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  • 1. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Bowden, William B.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    Aiken, George R.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Bishop, Kevin
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Breen, Amy L.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Cai, Yihua
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Carey, Sean K.
    Chen, Jing M.
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    de Groot, William J.
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fetcher, Ned
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Gough, Laura
    Grogan, Paul
    Guo, Laodong
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Hinzman, Larry
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jandt, Randi
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Kelly, Ryan
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kling, George W.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Kouki, Jari
    Kuhry, Peter
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Mann, Paul J.
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    McClelland, James W.
    Molau, Ulf
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pare, David
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Payette, Serge
    Peng, Changhui
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Reynolds, James F.
    Robards, Martin
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Schaedel, Christina
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Sky, Jasper
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Starr, Gregory
    Striegl, Robert G.
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Zimov, Sergei
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 034014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 2. Abegg, Bruno
    et al.
    Morin, Samuel
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    François, H.
    Rothleitner, M.
    Strasser, U.
    Overloaded!: Critical revision and a new conceptual approach for snow indicators in ski tourism2021Inngår i: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 691-701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indicators are widely used in climate variability and climate change assessments to simplify the tracking of complex processes and phenomena in the state of the environment. Apart from the climatic criteria, the snow indicators in ski tourism have been increasingly extended with elements that relate to the technical, operational, and commercial aspects of ski tourism. These non-natural influencing factors have gained in importance in comparison with the natural environmental conditions but are more difficult to comprehend in time and space, resulting in limited explanatory power of the related indicators when applied for larger/longer scale assessments. We review the existing indicator approaches to derive quantitative measures for the snow conditions in ski areas, to formulate the criteria that the indicators should fulfill, and to provide a list of indicators with their technical specifications which can be used in snow condition assessments for ski tourism. For the use of these indicators, a three-step procedure consisting of definition, application, and interpretation is suggested. We also provide recommendations for the design of indicator-based assessments of climate change effects on ski tourism. Thereby, we highlight the importance of extensive stakeholder involvement to allow for real-world relevance of the achieved results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Abreu, Clare I.
    et al.
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Bello, Martina Dal
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Bunse, Carina
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution of Microbial Model Systems, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gore, Jeff
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Warmer temperatures favor slower-growing bacteria in natural marine communities2023Inngår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 9, nr 19, artikkel-id eade8352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth’s life-sustaining oceans harbor diverse bacterial communities that display varying composition across time and space. While particular patterns of variation have been linked to a range of factors, unifying rules are lacking, preventing the prediction of future changes. Here, analyzing the distribution of fast- and slow-growing bacteria in ocean datasets spanning seasons, latitude, and depth, we show that higher seawater temperatures universally favor slower-growing taxa, in agreement with theoretical predictions of how temperature-dependent growth rates differentially modulate the impact of mortality on species abundances. Changes in bacterial community structure promoted by temperature are independent of variations in nutrients along spatial and temporal gradients. Our results help explain why slow growers dominate at the ocean surface, during summer, and near the tropics and provide a framework to understand how bacterial communities will change in a warmer world.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 4.
    Aguirre Salcedo, Citlali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    To move or not to move: assessing the viability of translocating Mimosa luisana for climate adaptation in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, MexicoManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is threatening range-restricted species world-wide, but assessments of vulnerability is lacking in many areas, especially in tropical mountain regions. We assessed the vulnerability of the tropical dry forest species Mimosa luisana, an important nurse plant facilitating the establishment of other species, and provider of ecosystem services to local communities. We projected changes in the geographic distribution and extent of the climatic envelope of M. luisana for the periods 2021-2040, 2041-2060, 2061-2080, using the Maximun Entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt). We also tested the response of local provenances of M. luisana to different climate change scenarios by transplanting them to new elevations. 

    We found that new areas at higher elevation will become climatically suitable for M. luisana in the future, without losing its current geographic range, so that its geographic range may expand by between 50% and 313%. Transplantation showed that M. luisana can grow and survive in a wide range of conditions. Moreover, M. luisana was able to survive when translocated 700 m upwards, to areas above its current elevational limit. 

