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Sources and pathways of halomethoxybenzenes in northern Baltic estuaries
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. (EcoChange)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7469-0532
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (EcoChange; UMFpub)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7819-9038
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1298-3839
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 10, article id 1161065Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Thousands of halogenated natural products (HNPs) are generated in the ocean and on land. A subset of these, halomethoxybenzenes (HMBs), are released from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Here we consider: 1. Brominated anisoles (BAs), transformation products of bromophenols. 2. Drosophilin A methyl ether (DAME: 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro-3,6-dimethoxybenzene), a secondary metabolite of terrestrial fungi. 3. Tetrachloroveratrole (TeCV: 1,2,3,4-tetrachloro-5,6-dimethoxybenzene), a lignin byproduct found in bleached kraft mill effluent. 4. Pentachloroanisole (PeCA), a metabolite of the wood preservative pentachlorophenol.

Methods: We examined several ecosystem compartments to determine sources and exchange processes for these HMBs: air, precipitation, rivers, forest fungi and litter, and water from northern Baltic estuaries and offshore. Samples were analyzed for HMBs by capillary gas chromatography – quadrupole mass spectrometry.

Results and discussion: All four types of HMBs were found in air, and BAs, DAME and TeCV were also present in precipitation. BAs and DAME were common in rivers and estuaries, whereas TeCV was low and PeCA was below detection. DAME was identified in several species of fungi and in forest litter; TeCV was occasionally present, but BAs and PeCA were below detection. Concentrations of BAs were higher in estuaries than in rivers or offshore waters, showing that estuaries are hot spots for production. BAs were negatively or not correlated with chlorophyll-a, suggesting contribution by heterotrophic bacteria as well as known production by phytoplankton and macroalgae. DAME was negatively or not correlated with BAs and did not appear to be produced in the estuaries; fungi and forest litter containing fungal mycelia are suggested as sources. HMBs volatilize from sea and land, disperse through the atmosphere, and return via precipitation and rivers. Production and biogeochemical cycles are influenced by climate change and we suggest BAs and DAME for following partitioning and exchange processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023. Vol. 10, article id 1161065
Keywords [en]
Halogenated natural products (HNPs), halomethoxybenzenes (HMBs), atmospheric and riverine transport, Baltic Sea, estuaries
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geochemistry
Research subject
environmental science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208250DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2023.1161065ISI: 000992356400001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85159934718OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-208250DiVA, id: diva2:1756650
Projects
EcoChange
Funder
Ecosystem dynamics in the Baltic Sea in a changing climate perspective - ECOCHANGEAvailable from: 2023-05-12 Created: 2023-05-12 Last updated: 2023-06-07Bibliographically approved

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Bidleman, TerryAndersson, AgnetaBrugel, SoniaEricson, LarsNygren, OlleTysklind, Mats

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