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  • 1. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, s. 660-670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 2. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Bowden, William B.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    Aiken, George R.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Bishop, Kevin
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Breen, Amy L.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Cai, Yihua
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Carey, Sean K.
    Chen, Jing M.
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    de Groot, William J.
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fetcher, Ned
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Gough, Laura
    Grogan, Paul
    Guo, Laodong
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Hinzman, Larry
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jandt, Randi
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Kelly, Ryan
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kling, George W.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Kouki, Jari
    Kuhry, Peter
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Mann, Paul J.
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    McClelland, James W.
    Molau, Ulf
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pare, David
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Payette, Serge
    Peng, Changhui
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Reynolds, James F.
    Robards, Martin
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Schaedel, Christina
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Sky, Jasper
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Starr, Gregory
    Striegl, Robert G.
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Zimov, Sergei
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 034014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

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  • 3. Abdoullaye, Doukary
    et al.
    Acevedo, I
    Adebayo, Abisola A
    Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca
    Benjamin, RC
    Bock, Dan G
    Born, Celine
    Brouat, Carine
    Caccone, Adalgisa
    Cao, Ling-Zhen
    Casadoamezua, P
    Cataneo, J
    Correa-Ramirez, MM
    Cristescu, Melania E
    Dobigny, Gauthier
    Egbosimba, Emmanuel E
    Etchberger, Lianna K
    Fan, Bin
    Fields, Peter D
    Forcioli, D
    Furla, P
    de Leon, FJ Garcia
    Garcia-Jimenez, R
    Gauthier, Philippe
    Gergs, Rene
    Gonzalez, Clementina
    Granjon, Laurent
    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Carla
    Havill, Nathan P
    Helsen, P
    Hether, Tyler D
    Hoffman, Eric A
    Hu, Xiangyang
    Ingvarsson, Pär K
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ishizaki, S
    Ji, Heyi
    Ji, XS
    Jimenez, ML
    Kapil, R
    Karban, R
    Keller, Stephen R
    Kubota, S
    Li, Shuzhen
    Li, Wansha
    Lim, Douglas D
    Lin, Haoran
    Liu, Xiaochun
    Luo, Yayan
    Machordom, A
    Martin, Andrew P
    Matthysen, E
    Mazzella, Maxwell N
    McGeoch, Melodie A
    Meng, Zining
    Nishizawa, M
    O'Brien, Patricia
    Ohara, M
    Ornelas, Juan Francisco
    Ortu, MF
    Pedersen, Amy B
    Preston, L
    Ren, Qin
    Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto
    Sackett, Loren C
    Sang, Qing
    Sawyer, GM
    Shiojiri, K
    Taylor, Douglas R
    van Dongen, S
    van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen
    Vandewoestijne, S
    Wang, H
    Wang, JT
    Wang, Le
    Xu, Xiang-Li
    Yang, Guang
    Yang, Yongping
    Zeng, YQ
    Zhang, Qing-Wen
    Zhang, Yongping
    Zhao, Y
    Zhou, Yan
    Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 August 2009 - 30 September 20092010Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 232-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides.

  • 4. Abegg, Bruno
    et al.
    Morin, Samuel
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    François, H.
    Rothleitner, M.
    Strasser, U.
    Overloaded!: Critical revision and a new conceptual approach for snow indicators in ski tourism2021Ingår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 691-701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indicators are widely used in climate variability and climate change assessments to simplify the tracking of complex processes and phenomena in the state of the environment. Apart from the climatic criteria, the snow indicators in ski tourism have been increasingly extended with elements that relate to the technical, operational, and commercial aspects of ski tourism. These non-natural influencing factors have gained in importance in comparison with the natural environmental conditions but are more difficult to comprehend in time and space, resulting in limited explanatory power of the related indicators when applied for larger/longer scale assessments. We review the existing indicator approaches to derive quantitative measures for the snow conditions in ski areas, to formulate the criteria that the indicators should fulfill, and to provide a list of indicators with their technical specifications which can be used in snow condition assessments for ski tourism. For the use of these indicators, a three-step procedure consisting of definition, application, and interpretation is suggested. We also provide recommendations for the design of indicator-based assessments of climate change effects on ski tourism. Thereby, we highlight the importance of extensive stakeholder involvement to allow for real-world relevance of the achieved results.

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  • 5.
    Abreu, Clare I.
    et al.
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Bello, Martina Dal
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Bunse, Carina
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution of Microbial Model Systems, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gore, Jeff
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Warmer temperatures favor slower-growing bacteria in natural marine communities2023Ingår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 9, nr 19, artikel-id eade8352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth’s life-sustaining oceans harbor diverse bacterial communities that display varying composition across time and space. While particular patterns of variation have been linked to a range of factors, unifying rules are lacking, preventing the prediction of future changes. Here, analyzing the distribution of fast- and slow-growing bacteria in ocean datasets spanning seasons, latitude, and depth, we show that higher seawater temperatures universally favor slower-growing taxa, in agreement with theoretical predictions of how temperature-dependent growth rates differentially modulate the impact of mortality on species abundances. Changes in bacterial community structure promoted by temperature are independent of variations in nutrients along spatial and temporal gradients. Our results help explain why slow growers dominate at the ocean surface, during summer, and near the tropics and provide a framework to understand how bacterial communities will change in a warmer world.

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  • 6.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016Ingår i: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 7. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018Ingår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 512-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 8. Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Use of Cl and C Isotopic Fractionation to Identify Degradation and Sources of Polychlorinated Phenols: Mechanistic Study and Field Application2013Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 790-797Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment.

  • 9.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Gunnarsdotter, Yvonne
    Hansen, Kjell
    Stiernström, Arvid
    Waldenström, Cecilia
    Slutvärdering av Landsbygdsprogrammet 2007-2013: Axel 3: Förbättra livskvalitet på landsbygden; Axel 4: Leader - genomföra lokala utvecklingsstrategier2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Steering ecological restoration efforts through the storm of climate change: the case of tropical dry forest shrub species2024Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change compels a reconsideration of prevailing ecological restoration paradigms and methodologies. The main goal of this thesis thesis was to explore strategies to adapt the practices of ecological restoration to climate change. We studied the potential response of six Fabaceae shrub species from tropical dry forests, previously identified as potential candidates for ecological restoration, to anticipated climate change. We found Fabaceae woody shrub species germinated in a wide range of temperatures, light and darkness, and require mechanical scarification to break their physical dormancy. We combined modelling, laboratory, field and nursery experiments to unravel the potential response of Mimosa luisana to climate change. We found trait differentiation among the lower, central and upper population of the species current distribution range within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (TCV), Mexico, but not local adaptation. The climatically suitable area of M. luisana is projected to expand, and experimentally, this species could tolerate a wide range of conditions in terms of temperature and soil moisture. Therefore, not need for. assisted migration was found. Seed size differed among M.luisana populations, and showed a significant effect in early biomass production, but not in relative growth rate. This work has directly implications for restoration practices. First, because it addressed some of the challenges posed by climate change by highlighting methodologies that could be replicated for other species and ecosystems. Second, because it provides concrete guidelines for restoring ecological processes in tropical dry lands as the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico, that could be implemented by academics and local communities.