    We conclude that M. luisana is not in need of assisted migration to escape climate-related extinction, but translocation to areas that become climatically suitable may be beneficial to its conservation. The species may be used in ecological restoration projects in a wide range of conditions, including beyond its present range, increasing the likelihood of success in present and future ecological restoration actions. However, we acknowledge the need for assessing the climate-change effects on reproduction and the dispersal capacity of the species. 

  • 5.
    Aldea, Jorge
    et al.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lomma, Sweden.
    Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo
    Forest Research Center, INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; iuFOR, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Valladolid, Spain.
    del Río, Miren
    Forest Research Center, INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; iuFOR, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Valladolid, Spain.
    Pretzsch, Hans
    Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Heym, Michael
    Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Brazaitis, Gediminas
    Department of Forest Science, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Jansons, Aris
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Metslaid, Marek
    Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Barbeito, Ignacio
    Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada.
    Bielak, Kamil
    Department of Silviculture, Institute of Forest Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Hylen, Gro
    NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nothdurft, Arne
    Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Growth, BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Sitko, Roman
    Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resource Planning and Informatics, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Löf, Magnus
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lomma, Sweden.
    Timing and duration of drought modulate tree growth response in pure and mixed stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce2022Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 2673-2683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Climate change is increasing the severity and frequency of droughts around the globe, leading to tree mortality that reduces production and provision of other ecosystem services. Recent studies show that growth of mixed stands may be more resilient to drought than pure stands. The two most economically important and widely distributed tree species in Europe are Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), but little is known about their susceptibility to drought when coexist.
    2. This paper analyses the resilience (resistance, recovery rate and recovery time) at individual-tree level using a network of tree-ring collections from 22 sites along a climatic gradient from central Europe to Scandinavia. We aimed to identify differences in growth following drought between the two species and between mixed and pure stands, and how environmental variables (climate, topography and site location) and tree characteristics influence them.
    3. We found that both the timing and duration of drought drive the different responses between species and compositions. Norway spruce showed higher vulnerability to summer drought, with both lower resistance and a longer recovery time than Scots pine. Mixtures provided higher drought resistance for both species compared to pure stands, but the benefit decreases with the duration of the drought. Especially climate sensitive and old trees in climatically marginal sites were more affected by drought stress.
    4. Synthesis. Promoting Scots pine and mixed forests is a promising strategy for adapting European forests to climate change. However, if future droughts become longer, the advantage of mixed stands could disappear which would be especially negative for Norway spruce.
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6. Althuizen, Inge H. J.
    et al.
    Lee, Hanna
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584, CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Long-Term climate regime modulates the impact of short-term climate variability on decomposition in alpine grassland soils2018Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1580-1592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is an important process in the terrestrial carbon cycle and makes up approximately 70% of the global carbon flux from soils to the atmosphere. Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on the litter decomposition processes at various timescales. Using the TeaBag Index, we investigated the impact on decomposition of short-term direct effects of temperature and precipitation by comparing temporal variability over years, versus long-term climate impacts that incorporate indirect effects mediated through environmental changes by comparing sites along climatic gradients. We measured the initial decomposition rate (k) and the stabilization factor (S; amount of labile litter stabilizing) across a climate grid combining three levels of summer temperature (6.5-10.5 degrees C) with four levels of annual precipitation (600-2700 mm) in three summers with varying temperature and precipitation. Several (a)biotic factors were measured to characterize environmental differences between sites. Increased temperatures enhanced k, whereas increased precipitation decreased k across years and climatic regimes. In contrast, S showed diverse responses to annual changes in temperature and precipitation between climate regimes. Stabilization of labile litter fractions increased with temperature only in boreal and sub-alpine sites, while it decreased with increasing precipitation only in sub-alpine and alpine sites. Environmental factors such as soil pH, soil C/N, litter C/N, and plant diversity that are associated with long-term climate variation modulate the response of k and S. This highlights the importance of long-term climate in shaping the environmental conditions that influences the response of decomposition processes to climate change.

