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Predictors of iron status in well-nourished 4-y-old children.
Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5464-5686
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 87, nr 4, s. 839-845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Iron status in childhood is influenced by diet. Other factors affecting iron status at that age are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to evaluate iron status in 4-y-old children, to track that status from infancy to childhood, and to examine the associations of iron status with dietary factors, growth, and heredity. DESIGN: This study consisted of a longitudinal follow-up at age 4 y of children (n = 127) from the cohort of a study that began at age 6 mo. Blood samples and anthropometry were assessed in both children and their parents; food records were collected from children only. RESULTS: Dietary intake was not significantly correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, whereas the consumption of meat products had a positive effect on serum ferritin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume in boys (P = 0.015 and 0.04, respectively). The prevalences of anemia and iron deficiency were low, affecting 2 (1.8%) and 3 (2.8%) children, respectively; no child had iron deficiency anemia. There was significant within-subject tracking of hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume from age 6 mo to 4 y. The mother's but not the father's hemoglobin correlated with the child's hemoglobin over time. CONCLUSIONS: Food choices had little effect on iron status. Hemoglobin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume were tracked from infancy to childhood. In healthy, well-nourished children with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, the mother's hemoglobin was significantly associated with that of her child, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2008. Vol. 87, nr 4, s. 839-845
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-32432PubMedID: 18400705Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-42249083429OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-32432DiVA, id: diva2:303217
Tillgänglig från: 2010-03-11 Skapad: 2010-03-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-23
Ingår i avhandling
1. Health implications of dietary intake in infancy and early childhood
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Health implications of dietary intake in infancy and early childhood
2008 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Swedish children are the healthiest in Europe. Through regular visits to well-baby clinics, infants and young children are checked and parents given information and advice on diet and other relevant matters for their child. For a long time, adequate nutrition during infancy and childhood has been focused on encouraging proper nutrition, preventing malnutrition and deficiency states, and obtaining optimal growth. Today, malnutrition and deficiency states in infants and children are rare. But other public health problems have arisen. Nutrition early in life is now thought to influence health and diseases even in adulthood. Thus promotion of a healthy diet in early life is important for preventing public health diseases such as iron deficiency, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and dental caries.

Aims: This study investigates health implications of dietary intake in infancy and early childhood. More specific focus was on the associations between dietary fat intake and serum lipid levels in infants, early dietary intake, iron status, dental caries, and Body Mass Index (BMI) at 4 years of age. In addition, hereditary factors and changes over time were evaluated.

Methods: Before 6 month of age, 300 healthy infants were recruited from well-baby clinics in Umeå. This thesis is based on secondary analysis of a prospective study in these infants run from 6-18 months and a follow-up of 127 of the children at 4 years. Between 6-18 months and at 4 years, dietary intakes were assessed, anthropometric measures performed, and venous blood samples taken. At 4 years, a dental examination was also performed and anthropometric data and blood samples were collected from parents and included in the study.

Results: All but two infants were ever breastfed and at 6 months 73% were still breastfed. The quality of dietary fat was not within national recommendations. At 4 years, intake of vitamin D and selenium were below and intake of sugar and sweet products above the recommendations. In girls, but not boys, higher polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was associated with lower levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels. Iron status of the children was generally good and no child had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Children’s haemoglobin (Hb) levels tracked from infancy to 4 years and correlated with their mother’s Hb. Fortified infant products and meat were important sources of iron at both 12 months and 4 years. Children with frequent intake of cheese had less caries in this population with low caries prevalence. We found higher protein intake over time to be associated with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) at 4 years and high BMI at 4 years was associated with high BMI at 6 mo. There was also an association between the BMI of the child and that of its parents.

Conclusions: BMI of the child and parents (especially the father), and iron status at 6 months were predictors of these variables at 4 years of age. The quality rather than the quantity of dietary fat in infancy affected serum lipid values. Even in a healthy and well-nourished group of Swedish infants and young children, quality of food and intake of nutrients are important for current and later health of the child.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Kostvetenskap, 2008. s. 66
Nyckelord
Infant nutrition, child nutrition, child health, serum lipids, iron status, caries, BMI
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-1812 (URN)987-91-7264-615-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2008-09-26, Betula, 6M, Norrlands Universitetsjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-05 Skapad: 2008-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09Bibliografiskt granskad

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Öhlund, IngerLind, TorbjörnHörnell, AgnetaHernell, Olle

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American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Medicin och hälsovetenskap

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