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  • 11.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ceccon, Eliane
    Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Seed trait differentiation and plant growth among Mimosa luisana populationsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The arid and semi-arid vegetation zones of the world often harbour high species diversity and significant endemism. They also face elevated levels of environmental pressures due to high human settlement densities and weak institutional systems. This necessitates adequate conservation and ecological restoration efforts, which in turn demand physiological and ecological knowledge of the species involved. Seed traits can be important for plant establishment success and growth, especially at early life stages, when seedlings also are most sensitive. We studied the role of seed traits for early establishment of the woody Fabaceae species Mimosa luisana, a candidate species for use in ecological restoration within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (TCV), Mexico. We assessed the relationship between seed traits and biomass production, biomass allocation and relative growth rate (RGR) up to 200 days after germination, in a common garden experiment using three populations that represented the lower, central and upper limit of M. luisana geographical distribution. M. luisana seeds were 1.9-3.9 mm long, 1.7-3.3 mm wide, 1.2-2.9 mm thick, and weighed from 3 to 19 mg. We found the seeds from the lower limit to be lighter, thinner and less spherical than the central and upper populations. Across all populations, 41% of the total biomass consisted of leaves, followed by shoots (33%) and roots (27%). The biomass production and allocation showed no significant difference among populations during the initial harvests; however, discernible differences emerged over time. Seed weight initially had a significant effect on biomass production, but this effect was lost with time. Seed weight alone explained only 0.82% of the total variance of biomass production, while harvest age explained 40.05%, and seed provenance 3.08%. The correlation between seed weight and RGR was slightly negative but not significant. These results have implications for efforts to ecologically restore dry forests in the region as well as how to implement climate change adaptation and conservation translocation actions, as these might imply sowing and establishing M. luisana at new sites. Given the small variance in biomass accumulation explained by seed traits and provenance, efforts to protect M. luisana during germination and establishment are likely to be more important for management success than the seed source used.

  • 12.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ceccon, Eliane
    Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Trait differentiation and local adaptation of a local endemic shrub along a tropical dry forest gradient: a reciprocal transplant experimentManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid climate change imperils a multitude of species, demanding either swift adaptation or a strategic migration to new areas to safeguard their existence. Species confined to spatially limited habitats face heightened vulnerability as ecological conditions may undergo dramatic shifts across their range. In this study, we delve into the processes shaping the geographic distribution of Mimosa luisana, a species endemic to the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley in Mexico, having high potential for use in ecological restoration. We aimed to forecast the response of M. luisana to climate change and to formulate strategic management guidelines in the face of global change. We conducted a reciprocal translocation and a common garden experiment with three provenances of M. luisana. We used populations originating from the lower, central and upper range-limit of the altitudinal and latitudinal distribution of the species. We found significant differences in the relative growth rate, leaf biomass change and specific leaf area among the three provenances during their early establishment, but found little evidence of local adaptation among the studied populations. Instead, all provenances did best at the central part of the species range. We suggest that cold temperatures might be delimiting the upper limit of M. luisana within the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, whereas tolerance to drought may set lower limits. M. luisana might respond to climate change not by upward shifts of each locally adapted population distributed along the elevational gradient, but by conditions improving at the high-elevation edge in response to warming. A management implication from our results is that ensuring genetic diversity of the seed batches may be more important than only using local seed sources of M. luisana in ecological restoration actions.

  • 13.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    To move or not to move: assessing the viability of translocating Mimosa luisana for climate adaptation in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, MexicoManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is threatening range-restricted species world-wide, but assessments of vulnerability is lacking in many areas, especially in tropical mountain regions. We assessed the vulnerability of the tropical dry forest species Mimosa luisana, an important nurse plant facilitating the establishment of other species, and provider of ecosystem services to local communities. We projected changes in the geographic distribution and extent of the climatic envelope of M. luisana for the periods 2021-2040, 2041-2060, 2061-2080, using the Maximun Entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt). We also tested the response of local provenances of M. luisana to different climate change scenarios by transplanting them to new elevations. 

    We found that new areas at higher elevation will become climatically suitable for M. luisana in the future, without losing its current geographic range, so that its geographic range may expand by between 50% and 313%. Transplantation showed that M. luisana can grow and survive in a wide range of conditions. Moreover, M. luisana was able to survive when translocated 700 m upwards, to areas above its current elevational limit. 

    We conclude that M. luisana is not in need of assisted migration to escape climate-related extinction, but translocation to areas that become climatically suitable may be beneficial to its conservation. The species may be used in ecological restoration projects in a wide range of conditions, including beyond its present range, increasing the likelihood of success in present and future ecological restoration actions. However, we acknowledge the need for assessing the climate-change effects on reproduction and the dispersal capacity of the species. 

  • 14.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Montaño-Arias, Susana Adriana
    2Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de La Salud, Universidad Autónoma MetropolitanaIztapalapa, Ciudad de México, México.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Restoration implications of the germination ecology of six dry-forest woody Fabaceae species in MexicoManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Germination kickstarts plant recruitment. Hence, acknowledging this process is a prerequisite for restoration of ecosystems. In dry forests, where opportunities for plant establishment occur in a narrow window of opportunity, seeds must respond to cues to germinate when conditions for growth are suitable. Understanding the strategies and adaptations of seeds to the seasonal dry-forest ecosystems is needed to guide restoration and management actions in the face of climate change. We investigated the effects of scarification, temperature and light in germination percentage, germination time and synchrony of six woody Fabaceae species. The species have ecological potential for restoration and are of cultural and economic importance for the local people in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico. We carried out a multifactorial germination experiment with five temperatures, two light regimes and two scarification conditions for Mimosa luisana, M. polyantha, M. adenantheroides, M. lactiflua, Acaciella angustissima and Vachellia constricta. Responses differed among the species, but they all germinated in a wide range of temperatures (10°C to 40°C). Mechanical scarification highly increased the germination percentage of all species. Higher temperature increased and speeded up germination in dark conditions for most of the species. We found more heterogeneous responses in germination synchrony among species. Despite that the studied species had high germination percentages in warm temperatures, their recruitment in nature might be negatively affected by warmer and drier conditions, and by the loss of shade and seed dispersers due to deforestation and changes in land use. It is crucial to study not just germination percentage and time but also other aspects of the germination process such as the germination synchrony, since it might reveal useful information for management actions.