  • 7. Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Risberg, Jan
    Lotter, André F
    Veres, Daniel
    Modest summer temperature variability during DO cycles in western Europe2010Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 29, nr 11/12, s. 1322-1327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abrupt climatic shifts between cold stadials and warm interstadials, termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles, occurred frequently during the Last Glacial. Their imprint is registered in paleorecords worldwide, but little is known about the actual temperature change both annually and seasonally in different regions. A recent hypothesis based on modelling studies, suggests that DO cycles were characterised by distinct changes in seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere. The largest temperature change between stadial and interstadial phases would have occurred during the winter and spring seasons, whereas the summer seasons would have experienced a rather muted temperature shift. Here we present a temporally high-resolved reconstruction of summer temperatures for eastern France during a sequence of DO cycles between 36 and 18 thousand years before present. The reconstruction is based on fossil diatom assemblages from the paleolake Les Echets and indicates summer temperature changes of ca 0.5–2 °C between stadials and interstadials. This study is the first to reconstruct temperatures with a sufficient time resolution to investigate DO climate variability in continental Europe. It is therefore also the first proxy record that can test and support the hypothesis that temperature changes during DO cycles were modest during the summer season.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI och Stockholms universitet.
    Hur påverkas Östersjön?2010Inngår i: Sverige i nytt klimat: våtvarm utmaning / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2010, s. 117-132Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB, Nacka, Sweden; Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Environment, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Road Salt Damage to Historical Milestones Indicates Adaptation of Winter Roads to Future Climate Change May Damage Arctic Cultural Heritage2021Inngår i: Climate, E-ISSN 2225-1154, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikkel-id 149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no doubt that anthropogenic global warming is accelerating damage to cultural heritage. Adaptation measures are required to reduce the loss of sites, monuments and remains. However, little research has been directed towards understanding potential impacts of climate adaptation measures in other governmental sectors on cultural heritage. We provide a case study demonstrating that winter road salt, used to reduce ice related accidents, damages historical iron milestones. As the climate warms, road salt use will move north into areas where sites have been protected by contiguous winter snow cover. This will expose Artic/sub-Arctic cultural heritage, including Viking graves and Sami sites, to a new anthropogenic source of damage. Research and planning should therefore include the evaluation of secondary impacts when choosing climate adaptation strategies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Fröjmark Svanström, Karin
    KMV Forum AB.
    Eriksson, Camilla
    KMV Forum AB.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI).
    Effekter av vintervägsaltning på kulturmiljö. En pilotstudie av fornlämningskategorin milstolpe2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En semikvantitativ pilotstudie av 72 milstolpar (35 av kalksten och 37 av gjutjärn) i Södermanlands respektive Östergötlands län har genomförts med syftet att studera sambandet mellan vintervägsalt-ning och milstolparnas skador. Milstolparnas skador har klassats utifrån högupplösta fotografier, dess avstånd från vägen och framsidans väderstreck. Rapporten visar att vissa delar av milstolpen är mer skadade än andra och att en trolig orsak till detta för gjutjärnsstolparna är vintervägsalt. Sambandet är inte lika tydligt för kalkstensstolpar där studien uppmanar till fördjupade undersökningar. Den förenklade och relativt kostnadseffektiva semikvantitativa metodiken framtagen i denna pilotstudie har visat sig fungera och har potentialen att förfinas.

