FP) based refractometers and its influence on the assessment of refractivity and pressure. It is based on assessments of the absolute frequency of the laser and the free spectral range of the cavity. The procedure is demonstrated on an Invar-based FP cavity system with high-reflection mirrors working at 1.55 µm. The influence was assessed with such a low uncertainty that it does not significantly contribute to the uncertainties (k = 2) in the assessment of refractivity (<8 × 10−13) or pressure of nitrogen (<0.3 mPa).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optica Publishing Group , 2022. Vol. 30, no 14, p. 25891-25906
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198493DOI: 10.1364/OE.463285ISI: 000821326000132Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85135073412OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-198493DiVA, id: diva2:1686565
Funder
European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR), 18SIB04Swedish Research Council, 2020-00238Swedish Research Council, 2020-05105Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2020.0303Vinnova, 2018-04570The Kempe Foundations, 1823.U12Available from: 2022-08-10 Created: 2022-08-10 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fabry-Pérot based refractometry: development of a transportable refractometer for assessment of gas pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabry-Pérot based refractometry: development of a transportable refractometer for assessment of gas pressure
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Fabry-Pérot-baserad refraktometri : utveckling av en transporterbar refraktometer för mätning av gastryck
Abstract [en]

A unified description of physical phenomena through measurement science is one of the foundational pillars in a global society. The International System of Units (SI) is the most widely used system of units and since its redefinition in 2019, all units encompassed by it are based on fundamental physical constants. The units of the SI, such as the second, metre, and kilogram, are realized by the use of primary standards which are used, through calibration chains, to certify the accuracy of measuring devices in our society. Its redefinition enabled the realization of the SI-unit for pressure (pascal) in a novel way; instead of force per area (N/m2), it can alternatively be defined as an energy density (J/m3). Subsequently, this opened up for the use of optical realizations of the pascal (Pa). It has been prophesied that a possible means to do this is by assessing refractivity through the use of Fabry-Pérot (FP) refractometry. Although such instrumentation indeed can assess refractivity, it has unfortunately been found that they in practice are affected by various types of disturbances that aggravate assessments with the required uncertainty.

This thesis describes the development of FP-based refractometers utilizing a novel measurement methodology, denoted gas modulation refractometry (GAMOR). By the use of rapid gas modulation and baseline interpolation, GAMOR has the ability to significantly reduce the influence of various types of disturbances, not least drifts and fluctuations. From this, two FP-based refractometers have been developed; one stationary, denoted the SOP, capable of assessing pressure with an uncertainty of [(10 mPa)2 + (10 × 10−6·P)2]1/2, and one transportable, denoted the TOP, with an uncertainty of [(16 mPa)2 + (28 × 10−6·P)2]1/2. Furthermore, it was shown that their mutual short-term precision is excellent, with a deviation of only 0.04 ppm when simultaneously assessing a pressure of 16 kPa.

A major part of this thesis was devoted to the construction of the TOP and an investigation of its transportability and performance. It was used in a ring comparison with various pressure standards at four European national metrology institutes. It was concluded that, despite being transported, the performance remained virtually unchanged, and that, in the 10 – 90 kPa range, all the standards agreed within their uncertainties.

These results indicate that FP-based refractometers utilizing the GAMOR methodology have the potential to act as transportable standards based on fundamental physical constants and paves the way for future research within the field.

Abstract [sv]

En av grundpelarna i ett globalt samhälle är en enad syn på fysikaliska fenomen med förankring i vetenskap. Det Internationella måttenhetssystemet (SI) är det mest använda enhetssystemet och sedan dess omdefiniering 2019 är alla dess enheter baserade på grundläggande fysikaliska konstanter. SI-enheterna, som exempelvis sekund, meter och kilogram, realiseras genom primära standarder. Dessa standarder används, via kalibreringskedjor, för att certifiera noggrannheten av mätinstrument runtom vårt samhälle. Omdefiniering ledde till möjligheten att realisera enheten för tryck (pascal) på ett nytt sätt; i stället för kraft per area (N/m2) går det numera att definiera tryck som energidensitet (J/m3). Detta ledde i sin tur till att optiska realiseringar av pascal (Pa) för gastryck blev en möjlighet. Det har påvisats att detta kan uppnås genom att mäta refraktivitet med hjälp av Fabry-Pérot (FP)-refraktometri. Även om denna teknik kan användas för att bestämma refraktivitet, påverkas den i praktiken av diverse störningar vilket försvårar den nogrannhet som krävs för att ersätta dagens mekaniska tryckstandarder.

I denna avhandling beskrivs utvecklingen av FP-baserade refraktometrar som använder sig av en av oss nyutvecklad mätteknik; gasmodulationsrefraktometri (GAMOR). Tekniken bygger på en snabb modulering av gas och baslinje-interpolering, vilket reducerar effekten av snabba likaväl som långsamma störningar. Baserat på detta har två refraktometrar utvecklats; en stationär, SOP, som kan mäta tryck med en osäkerhet på [(10 mPa)2 + (10 × 10−6·P)2]1/2, samt en transportabel, TOP, med en osäkerhet på [(16 mPa)2 + (28 × 10−6·P)2]1/2. Vidare har det visats att deras inbördes korttidsprecision är utmärkt, med en avvikelse på endast 0.04 ppm när de samtidigt mätte ett tryck på 16 kPa.

En signifikant del av denna avhandling har ägnats till att konstruera TOP:en, samt att undersöka dess transporterbarhet och prestanda. Den användes i en serie jämförelsemätningar av olika tryckstandarder där fyra europeiska nationella metrologiska institut deltog. Från dessa mätningar konstaterades det att TOP:ens prestanda inte påverkades av transporten och att tryckstandarderna, inom det spann som undersöktes, 10 – 90 kPa, överensstämde inom deras osäkerheter.

Resultaten som presenteras tyder på att FP-baserade refraktometrar som använder sig av GAMOR-metodiken har potentialen att kunna agera som transportabla standarder baserade på grundläggande fysikaliska konstanter, något som banar vägen för framtida forskning inom området.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2023. p. 95
Keywords
fabry-pérot, refractometry, optical resonator, transportable, pressure standard, gamor, pressure, metrology, ring comparison, si, pascal, quantumpascal
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214141 (URN)9789180701570 (ISBN)9789180701563 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-10-02, NAT.D.440, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved

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Silander, IsakZakrisson, JohanSilva de Oliveira, ViniciusForssén, ClaytonFoltynowicz, AleksandraAxner, Ove

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