  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution (Limnology), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Goedkoop, Willem
    Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fatty Acid Ratios in Freshwater Fish, Zooplankton and Zoobenthos - Are There Specific Optima?2009Ingår i: Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Martin Kainz, Michael T. Brett, Michael T. Arts, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, s. 147-178Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), termed omega-3 and omega-6 in food (or here as n-3 and n-6 PUFA, respectively), are essential for all vertebrates and probably also for nearly all invertebrates. The absolute concentrations of the different PUFA are important, as is an appropriate balance between the two. The optimal ratio of n-3/n-6 is not known for most organisms but is anticipated to be more or less species-specific (Sargent et al. 1995). The three most important PUFA in vertebrates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6). Both EPA and ARA are precursors for biologically active eicosanoids that are vital components of cell membranes and play many dynamic roles in mediating and controlling a wide array of cellular activities (Crawford et al. 1989; Harrison 1990; Henderson et al. 1996; see Chap. 9). Since n-3 and n-6 PUFA cannot be synthesized de novo by most metazoans, they must be included in the diet, either as EPA, DHA and ARA, or as their precursors, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, precursor of EPA and DHA) and linoleic acid (LIN, 18:2n-6, precursor of ARA) (Bell et al. 1986; Sargent et al. 1995). Both ALA and LIN are produced in the thylacoid membranes of algae and plants with chlorophyll (Sargent at al. 1987).

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Omstedt, Anders
    Rolff, Carl
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea2017Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 170, s. 22-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R-Adj(2). = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  • 17.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Rolff, Carl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Omstedt, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Orsaker till minskande syrehalter i Bottenhavet2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultat från den nationella miljöövervakningen visar att syrehalterna i Bottenhavet har minskat sedan 1970-talet, en minskning som accelererat från 1990. För att ha möjlighet att på något sätt kunna åtgärda denna försämring av den marina miljön är det nödvändigt att identifiera orsakerna till denna syreminskning, eftersom olika orsaker kan kräva olika former av åtgärder. Om orsaken till exempel är ökad syreförbrukning beroende på regional övergödning, skulle detta innebära ökat behov av regionala reningsåtgärder. Målsättningen med projektet var därmed att ge en tillförlitlig förklaring till de sjunkande syrehalterna i Bottenhavet under de senaste 20 åren genom att använda data från de nationella miljöövervakningsprogrammen. De huvudhypoteser som undersöktes som orsaker till de sjunkande syrehalterna var:  • Ökad regional gödning av Bottenhavet och därmed ökad produktion.  • Tillförsel av syrefattigt och fosfatrikt från Egentliga Östersjön.  • Starkare haloklin och försämrad ventilation av Bottenhavets djupvatten.  • Ökad temperatur och ökad tillförsel av löst organiskt kol. Analys av tidsserier och modellanalyser utifrån miljöövervaknings- och forskningsdata visade att den observerade syrehaltsminskningen i Bottenhavets djupvatten främst beror på en ökning av vattentemperaturen och delvis på en ökning av löst organiskt kol i vattnet, samt tillflöde från Egentliga Östersjön. Dataanalysen visade däremot inget tydligt stöd för att ökad produktion av biomassa i Bottenhavet orsakat de minskande syrehalterna. Detta gäller indikatorer för växtplankton, sedimentation och bakterieplankton som alla förväntas öka vid ökad produktion och det finns således inga direkta indicier för att stödja hypotesen om ökad gödning av Bottenhavet.  Sammantaget visar de analyser som gjorts inom projektet att Bottenhavets framtida hälsa främst gynnas av en kombination av åtgärder för att motverka globala klimatförändringar, samt åtgärder för att förbättra vattenkvaliteten i Egentliga Östersjön. Näringstillförsel från Bottenhavets avrinningsområden bedöms främst ha haft betydelse för syresituationen i kustnära vattenförekomster. Den bedöms därför inte i betydande omfattning ha orsakat de minskande syrehalterna i Bottenhavets utsjöområden.  

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  • 18.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Karolina Ida Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellmér, Maria
    Department of Biology, Science Division, Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Emelie
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Granberg, Malin
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Dacklin, Ingrid
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Elving, Josefine
    Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, National Veterinary Institute, Sweden.
    Brindefalk, Björn
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Upstream land use with microbial downstream consequences: iron and humic substances link to Legionella spp.Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden; Department of Tree Breeding, Skogforsk, Sävar, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Karolina Ida Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Hellmér, Maria
    Department of Biology, Science Division, Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Emelie
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Granberg, Malin
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Dacklin, Ingrid
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Elving, Josefine
    Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, Swedish Veterinary Agency, Sweden.
    Brindefalk, Björn
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden; Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Upstream land use with microbial downstream consequences: iron and humic substances link to Legionella spp2024Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 256, artikel-id 121579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensified land use can disturb water quality, potentially increasing the abundance of bacterial pathogens, threatening public access to clean water. This threat involves both direct contamination of faecal bacteria as well as indirect factors, such as disturbed water chemistry and microbiota, which can lead to contamination. While direct contamination has been well described, the impact of indirect factors is less explored, despite the potential of severe downstream consequences on water supply. To assess direct and indirect downstream effects of buildings, farms, pastures and fields on potential water sources, we studied five Swedish lakes and their inflows. We analysed a total of 160 samples in a gradient of anthropogenic activity spanning four time points, including faecal and water-quality indicators. Through species distribution modelling, Random Forest and network analysis using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data, our findings highlight that land use indirectly impacts lakes via inflows. Land use impacted approximately one third of inflow microbiota taxa, in turn impacting ∌20–50 % of lake taxa. Indirect effects via inflows were also suggested by causal links between e.g. water colour and lake bacterial taxa, where this influenced the abundance of several freshwater bacteria, such as Polynucleobacter and Limnohabitans. However, it was not possible to identify direct effects on the lakes based on analysis of physiochemical- or microbial parameters. To avoid potential downstream consequences on water supply, it is thus important to consider possible indirect effects from upstream land use and inflows, even when no direct effects can be observed on lakes. Legionella (a genus containing bacterial pathogens) illustrated potential consequences, since the genus was particularly abundant in inflows and was shown to increase by the presence of pastures, fields, and farms. The approach presented here could be used to assess the suitability of lakes as alternative raw water sources or help to mitigate contaminations in important water catchments. Continued broad investigations of stressors on the microbial network can identify indirect effects, avoid enrichment of pathogens, and help secure water accessibility.