  • 11.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    A society ill-equipped to deal with the effects of climate change on cultural heritage and landscape: a qualitative assessment of planning practices in transport infrastructure2021Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 166, nr 1, artikkel-id 18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides insights into the handling of climate change issues related to cultural heritage at different government decision levels dealing with physical planning, and in particular roads. Data are derived from a qualitative analysis of official reports and interviews with local and regional planners in three Swedish regions with contrasting climates. The theoretical lens of Institutional Interplay is applied to an analysis grouped into six themes: Climate threats to cultural heritage, Adaptation measures, Preparedness, Institutional preconditions, Institutional interplay, and Challenges. The results suggest that despite a strong environmental reputation internationally, Sweden is not particularly well prepared for dealing with future climate change impacts on cultural heritage and landscape. The lack of national standards and standardised methods risks regional and sectoral variation in the treatment of similar tasks, a problem which deficiencies in knowledge and continuing education are perpetuating. The degree to which discussions and cooperation occur between divisions within the same authority, between authorities, and in national networks varies considerably. Routines and criteria for prioritisation of cultural heritage mitigation, essential under conditions of limited resources, have yet to have been implemented. We conclude with five recommendations for improving the planning process with respect to climate change risks to cultural heritage.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Fröjmark Svanström, Karin
    KMV Forum AB.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Romlinsson, Simon
    Larsson, Andreas
    Eriksson, Camilla
    KMV Forum AB.
    Eriksson, Love
    Ekberg, Stina
    KMV Forum AB.
    Kulturhistoriska värden i ett förändrat klimat. Hot, risker och hanteringkopplat till vägar och banor2021Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringar utgör en bred palett av risker för kulturmiljö och landskap,inklusive de kulturhistoriska lämningar som har en nära eller direkt kopplingtill transportinfrastruktur. I detta projekt tittade vi på ett antal av dessa riskeri syfte att hjälpa Trafikverket att utveckla tjänster för bättre förutsägelse ochhantering av riskerna i anslutning till vägar och banor. Forskningen inleddesgenom en översikt av befintliga offentliga publikationer om klimatförändringenshot, risker, metoder, anpassningsåtgärder och kulturmiljö. Detta följdesav en undersökning av upplevelsen av dessa frågor bland offentligt anställdaexperter som medverkar i planeringen. Geografiska informationssystem (GIS)användes för att identifiera kulturhistoriska lämningar som är klimatologisktriskutsatta sig i riskzonen för tre undersökningsområden, följt av fältbesökför att bedöma tillförlitligheten i GIS-resultaten. Analysen visade att en enkelGIS-analys kan vara till hjälp för att identifiera riskutsatta platser, men ocksåatt fältarbete kan medverka till att identifiera ytterligare risker men också problemmed noggrannheten i underliggande datamaterial. Projektet tillhandahållerockså grundläggande statistik om i vilken utsträckning olika typer avkulturhistoriska lämningar på nationell nivå riskerar att hotas enligt nuvarandeklimatförändringsmodeller. Projektet genomförde också fallstudier av 1) vägsaltetsrisker för milstolpar och andra arkeologiska företeelser i anslutning tillvägar, och 2) de historiska kartornas potential att användas för att identifierariskutsatta områden vid framtida klimatförändringar. Slutligen diskuteras konsekvensernaav dessa resultat för prioriteringar av klimatanpassningsaktivitetersamt presenterar förslag på metoder och modeller för att identifiera transportinfrastrukturenskulturmiljöer som är hotas av klimatförändringar.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Rapport
  • 13. Arndt, D. S.
    et al.
    Blunden, J.
    Hartfield, G.
    Ackerman, Steven A.
    Adler, Robert
    Alfaro, Eric J.
    Allan, Richard P.
    Allan, Rob
    Alves, Lincoln M.
    Amador, Jorge A.
    Andreassen, L. M.
    Argueez, Anthony
    Arndt, Derek S.
    Azorin-Molina, Cesar
    Baez, Julian
    Bardin, M. U.
    Barichivich, Jonathan
    Baringer, Molly O.
    Barreira, Sandra
    Baxter, Stephen
    Beck, H. E.
    Becker, Andreas
    Bedka, Kristopher M.
    Bell, Gerald D.
    Belmont, M.
    Benedetti, Angela
    Berrisford, Paul
    Berry, David I.
    Bhatt, U. S.
    Bissolli, Peter
    Bjerke, J.
    Blake, Eric S.
    Bosilovich, Michael G.
    Boucher, Olivier
    Box, J. E.
