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The defective splicing caused by the ISCU intron mutation in patients with myopathy with lactic acidosis is repressed by PTBP1 but can be de-repressed by IGF2BP1
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 467-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is caused by an intron mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene ISCU which leads to the activation of cryptic splice sites and the retention of part of intron 4. This incorrect splicing is more pronounced in muscle than in other tissues, resulting in a muscle-specific phenotype. In this study, we identified five nuclear factors that interact with the sequence harboring the mutation and analyzed their effect on the splicing of the ISCU gene. The identification revealed three splicing factors, SFRS14, RBM39 and PTBP1, and two additional RNA binding factors, matrin 3 (MATR3) and IGF2BP1. IGF2BP1 showed a preference for the mutant sequence, whereas the other factors showed similar affinity for both sequences. PTBP1 was found to repress the defective splicing of ISCU, resulting in a drastic loss of mutant transcripts. In contrast, IGF2BP1 and RBM39 shifted the splicing ratio toward the incorrect splice form.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2012. Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 467-470
Nyckelord [en]
ISCU;hereditary myopathy;alternative splicing;PTBP1
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50593DOI: 10.1002/humu.22002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84857045747OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-50593DiVA, id: diva2:471191
Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-02 Skapad: 2011-12-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Genetic and functional studies of hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Genetic and functional studies of hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis
2011 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Alternativ titel[sv]
Genetiska och funktionella studier av hereditär myopati med laktacidos
Abstract [en]

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML, OMIM#255125) is an autosomal recessive disorder which originates from Västerbotten and Ångermanland in the Northern part of Sweden. HML is characterized by severe exercise intolerance which manifests with tachycardia, dyspnea, muscle pain, cramps, elevated lactate and pyruvate levels, weakness and myoglobinuria. The symptoms arise from malfunction of the energy metabolism in skeletal muscles with defects in several important enzymes involved in the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain. All affected proteins contain iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, which led to the suggestion that the disease was caused by malfunctions in either the transportation, assembly or processing of Fe-S clusters.

The aim of my thesis was to identify the disease causing gene of HML and to investigate the underlying disease-mechanisms. In paper I we identified a disease-critical region on chromosome 12; a region containing 16 genes. One of the genes coded for the Fe-S cluster assembly protein ISCU and an intronic base pair substitution (g.7044G>C) was identified in the last intron of this gene. The mutation gave rise to the insertion of intron sequence into the mRNA, leading to a protein containing 15 abberant amino acids and a premature stop. In paper II we investigated why a mutation in an evolutionary well conserved protein with a very important cellular role, which in addition is expressed in almost all tissues, gives rise to a muscle-restricted phenotype. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the mutant transcript constituted almost 80% of total ISCU mRNA in muscle, while in both heart and liver the normal splice form was dominant. We could also show that, in mice, complete absence of Iscu protein was coupled with early embryonic death, further emphasizing the importance of the protein in all tissues. These data strongly suggested that tissue-specific splicing was the main mechanism responsible for the muscle-specific phenotype of HML. In paper III the splicing mechanisms that give rise to the mutant ISCU transcript was further investigated. We identified three proteins; PTBP1, IGF2BP1 and RBM39, that could bind to the region containing the mutation and could affect the splicing pattern of ISCU in an in vitro system. PTBP1 repressed the inclusion of the intronic sequence, while IGF2BP1 and RBM39 repressed the total ISCU mRNA level though the effect was more pronounced for the normal transcript. Moreover, IGF2BP1 and RBM39 were also able to reverse the effect of PTBP1. IGF2BP1, though not a splicing factor, had higher affinity for the mutant sequence. This suggested that the mutation enables IGF2BP1 binding, thereby preventing the PTBP1 induced repression seen in the normal case.