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  • 20.
    Ahlström, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Canadell, Josep G.
    Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, ACT, Canberra, Australia.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Widespread Unquantified Conversion of Old Boreal Forests to Plantations2022Ingår i: Earth's Future, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e2022EF003221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the boreal biome, clear-cutting of old, previously non clear-cut forests with high naturalness followed by tree planting or seeding is a major land use change. However, how much previously uncut forest has been converted to plantations remains unquantified. We combine Swedish national databases on clear-cuts and forest inventories to show that at least 19% of all clear-cuts since 2003 have occurred in old forests that were most likely not previously cut and planted or seeded. Old forests have been cut and lost at a steady rate of ∼1.4% per year for the same period, and at this rate they will disappear by the 2070s. There is further evidence that this type of unreported forest conversion is occurring across much of the world's boreal forest.

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  • 21. Aho, Kelly S.
    et al.
    Fair, Jennifer H.
    Hosen, Jacob D.
    Kyzivat, Ethan D.
    Logozzo, Laura A.
    Rocher-Ros, Gerard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Weber, Lisa C.
    Yoon, Byungman
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Distinct concentration-discharge dynamics in temperate streams and rivers: CO2 exhibits chemostasis while CH4 exhibits source limitation due to temperature control2021Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 66, nr 10, s. 3656-3668Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Streams and rivers are significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, the magnitudes of these fluxes are uncertain, in part, because dissolved greenhouse gases (GHGs) can exhibit high spatiotemporal variability. Concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are commonly used to describe temporal variability stemming from hydrologic controls on solute production and transport. This study assesses how the partial pressures of two GHGs—pCO2 and pCH4—vary across hydrologic conditions over 4 yr in eight nested streams and rivers, at both annual and seasonal timescales. Overall, the range of pCO2 was constrained, ranging from undersaturated to nine times oversaturated, while pCH4 was highly variable, ranging from 3 to 500 times oversaturated. We show that pCO2 exhibited chemostatic behavior (i.e., no change with Q), in part, due to carbonate buffering and seasonally specific storm responses. In contrast, we show that pCH4 generally exhibited source limitation (i.e., a negative relationship with Q), which we attribute to temperature-mediated production. However, pCH4 exhibited chemostasis in a wetland-draining stream, likely due to hydrologic connection to the CH4-rich wetland. These findings have implications for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, which are controlled by concentrations and gas transfer velocities. At high Q, enhanced gas transfer velocity acts on a relatively constant CO2 stock but on a diminishing CH4 stock. In other words, CO2 fluxes increase with Q, while CH4 fluxes are modulated by the divergent Q dynamics of gas transfer velocity and concentration.

  • 22. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Manasypov, R.
    Lim, A.
    Krickov, I.
    Kolesnichenko, L. G.
    Laudon, H.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Permafrost and lakes control river isotope composition across a boreal Arctic transect in the Western Siberian lowlands2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. =20-=20, artikel-id 034028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western Siberian Lowlands (WSL) store large quantities of organic carbon that will be exposed and mobilized by the thawing of permafrost. The fate of mobilized carbon, however, is not well understood, partly because of inadequate knowledge of hydrological controls in the region which has a vast low-relief surface area, extensive lake and wetland coverage and gradually increasing permafrost influence. We used stable water isotopes to improve our understanding of dominant landscape controls on the hydrology of the WSL. We sampled rivers along a 1700 km South-North transect from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost repeatedly over three years, and derived isotope proxies for catchment hydrological responsiveness and connectivity. We found correlations between the isotope proxies and catchment characteristics, suggesting that lakes and wetlands are intimately connected to rivers, and that permafrost increases the responsiveness of the catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events, reducing catchment mean transit times. Our work provides rare isotope-based field evidence that permafrost and lakes/wetlands influence hydrological pathways across a wide range of spatial scales (10-105 km2) and permafrost coverage (0%-70%). This has important implications, because both permafrost extent and lake/wetland coverage are affected by permafrost thaw in the changing climate. Changes in these hydrological landscape controls are likely to alter carbon export and emission via inland waters, which may be of global significance.

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  • 23. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vorobyev, S. N.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Loiko, S.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape2018Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, s. 279-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

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  • 24. Aladi, M.
    et al.
    Bolla, R.
    Cardenas, D. E.
    Veisz, László
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Foldes, I. B.
    Cluster size distributions in gas jets for different nozzle geometries2017Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, artikel-id C06020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster size distributions were investigated in case of different nozzle geometries in argon and xenon using Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. Different nozzle geometries result in different behaviour, therefore both spatial- and temporal cluster size distributions were studied to obtain a well-characterized cluster target. It is shown that the generally used Hagena scaling can result in a significant deviation from the observed data and the behaviour cannot be described by a single material condensation parameter. The results along with the nanoplasma model applied to the data of previous high harmonic generation experiments allow the independent measurement of cluster size and cluster density.

  • 25. Albert, Christian
    et al.
    Fürst, Christine
    Ring, Irene
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Research note: Spatial planning in Europe and Central Asia - Enhancing the consideration of biodiversity and ecosystem services2020Ingår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 196, artikel-id 103741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research note explores opportunities for spatial planning to enhance the consideration of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) in Europe and Central Asia. We refer to and build on the regional assessment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). We find that a targeted and integrated approach to spatial planning can substantially enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ES. Spatial planning is a key instrument to explore spatial implications of combined policies on biodiversity and ES, and to design synergistic solution strategies. Together with other legal and regulatory instruments, spatial planning represents the backbone of policy mixes for biodiversity and ES delivery. Promising strategies for enhancing biodiversity and ES implementation in spatial planning include (i) mapping spatially explicit biodiversity and ES information in appropriate resolution, (ii) developing methods and tools for integrating this information in planning practice, and (iii) fostering delivery mechanisms.

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  • 26.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Biologisk inventering av havsbottnar kring Örefjärden, Snöan och Bonden: Marinbiologisk inventering och naturvärdesbedömning av planerat marint naturreservat2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Inventering och naturvärdesbedömning av fyra kustnära havsområden i Västerbotten: Tavasten, Ostnäs, Juviken/Lillhavet och Kinnbäcksfjärden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En inventering och naturvärdesbedömning av fyra kustnära havsområden i Västerbottens län har genomförts. Inventeringen fokuserade på undervattensvegetation och består huvudsakligen av en visuell transektinventering genom video och dykning utförd av Umeå marina forskningscentrum 2007-2008. Kunskapsunderlaget har utökats genom att inkludera flera andra undersökningar. Totalt spänner underlaget över tidsperioden 1997-2012.