    Boyer, Tim
    Braathen, Geir O.
    Bromwich, David H.
    Brown, R.
    Buehler, S.
    Bulygina, Olga N.
    Burgess, D.
    Calderon, Blanca
    Camargo, Suzana J.
    Campbell, Jayaka D.
    Cappelen, J.
    Carrea, Laura
    Carter, Brendan R.
    Chambers, Don P.
    Cheng, Ming-Dean
    Christiansen, Hanne H.
    Christy, John R.
    Chung, E. -S
    Clem, Kyle R.
    Coelho, Caio A. S.
    Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie
    Colwell, Steve
    Cooper, Owen R.
    Copland, L.
    Crouch, Jake
    Davis, Sean M.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    de Jeu, Richard A. M.
    de Laat, Jos
    DeGasperi, Curtis L.
    Degenstein, Doug
    Demircan, M.
    Derksen, C.
    Di Girolamo, Larry
    Diamond, Howard J.
    Dlugokencky, Ed J.
    Dohan, Kathleen
    Dokulil, Martin T.
    Dolman, A. Johannes
    Domingues, Catia M.
    Donat, Markus G.
    Dong, Shenfu
    Dorigo, Wouter A.
    Drozdov, D. S.
    Dunn, Robert J. H.
    Dutton, Geoff S.
    ElKharrim, M.
    Elkins, James W.
    Epstein, H. E.
    Espinoza, Jhan C.
    Famiglietti, James S.
    Farrell, S.
    Fausto, R. S.
    Feely, Richard A.
    Feng, Z.
    Fenimore, Chris
    Fettweis, X.
    Fioletov, Vitali E.
    Flemming, Johannes
    Fogt, Ryan L.
    Folland, Chris
    Forbes, B. C.
    Foster, Michael J.
    Francis, S. D.
    Franz, Bryan A.
    Frey, Richard A.
    Frith, Stacey M.
    Froidevaux, Lucien
    Ganter, Catherine
    Gerland, S.
    Gilson, John
    Gobron, Nadine
    Goldenberg, Stanley B.
    Goni, Gustavo
    Grooss, J. -U
    Gruber, Alexander
    Guard, Charles
    Gupta, S. K.
    Gutierrez, J. M.
    Haas, C.
    Hagos, S.
    Hahn, Sebastian
    Haimberger, Leo
    Hall, Brad D.
    Halpert, Michael S.
    Hamlington, Benjamin D.
    Hanna, E.
    Hanssen-Bauer, I
    Harris, Ian
    Heidinger, Andrew K.
    Heim, Richard R., Jr.
    Hendricks, S.
    Hernandez, Marieta
    Hernandez, Rafael
    Hidalgo, Hugo G.
    Ho, Shu-peng
    Hobbs, William R.
    Huang, Boyin
    Hurst, Dale F.
    Ialongo, I.
    Ijampy, J. A.
    Inness, Antje
    Isaksen, K.
    Ishii, Masayoshi
    Jevrejeva, Svetlana
    Jimenez, C.
    Xiangze, Jin
    John, Viju
    Johns, William E.
    Johnsen, B.
    Johnson, Bryan
    Johnson, Gregory C.
    Johnson, Kenneth S.
    Jones, Philip D.
    Jumaux, Guillaume
    Kabidi, Khadija
    Kaiser, J. W.
    Kato, Seiji
    Kazemi, A.
    Keller, Linda M.
    Kennedy, John
    Kerr, Kenneth
    Kholodov, A. L.
    Khoshkam, Mahbobeh
    Killick, Rachel
    Kim, Hyungjun
    Kim, S. -J
    Klotzbach, Philip J.
    Knaff, John A.
    Kohler, J.
    Korhonen, Johanna
    Korshunova, Natalia N.
    Kramarova, Natalya
    Kratz, D. P.
    Kruger, Andries
    Kruk, Michael C.
    Krumpen, T.
    Lakatos, M.
    Lakkala, K.
    Lander, Mark A.
    Landschuetzer, Peter
    Landsea, Chris W.