In conclusion, we have determined the genetic cause of HML, identifying a base pair substitution in the last intron of the ISCU gene that gives rise to abnormally spliced transcript. The muscle-specific phenotype was also analyzed and tissue-specific splicing was identified as the main disease-mechanism. Furthermore, nuclear factors with ability to affect the splicing pattern of the mutant ISCU gene were identified. This work has thoroughly investigated the fundamental disease mechanisms, thus providing deeper understanding for this hereditary myopathy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2011. s. 39
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1454
Nyckelord
Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis, ISCU, intron mutation, mouse model, tissue-specific splicing
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicinsk genetik
Forskningsämne
medicinsk genetik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50592 (URN)978-91-7459-308-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2012-01-27, Sal B, By 1D 9 tr, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-05 Skapad: 2011-12-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
2. The use of monogenic disease to study basal and disease associated mechanisms with focus on NGF dependent pain insensitivity and ISCU myopathy
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The use of monogenic disease to study basal and disease associated mechanisms with focus on NGF dependent pain insensitivity and ISCU myopathy
2012 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Monogenic diseases make excellent models for the study of gene functions and basal cellular mechanisms in humans. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate how genetic mutations affect the basal cellular mechanisms in the monogenic diseases Nerve growth factor (NGF) dependent pain insensitivity and Iron-Sulphur cluster assembly protein U (ISCU) myopathy.

NGF dependent pain insensitivity is a rare genetic disorder with clinical manifestations that include insensitivity to deep pain, development of Charcot joints, and impaired temperature sensation but with no effect on mental abilities. The disease is caused by a missense mutation in the NGFβ gene causing a drastic amino acid substitution (R221W) in a well-conserved region of the protein. NGF is secreted in limited amounts by its target tissues and is important for the development and maintenance of the cholinergic forebrain neurons as well as the sensory and sympathetic neurons. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of disease we performed functional studies of the mutant NGF protein. We could show that mutant NGF was unable to induce differentiation of PC12 cells as a consequence of impaired secretion. Furthermore, mutant NGF had different intracellular localisation compared to normal NGF and resided mostly in its unprocessed form proNGF. Mature NGF and proNGF have different binding properties to the receptors TrkA and p75. Individuals with mutations in TRKA are, aside from pain insensitive mentally affected; therefore it has been proposed that the R221W mutation mainly affects the interaction with p75. In agreement with this, we could show that R221W NGF was able to bind and activate TrkA whereas the interaction with p75 was impaired as compared to normal NGF.

ISCU myopathy is a monogenic disease where the affected patients suffer from severe exercise intolerance resulting in muscle cramps and sometimes severe lactic acidosis. The disease is caused by a point mutation in the last intron of the Iron sulphur cluster assembly gene, ISCU, resulting in the inclusion of a part of the intron in the mRNA. ISCU functions as a scaffold protein in the assembly of iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters important for electron transport in Kreb’s cycle and the respiratory chain. We have shown that ISCU is vital in mammals since complete knock-down of Iscu in mice results in early embryonic death. The deletion of ISCU homologous in lower organisms has also been shown fatal. In spite this central role in energy metabolism the disease is restricted to the patient’s skeletal muscles while other energy demanding organs seem unaffected. To address this contradiction we examined if tissue-specific differences in the splicing of mutant ISCU could explain the muscle-specific phenotype. We could show that the splicing pattern did, indeed, differ with more incorrectly spliced ISCU in muscle compared to other tissues. This was accompanied by a decrease in Fe-S containing proteins in muscle, while no decrease was observed in other tissues. Alternative splicing is more common then previously thought and may depend upon interacting factors and/or differences in the surrounding milieu. To reveal plausible mechanisms involved in the tissue-specific splicing we identified nuclear factors that interacted with the region where the mutation was located. Five interacting factors were identified, out of which three affected the splicing of ISCU. PTBP1 was shown to repress the incorrect splicing while IGF2BP1 and RBM39 repressed the formation of normal transcript and could also counteract the effect of PTBP1. IGF2BP1 was the only factor that showed higher affinity to the mutant sequence making it a possible key factor in the incorrect splicing of the mutant ISCU gene.

Together, these results offer important insights into the cellular mechanisms causing these diseases. We found impaired secretion and inaccurate sorting of NGF to be cellular mechanisms contributing to NGF dependent pain insensitivity while tissue-specific splicing of ISCU was found to be the event contributing to the phenotype of ISCU myopathy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umea university, Department of Medical Biosciences, 2012. s. 46
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1463
Nyckelord
monogenic, disease, NGF, receptor, pain insensitivity, ISCU, myopathy, splicing
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan medicinsk grundvetenskap
Forskningsämne
molekylär medicin (medicinska vetenskaper)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51140 (URN)978-91-7459-326-6 (ISBN)
Disputation
2012-02-10, Betula, By 6M, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-20 Skapad: 2012-01-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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