  • 28.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Miljöövervakning i Gaviksfjärden, Västernorrlands län: sammanställning och resultatanalys2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Undervattensvegetation i Holmöarnas naturreservat: Inventeringar och miljöövervakningar genomförda under åren 1997, 2004 och 20072008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Övervakning av makrovegetation i Bottniska viken: En utvärdering av pågående undersökningar och underlag för vidareutveckling2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Witzell, Johanna
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Wulff, Sören
    Luquez, Virginia MC
    Ågren, Rickard
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Large scale geographic clines of parasite damage to Populus tremula L2010Ingår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 483-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In conclusion, clines of Phyllocnistis were stronger and more persistent compared to Melampsora, which showed contrasting clines of varying strength. Our data thus support the assumption of the GMTC model that clines exist in the border between hot and cold spots and that they may be less persistent for parasites with an elevated gene flow, and/or for parasites which cover relatively larger hot spots surrounded by fewer cold spots.

  • 32.
    Aldea, Jorge
    et al.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lomma, Sweden.
    Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo
    Forest Research Center, INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; iuFOR, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Valladolid, Spain.
    del Río, Miren
    Forest Research Center, INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; iuFOR, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Valladolid, Spain.
    Pretzsch, Hans
    Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Heym, Michael
    Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Brazaitis, Gediminas
    Department of Forest Science, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Jansons, Aris
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Metslaid, Marek
    Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Barbeito, Ignacio
    Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada.
    Bielak, Kamil
    Department of Silviculture, Institute of Forest Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Hylen, Gro
    NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nothdurft, Arne
    Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Growth, BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Sitko, Roman
    Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resource Planning and Informatics, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Löf, Magnus
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lomma, Sweden.
    Timing and duration of drought modulate tree growth response in pure and mixed stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce2022Ingår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 2673-2683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Climate change is increasing the severity and frequency of droughts around the globe, leading to tree mortality that reduces production and provision of other ecosystem services. Recent studies show that growth of mixed stands may be more resilient to drought than pure stands. The two most economically important and widely distributed tree species in Europe are Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), but little is known about their susceptibility to drought when coexist.
    2. This paper analyses the resilience (resistance, recovery rate and recovery time) at individual-tree level using a network of tree-ring collections from 22 sites along a climatic gradient from central Europe to Scandinavia. We aimed to identify differences in growth following drought between the two species and between mixed and pure stands, and how environmental variables (climate, topography and site location) and tree characteristics influence them.
    3. We found that both the timing and duration of drought drive the different responses between species and compositions. Norway spruce showed higher vulnerability to summer drought, with both lower resistance and a longer recovery time than Scots pine. Mixtures provided higher drought resistance for both species compared to pure stands, but the benefit decreases with the duration of the drought. Especially climate sensitive and old trees in climatically marginal sites were more affected by drought stress.
    4. Synthesis. Promoting Scots pine and mixed forests is a promising strategy for adapting European forests to climate change. However, if future droughts become longer, the advantage of mixed stands could disappear which would be especially negative for Norway spruce.
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  • 33.
    Alewell, C
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leifeld, J
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon Research Station ART, Switzerland.
    Rollog, M
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for environmental change inpalsa peats2011Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 8, s. 1769-1778Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palsa peats are unique northern ecosystems formed under an arctic climate and characterized by a high biodiversity and sensitive ecology. The stability of the palsas are seriously threatened by climate warming which will change the permafrost dynamic and induce a degradation of the mires.

    We used stable carbon isotope depth profiles in two palsa mires of Northern Sweden to track environmental change during the formation of the mires. Soils dominated by aerobic degradation can be expected to have a clear increase of carbon isotopes (δ13C) with depth, due to preferential release of 12C during aerobic mineralization. In soils with suppressed degradation due to anoxic conditions, stable carbon isotope depth profiles are either more or less uniform indicating no or very low degradation or depth profiles turn to lighter values due to an enrichment of recalcitrant organic substances during anaerobic mineralisation which are depleted in 13C.

    The isotope depth profile of the peat in the water saturated depressions (hollows) at the yet undisturbed mire Storflaket indicated very low to no degradation but increased rates of anaerobic degradation at the Stordalen site. The latter might be induced by degradation of the permafrost cores in the uplifted areas (hummocks) and subsequent breaking and submerging of the hummock peat into the hollows due to climate warming. Carbon isotope depth profiles of hummocks indicated a turn from aerobic mineralisation to anaerobic degradation at a peat depth between 4 and 25 cm. The age of these turning points was 14C dated between 150 and 670 yr and could thus not be caused by anthropogenically induced climate change. We found the uplifting of the hummocks due to permafrost heave the most likely explanation for our findings. We thus concluded that differences in carbon isotope profiles of the hollows might point to the disturbance of the mires due to climate warming or due to differences in hydrology. The characteristic profiles of the hummocks are indicators for micro-geomorphic change during permafrost up heaving.

  • 34.
    Alewell, C
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leifeld, J
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Switzerland.
    Rollog, M
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats2011Ingår i: Biogeosciences Discussions, ISSN 1810-6277, E-ISSN 1810-6285, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 527-548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palsa peats are unique northern ecosystems formed under an arctic climate and characterizedby an unique biodiversity and ecology. The stability of the palsas are seriouslythreatened by climate warming which will change the permafrost dynamic and5 results in degradation of the mires. We used stable carbon isotope depth profiles intwo palsa mires of Northern Sweden to track environmental change during the formationof the mires. Carbon isotope (13C) depth profile of the yet undisturbed mireStorflaket indicated very low to no degradation of the peat in the water saturated depressions(hollows) but increased rates of anaerobic degradation at the Stordalen site.10 The latter might be induced by degradation of the permafrost cores in the uplifted areas(hummocks) and subsequent braking and submerging of the hummock peat intothe hollows due to climate warming. Carbon isotope depth profiles of hummocks indicateda turn from aerobic mineralisation to anaerobic degradation at a peat depthbetween 4 to 25 cm. The age of these turning point was 14C dated between 150 and15 670 years and could thus not be caused by anthropogenically induced climate change.We found the uplifting of the hummocks due to permafrost heave the most likely explanationfor our findings. We thus concluded that differences in carbon isotope profiles ofthe hollows might point to the disturbance of the mires due to climate warming or dueto differences in hydrology. The characteristic profiles of the hummocks are indicators20 for micro-geomorphic change during permafrost up heaving.

  • 35.
    Algesten, Grete
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Regulation of carbon dioxide emission from Swedish boreal lakes and the Gulf of Bothnia2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global carbon cycle is subject to intense research, where sources and sinks for greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide in particular, are estimated for various systems and biomes. Lakes have previously been neglected in carbon balance estimations, but have recently been recognized to be significant net sources of CO2.