    Lankhorst, Matthias
    Lazzara, Matthew A.
    Leuliette, Eric
    L'Heureux, Michelle
    Lieser, Jan L.
    Lin, I-I
    Liu, Hongxing
    Liu, Yinghui
    Locarnini, Ricardo
    Loeb, Norman G.
    Long, Craig S.
    Lorrey, Andrew M.
    Loyola, Diego
    Lumpkin, Rick
    Luo, Jing-Jia
    Luojus, K.
    Lyman, John M.
    Macias-Fauria, M.
    Malkova, G. V.
    Manney, G.
    Marchenko, S. S.
    Marengo, Jose A.
    Marra, John J.
    Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz
    Martens, B.
    Martinez-Gueingla, Rodney
    Massom, Robert A.
    May, Linda
    Mayer, Michael
    Mazloff, Matthew
    McBride, Charlotte
    McCabe, M. F.
    McCarthy, M.
    McVicar, Tim R.
    Mears, Carl A.
    Meier, W.
    Mekonnen, A.
    Mengistu Tsidu, G.
    Menzel, W. Paul
    Merchant, Christopher J.
    Meredith, Michael P.
    Merrifield, Mark A.
    Miralles, Diego G.
    Mitchum, Gary T.
    Mitro, Srkani
    Monselesan, Didier
    Montzka, Stephen A.
    Mora, Natalie
    Morice, Colin
    Mote, T.
    Mudryk, L.
    Muehle, Jens
    Mullan, A. Brett
    Mueller, R.
    Nash, Eric R.
    Nerem, R. Steven
    Newman, Louise
    Newman, Paul A.
    Nieto, Juan Jose
    Noetzli, Jeannette
    O'Neel, S.
    Osborn, Tim J.
    Overland, J.
    Oyunjargal, Lamjav
    Park, E-hyung
    Pasch, Richard J.
    Pascual-Ramirez, Reynaldo
    Paterson, Andrew M.
    Pearce, Petra R.
    Pelto, Mauri S.
    Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.
    Perovich, D.
    Petropavlovskikh, Irina
    Pezza, Alexandre B.
    Phillips, C.
    Phillips, David
    Phoenix, G.
    Pinty, Bernard
    Rajeevan, Madhavan
    Rayner, Darren
    Raynolds, M. K.
    Reagan, James
    Reid, Phillip
    Reimer, Christoph
    Remy, Samuel
    Revadekar, Jayashree V.
    Richter-Menge, J.
    Rimmer, Alon
    Robinson, David A.
    Rodell, Matthew
    Romanovsky, Vladimir E.
    Ronchail, Josyane
    Rosenlof, Karen H.
    Roth, Chris
    Rusak, James A.
    Sallee, Jean-Bapiste
    Sanchez-Lugo, Ahira
    Santee, Michelle L.
    Sawaengphokhai, P.
    Sayouri, Amal
    Scambos, Ted A.
    Schladow, S. Geoffrey
    Schmid, Claudia
    Schmid, Martin
    Schreck, Carl J., III
    Schuur, Ted
    Selkirk, H. B.
    Send, Uwe
    Sensoy, Serhat
    Sharp, M.
    Shi, Lei
    Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.
    Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.
    Siegel, David A.
    Signorini, Sergio R.
    Sima, Fatou
    Simmons, Adrian J.
    Smeed, David A.
    Smeets, C. J. P. P.
    Smith, Adam
    Smith, Sharon L.
    Soden, B.
    Spence, Jaqueline M.
    Srivastava, A. K.
    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.
    Stammerjohn, Sharon
    Steinbrecht, Wolfgang
    Stella, Jose L.
    Stephenson, Tannecia S.
    Strahan, Susan
    Streletskiy, Dimitri A.
    Sun-Mack, Sunny
    Swart, Sebastiaan
    Sweet, William
    Tamar, Gerard
    Taylor, Michael A.
    Tedesco, M.
    Thoman, R. L.
    Thompson, L.
    Thompson, Philip R.