    This thesis estimates emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from boreal lakes and factors regulating the CO2 saturation from field measurements of CO2 concentration along with a number of chemical, biological and physical parameters. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be the most important factor for CO2 saturation in lake water, whereas climatic parameters such as precipitation, temperature and global radiation were less influential. All lakes were supersaturated with and, thus, sources of CO2. Sediment incubation experiments indicated that in-lake mineralization processes during summer stratification mainly occurred in the pelagial. Approximately 10% of the CO2 emitted from the lake surface was produced in epilimnetic sediments.

    The mineralization of DOC and emission of CO2 from freshwaters was calculated on a catchment basis for almost 80,000 lakes and 21 major catchments in Sweden, together with rates of sedimentation in lakes and export of organic carbon to the sea. The total export of terrestrial organic carbon to freshwaters could thereby be estimated and consequently also the importance of lakes for the withdrawal of organic carbon export from terrestrial sources to the sea. Lakes removed 30-80% of imported terrestrial organic carbon, and mineralization and CO2 emission were much more important than sedimentation of carbon. The carbon loss was closely related to water retention time, where catchments with short residence times (<1 year) had low carbon retentions, whereas in catchments with long residence times (>3 years) a majority of the imported TOC was removed in the lake systems.

    The Gulf of Bothnia was also studied in this thesis and found to be a net heterotrophic system, emitting large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The rate of CO2 emission was depending on the balance between primary production and bacterial respiration, and the system was oscillating between being a source and a sink of CO2.

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  • 36.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Per
    Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251, Helsinki, Finland.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Department of Environmental Assessment, SLU, P.O. Box 7050, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rahm, Lars
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Räike, Antti
    Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FIN-00251, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Institute for Aquatic Sciences and Water Pollution Control, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH), Universitätsstr. 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, EBC, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia2006Ingår i: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 63, nr 3-4, s. 155-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculated input of organic carbon to the unproductive, brackish water basin of the Gulf of Bothnia from rivers, point sources and the atmosphere. We also calculated the net exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the adjacent marine system, the Baltic Proper. We compared the input with sinks for organic carbon; permanent incorporation in sediments and mineralization and subsequent evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere. The major fluxes were riverine input (1500 Gg C year− 1), exchange with the Baltic Proper (depending on which of several possible DOC concentration differences between the basins that was used in the calculation, the flux varied between an outflow of 466 and an input of 950 Gg C year 1), sediment burial (1100 Gg C year− 1) and evasion to the atmosphere (3610 Gg C year− 1). The largest single net flux was the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, mainly caused by bacterial mineralization of organic carbon. Input and output did not match in our budget which we ascribe uncertainties in the calculation of the exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, and the fact that CO2 emission, which in our calculation represented 1 year (2002) may have been overestimated in comparison with long-term means. We conclude that net heterotrophy of the Gulf of Bothnia was due to input of organic carbon from both the catchment and from the Baltic Proper and that the future degree of net heterotrophy will be sensible to both catchment export of organic carbon and to the ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Proper.

  • 37.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Sobek, Sobek
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tranvik, Lars T.
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Seasonal variation of CO2 saturation in the Gulf of Bothnia: Indications of marine net heterotrophy2004Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 18, s. 4021-4028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal variation of pCO2 and primary and bacterioplankton production were measured in the Gulf of Bothnia during an annual cycle. Surface water was supersaturated with CO2 on an annual basis, indicating net heterotrophy and a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, the Gulf of Bothnia oscillated between being a sink and a source of CO2 over the studied period, largely decided by temporal variation in bacterial respiration (BR) and primary production (PP) in the water column above the pycnocline. The calculated annual respiration-production balance (BR-PP) was very similar to the estimated CO2 emission from the Gulf of Bothnia, which indicates that these processes were major determinants of the exchange of CO2 between water and atmosphere. The southern basin (the Bothnian Sea) had a lower net release of CO2 to the atmosphere than the northern Bothnian Bay (7.1 and 9.7 mmol C m−2 d−1, respectively), due to higher primary production, which to a larger extent balanced respiration in this basin.

  • 38. Allan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Le Roux, Gael
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Piotrowska, Natalia
    Sikorski, Jaroslaw
    Fagel, Nathalie
    High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium2013Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 178, s. 381-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years.

    (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Allegrini, Elisa
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Boldrin, Alessio
    Tech Univ Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lundtorp, Kasper
    Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fruergaard Astrup, Thomas
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant2014Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 270, s. 127-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. 

  • 40. Allen, Derek
    et al.
    Bateman, Mark
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Hartmann, Dan
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Coope, Russell
    Department of Geological Sciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK.
    Stratigraphy, dates and insect faunas from the Lateglacial site at Barmston, East Yorkshire2023Ingår i: The Naturalist, ISSN 0028-0771, Vol. 148, s. 81-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Quaternary deposits on the Yorkshire coast southwards from Sewerby Cliff in Bridlington Bay to Dimlington north of Spurn Point (Figs. 1a-1c, p82) have been the subject of stratigraphic and palaeontological research for well over a century (Bateman et al., 2011; Catt, 2007 and references therein, Evans et al., 1995). The region contains the type-site for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Britain at Dimlington (Rose, 1985) and extensive outcrops of at least three glacial diamicts, locally the Basement, Skipsea and Withernsea Tills, indicating the dynamic nature of the North Sea ice lobe during the final stages of the British and Irish Icesheet (BIIS). Work by Bateman et al. (2015) indicates that the Skipsea and Withernsea Tills represent icesheets that were present across Holderness for less than 6 ka between 20.9 and 15.1 ka BP before retreating north and east. However, the deglaciation remains insufficiently constrained, with a hiatus between the preserved glacial deposits and the earliest Lateglacial sequences at Gransmoor and Roos Bog (Walker et al., 1993; Beckett, 1981). Organic sediments directly overlying glacial till have been examined at Barmston which provide additional evidence of Lateglacial environments and climate in Holderness. This paper presents fossil insect and chronological evidence from coastal exposures from which climatic reconstructions can be made.

  • 41. Almeida, Nazare da Silva
    et al.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique Oliveira
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Thematic Studies–Environmental Change, Linköping University, Hus Temahuset, Campus Valla, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Teixeira, C.A.S.
    Bertassoli Jr., D.J.
    Furukawa, L.Y.
    Pelissari, M.
    Sawakuchi, A.O.
    Incubation experiments to constrain the production of methane and carbon dioxide in organic-rich shales of the Permian Irati Formation, Parana Basin2020Ingår i: Marine and Petroleum Geology, ISSN 0264-8172, E-ISSN 1873-4073, Vol. 112, artikel-id 104039Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Permian Irati Formation in Brazil hosts organic-rich shales and heavy hydrocarbons suitable for biogenic production of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, shale samples from the irati Formation were used in laboratory incubation experiments performed under different temperatures (22 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 70 degrees C and 80 degrees C) to evaluate the generation of CH4 and CO2 under thermal conditions compatible with biodegradation in shallow gas systems (< 80 degrees C). Despite our laboratory experiments do not represent natural subsurface temperature conditions, it is observed that the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 increase when shale samples are incubated under temperature higher than 22 degrees C. Samples incubated at 80 degrees C presented a maximum CH4 yield of 2.45 ml/t.d (milliliter per ton of shale per day) compared to 0,49 ml/t.d at 22 degrees C, 1.75 ml/t.d at 50 degrees C and 2.09 ml/t.d at 70 degrees C. The same trend of increasing production rates with higher temperatures was observed for CO2, with maximum potential production observed under a laboratory temperature of 80 degrees C, reaching 23.47 ml/t.d. Stable carbon isotopes (delta C-13) on CH4 and CO2 suggest a mixture of thermogenic and secondary microbial gas. However, the measured CH4 and CO2 can be generated through methanogenic degradation of heavy hydrocarbons present in the studied shales, difficulting the use of carbon isotope composition to discriminate between biogenic and thermogenic gases. The studied shale samples showed significant differences in CH4 and CO2 production rates, which are possibly related to the major elements composition of the mineral matrix. Higher CH4 and CO2 production rates occurred in samples with higher amount of sulfur. Besides sulfur, we highlight that others soluble elements in the mineral matrix, such as Ca and Mg, can play an important role for the generation of biogenic CH4 and CO2. The present work intends to alert for the importance of thermal conditions as well as the geochemical composition of the mineral matrix to build conceptual models about shallow gas systems, acting on organic-rich shales in sedimentary basins.

  • 42. Altarawneh, Mohammednoor
    et al.
    Saeed, Anam
    Siddique, Kamal
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.
    Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from oxidation of brominated flame retardants (BFRs)2020Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 400, artikel-id 123166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic rings constitute main structural entities in virtually all commercially deployed brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Oxidative decomposition of BFRs liberates appreciable quantities of bromobenzenes (BBzs). This contribution reports experimental measurements for the generation of notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from oxidation of monobromobenzene (MBBz). In the light of developed product profiles, we map out reaction pathways and report kinetic parameters for PBDFs and PBDEs formation from coupling reactions of MBBz molecule and its derived ortho-bromophenoxy (o-BPhxy) radical using quantum chemical calculations. The identification and quantitation of product species involve the use of gas chromatograph - triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-QQQMS) operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Bimolecular reactions of MBBz and o-BPhxy result in the generation of twelve pre-PBDF intermediates, of which four can also serve as building blocks for the synthesis of PBDEs. These four intermediates are denoted as pre-PBDE/pre-PBDF, with the remaining eight symbolised as pre-PBDF. The resonance-stabilised structure of the o-BPhxy radical accumulates more spin density character on its phenoxy O atom (30.9 %) in reference to ortho-C and para-C sites. Thus, the formation of the pre-PBDE/pre-PBDF structures via O/o-C couplings advances faster as it requires lower activation enthalpies (79.2 – 84.9 kJ mol−1) than the pre-PBDF moieties, which arise via pairing reactions involving o-C(H or Br)/o-C(H or Br) sites (97.2 – 180.2 kJ mol−1). Kinetic analysis indicates that, the O/o-C pre-PBDE/pre-PBDF adducts self-eject the out-of-plane H atoms to produce PBDEs, rather than undergo a three-step mechanism forming PBDFs. However, experimental measurements demonstrate PBDEs appearing in lower yields as compared to those of PBDFs; presumably due to H- and Br-induced conversion of the PBDEs into PBDFs following a simple ring-closure reaction. High reaction temperatures facilitate loss of ortho Br atom from PBDEs, followed by cyclisation step to generate PBDFs. PBDFs are observed in a narrow temperature range of 700–850 °C, whereas PBDEs form between 550–850 °C. Since formation mechanisms of PBDFs and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are typically only sensitive to the bromination at ortho positions, the results reported herein apply also to higher brominated isomers of BBzs.

  • 43. Althuizen, Inge H. J.
    et al.
    Lee, Hanna
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584, CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Long-Term climate regime modulates the impact of short-term climate variability on decomposition in alpine grassland soils2018Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1580-1592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is an important process in the terrestrial carbon cycle and makes up approximately 70% of the global carbon flux from soils to the atmosphere. Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on the litter decomposition processes at various timescales. Using the TeaBag Index, we investigated the impact on decomposition of short-term direct effects of temperature and precipitation by comparing temporal variability over years, versus long-term climate impacts that incorporate indirect effects mediated through environmental changes by comparing sites along climatic gradients. We measured the initial decomposition rate (k) and the stabilization factor (S; amount of labile litter stabilizing) across a climate grid combining three levels of summer temperature (6.5-10.5 degrees C) with four levels of annual precipitation (600-2700 mm) in three summers with varying temperature and precipitation. Several (a)biotic factors were measured to characterize environmental differences between sites. Increased temperatures enhanced k, whereas increased precipitation decreased k across years and climatic regimes. In contrast, S showed diverse responses to annual changes in temperature and precipitation between climate regimes. Stabilization of labile litter fractions increased with temperature only in boreal and sub-alpine sites, while it decreased with increasing precipitation only in sub-alpine and alpine sites. Environmental factors such as soil pH, soil C/N, litter C/N, and plant diversity that are associated with long-term climate variation modulate the response of k and S. This highlights the importance of long-term climate in shaping the environmental conditions that influences the response of decomposition processes to climate change.

  • 44. Alves-Martins, Fernanda
    et al.
    Calatayud, Joaquín
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Departament of Biogeography and Global Change, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Medina, Nagore G.
    De Marco, Paulo
    Juen, Leandro
    Hortal, Joaquin
    Drivers of regional and local diversity of Amazonian stream Odonata2019Ingår i: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, E-ISSN 1752-4598, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 251-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large Amazonian rivers may act as dispersal barriers for animals with low dispersal abilities, limiting their distribution to certain interfluves. Consequently, the distribution of these taxa would be less affected by macroclimatic gradients. Conversely, high-dispersal taxa would be less constrained by large rivers and may track suitable climates. We evaluate whether Zygoptera and Anisoptera, two Odonata suborders with different dispersal abilities, show differences in distribution patterns across Amazonian interfluves. We further assess the relative importance of macroclimatic and habitat factors in their community assembly. We used network modularity analyses to identify biogeographic species pools and spatial buffers to define metacommunity species pools. Then, we used structural equationmodels to estimate the relative importance of multi-scale factors on species richness patterns. Zygoptera communities are more similar in species composition within than between interfluves, suggesting that large Amazonian rivers indeed limit the distribution of Zygoptera species. Conversely, the distribution of Anisoptera extends across Amazonian interfluves. Seasonality has a strong positive effect on Zygoptera and Anisoptera richness across scales. In addition, habitat integrity is negatively correlated with the regional species richness and abundance of Anisoptera and positively correlated with Zygoptera local richness. The contrasting effects of habitat integrity on Anisoptera and Zygoptera suggest that the former is favored in open habitats, whereas the latter is so in forests. Despite these differences, both suborders appear to follow similar community assembly mechanisms in Amazonia, with a strong climatic control across scales and an effect of habitat filters on local communities.