    Timmermans, M. -L
    Tobin, Skie
    Trachte, Katja
    Trewin, Blair C.
    Trotman, Adrian R.
    Tschudi, M.
    van As, D.
    van de Wal, R. S. W.
    van der Schalie, Robin
    van der Schrier, Gerard
    van der Werf, Guido R.
    van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.
    Velicogna, I.
    Verburg, Piet
    Vincent, Lucie A.
    Voemel, Holger
    Vose, Russell S.
    Wagner, Wolfgang
    Walker, D. A.
    Walsh, J.
    Wang, Bin
    Wang, Chunzai
    Wang, Junhong
    Wang, Lei
    Wang, M.
    Wang, Sheng-Hung
    Wanninkhof, Rik
    Watanabe, Shohei
    Weber, Mark
    Weller, Robert A.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Whitewood, Robert
    Wiese, David N.
    Wijffels, Susan E.
    Wilber, Anne C.
    Wild, Jeanette D.
    Willett, Kate M.
    Willis, Josh K.
    Wolken, G.
    Wong, Takmeng
    Wood, E. F.
    Woolway, R. Iestyn
    Wouters, B.
    Xue, Yan
    Yin, Xungang
    Yu, Lisan
    Zambrano, Eduardo
    Zhang, Huai-Min
    Zhang, Peiqun
    Zhao, Guanguo
    Zhao, Lin
    Ziemke, Jerry R.
    Abernethy, R.
    Albanil, Encarnacion Adelina
    Aldeco, Laura S.
    Aliaga-Nestares, Vannia
    Anderson, John
    Armitage, C.
    Avalos, Grinia
    Behe, Carolina
    Bellouin, Nicolas
    Bernhard, G. H.
    Blenkinsop, Stephen
    Bolmgren, K.
    Bouchon, Marilu
    Campbell, Ethan C.
    Castro, Anabel
    Costanza, Carol
    Covey, Curt
    Coy, Lawrence
    Cronin, T.
    Cruzado, Luis
    Daniel, Raychelle
    Davletshin, S. G.
    De La Cour, Jacqueline L.
    Deline, P.
    Dewitte, Boris
    Dhurmea, R.
    Dickerson, C.
    Domingues, Ricardo
    Durre, Imke
    Eakin, C. Mark
    Farmer, J.
    Fauchald, P.
    Geiger, Erick F.
    Gomez, Andrea M.
    Gugliemin, Mario
    Hansen, K.
    Helfrich, S.
    Hemming, D. L.
    Heron, Scott F.
    Heuze, C.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hubert, Daan
    Hueuze, Celine
    Ibrahim, M. M.
    Isaac, Victor
    Jacobs, Stephanie J.
    Jeffries, Martin O.
    Karakoylu, Erdem M.
    Khan, M. S.
    Ladd, C.
    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo
    Lee, S. -E
    Lee, T. C.
    Li, Bailing
    Li, Tim
    Lopez, Luis A.
    Luthcke, S.
    Marcellin, Vernie
    Marin, Dora
    Marsh, Benjamin L.
    Martin, A.
    Martinez, Alejandra G.
    Martinez-Sanchez, Odalys
    Meijers, Andrew J. S.
    Miller, Ben
    Moat, Ben
    Mochizuki, Y.
    Mosquera-Vasquez, Kobi
    Mostafa, Awatif E.
    Nielsen-Gammon, John W.
    Noll, Ben E.
    Osborne, Emily
    Pastor, Saavedra Maria Asuncion
    Paulik, Christoph
    Peltier, Alexandre
    Pinzon, J.
    Po-Chedley, S.
    Polashenski, C.
    Purkey, Sarah G.
    Quispe, Nelson
    Rakotoarimalala, C.
    Richardson, A. D.
    Ricker, R.
    Rodriguez, Camino Ernesto
    Rosner, Benjamin
    Roth, David Mark
    Rutishauser, T.
    Sasgen, L.
    Sayad, T. A.
    Scanlon, T.