  • 45. Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Risberg, Jan
    Lotter, André F
    Veres, Daniel
    Modest summer temperature variability during DO cycles in western Europe2010Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 29, nr 11/12, s. 1322-1327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abrupt climatic shifts between cold stadials and warm interstadials, termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles, occurred frequently during the Last Glacial. Their imprint is registered in paleorecords worldwide, but little is known about the actual temperature change both annually and seasonally in different regions. A recent hypothesis based on modelling studies, suggests that DO cycles were characterised by distinct changes in seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere. The largest temperature change between stadial and interstadial phases would have occurred during the winter and spring seasons, whereas the summer seasons would have experienced a rather muted temperature shift. Here we present a temporally high-resolved reconstruction of summer temperatures for eastern France during a sequence of DO cycles between 36 and 18 thousand years before present. The reconstruction is based on fossil diatom assemblages from the paleolake Les Echets and indicates summer temperature changes of ca 0.5–2 °C between stadials and interstadials. This study is the first to reconstruct temperatures with a sufficient time resolution to investigate DO climate variability in continental Europe. It is therefore also the first proxy record that can test and support the hypothesis that temperature changes during DO cycles were modest during the summer season.

  • 46. Anderson, N. John
    et al.
    Saros, Jasmine E.
    Bullard, Joanna E.
    Cahoon, Sean M. P.
    Mcgowan, Suzanne
    Bagshaw, Elizabeth A.
    Barry, Christopher D.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Burpee, Benjamin T.
    Carrivick, Jonathan L.
    Fowler, Rachel A.
    Fox, Anthony D.
    Fritz, Sherilyn C.
    Giles, Madeleine E.
    Hamerlik, Ladislav
    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas
    Law, Antonia C.
    Mernild, Sebastian H.
    Northington, Robert M.
    Osburn, Christopher L.
    Pla-Rabes, Sergi
    Post, Eric
    Telling, Jon
    Stroud, David A.
    Whiteford, Erika J.
    Yallop, Marian L.
    Yde, Jacob C.
    The Arctic in the Twenty-First Century: Changing Biogeochemical Linkages across a Paraglacial Landscape of Greenland2017Ingår i: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 118-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kangerlussuaq area of southwest Greenland encompasses diverse ecological, geomorphic, and climate gradients that function over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Ecosystems range from the microbial communities on the ice sheet and moisture-stressed terrestrial vegetation (and their associated herbivores) to freshwater and oligosaline lakes. These ecosystems are linked by a dynamic glacio-fluvial-aeolian geomorphic system that transports water, geological material, organic carbon and nutrients from the glacier surface to adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems. This paraglacial system is now subject to substantial change because of rapid regional warming since 2000. Here, we describe changes in the eco-and geomorphic systems at a range of timescales and explore rapid future change in the links that integrate these systems. We highlight the importance of cross-system subsidies at the landscape scale and, importantly, how these might change in the near future as the Arctic is expected to continue to warm.

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  • 47. Anderson, N.J.
    et al.
    Appleby, P.G.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Renberg, I.
    Conley, D.J.
    Fritz, S.C.
    Jones, V.J.
    Whiteford, E.J.
    Yang, H
    Landscape-Scale Variability of Organic Carbon Burial by SW Greenland Lakes2019Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 1706-1720Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lakes are a key feature of arctic landscapes and can be an important component of regional organic carbon (OC) budgets, but C burial rates are not well estimated. 210Pb-dated sediment cores and carbon and organic matter (as loss-on-ignition) content were used to estimate OC burial for 16 lakes in SW Greenland. Burial rates were corrected for sediment focusing using the 210Pb flux method. The study lakes span a range of water chemistries (conductivity range 25–3400 µS cm−1), areas (< 4–100 ha) and maximum depths (~ 10–50 m). The regional average focusing-corrected OC accumulation rate was ~ 2 g C m−2 y−1 prior to ~ 1950 and 3.6 g C m−2 y−1 after 1950. Among-lake variability in post-1950 OC AR was correlated with in-lake dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity, altitude and location along the fjord. Twelve lakes showed an increase in mean OC AR over the analyzed time period, ~ 1880–2000; as the study area was cooling until recently, this increase is probably attributable to other global change processes, for example, altered inputs of N or P. There are ~ 20,000 lakes in the study area ranging from ~ 1 ha to more than 130 km2, although over 83% of lakes are less than 10 ha. Extrapolating the mean post-1950 OC AR (3.6 g C m−2 y−1) to all lakes larger than 1000 ha and applying a lower rate of ~ 2 g C m−2 y−1 to large lakes (> 1000 ha) suggests a regional annual lake OC burial rate of ~ 10.14 × 109 g C y−1 post 1950. Given the low C content of soils in this area, lakes represent a substantial regional C store.

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  • 48. Anderssen, C.
    et al.
    Lindgren, R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carvalho, R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Malmborg, V.
    Ahlberg, E.
    García-López, N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, A.
    Kristensen, T.B.
    Svenningsson, B.
    Boman, C.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Pagels, J.
    SOA Formation and Particle Characteristics in the Emissions from Biomass Cook Stoves Used in the Developing Countries2017Ingår i: SOA Formation and Particle Characteristics in the Emissions from Biomass Cook Stoves Used in the Developing Countries, 2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlson, Bengt
    DNA-streckkodning kompletterar traditionell planktonanalys2020Ingår i: Sveriges vattenmiljö - KunskapsbankArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att filtrera några deciliter havsvatten och analysera DNA-innehållet ger snabbt svaret på vilka växtplankton som finns i våra hav. Det låter kanske som science fiction, men målet för projektet "DNA-streckkodning av marina växtplankton" är att tekniken ska vara redo för den svenska miljöövervakningen redan 2022.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Division of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Kratzer, S.
    Legrand, C.
    Influence of allochthonous dissolved organic matter on pelagic basal production in a northerly estuary2018Ingår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 204, s. 225-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered.

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