    Schenzinger, Verena
    Silow, Eugene
    Skirving, William J.
    Sofieva, Viktoria
    Sparks, T. H.
    Spillane, Sandra
    Stanitski, Diane M.
    Stengel, M.
    Stephenson, Kimberly
    Strong, Alan E.
    Sutton, Adrienne J.
    Takahashi, Kenneth S.
    Thackeray, S. J.
    Thomson, LThorsteinsson T.
    Timbal, Bertrand
    TImofeyev, Maxim A.
    Tirak, Kyle, V
    Togawa, H.
    Tommervik, H.
    Tourpali, Kleareti
    Trinanes, Joaquin A.
    Tucker, C. J.
    Tye, Mari R.
    van der A, Ronald J.
    Velden, Christopher S.
    Vickers, H.
    Webster, M.
    Westberry, Toby K.
    Widlansky, Matthew J.
    Wood, K.
    Yoon, Huang
    York, A.
    Zhu, Zhiwei
    Ziel, R.
    Ziese, Markus G.
    STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 20172018Inngår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 99, nr 8, s. S1-S310Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14. Attermeyer, Katrin
    et al.
    Casas-Ruiz, Joan Pere
    Fuss, Thomas
    Pastor, Ada
    Cauvy-Fraunie, Sophie
    Sheath, Danny
    Nydahl, Anna C.
    Doretto, Alberto
    Portela, Ana Paula
    Doyle, Brian C.
    Simov, Nikolay
    Roberts, Catherine Gutmann
    Niedrist, Georg H.
    Timoner, Xisca
    Evtimova, Vesela
    Barral-Fraga, Laura
    Basic, Tea
    Audet, Joachim
    Deininger, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Busst, Georgina
    Fenoglio, Stefano
    Catalan, Nuria
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mor, Jordi-Rene
    Monteiro, Juliana
    Fletcher, David
    Noss, Christian
    Colls, Miriam
    Nagler, Magdalena
    Liu, Liu
    Gonzalez-Quijano, Clara Romero
    Romero, Ferran
    Pansch, Nina
    Ledesma, Jose L. J.
    Pegg, Josephine
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Freixa, Anna
    Ortega, Sonia Herrero
    Mendoza-Lera, Clara
    Bednarik, Adam
    Fonvielle, Jeremy A.
    Gilbert, Peter J.
    Kenderov, Lyubomir A.
    Rulik, Martin
    Bodmer, Pascal
    Carbon dioxide fluxes increase from day to night across European streams2021Inngår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, inland waters emit over 2 Pg of carbon per year as carbon dioxide, of which the majority originates from streams and rivers. Despite the global significance of fluvial carbon dioxide emissions, little is known about their diel dynamics. Here we present a large-scale assessment of day- and night-time carbon dioxide fluxes at the water-air interface across 34 European streams. We directly measured fluxes four times between October 2016 and July 2017 using drifting chambers. Median fluxes are 1.4 and 2.1mmolm(-2) h(-1) at midday and midnight, respectively, with night fluxes exceeding those during the day by 39%. We attribute diel carbon dioxide flux variability mainly to changes in the water partial pressure of carbon dioxide. However, no consistent drivers could be identified across sites. Our findings highlight widespread day-night changes in fluvial carbon dioxide fluxes and suggest that the time of day greatly influences measured carbon dioxide fluxes across European streams. Diel patterns can greatly impact total stream carbon dioxide emissions, with 39% greater carbon dioxide flux during the night-time relative to the day-time, according to a study of 34 streams across Europe.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 15. Azevedo, Olivia
    et al.
    Parker, Thomas C.
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Subke, Jens-Arne
    Predicting Soil Respiration from Plant Productivity (NDVI) in a Sub-Arctic Tundra Ecosystem2021Inngår i: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 13, nr 13, artikkel-id 2571Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils represent the largest store of carbon in the biosphere with soils at high latitudes containing twice as much carbon (C) than the atmosphere. High latitude tundra vegetation communities show increases in the relative abundance and cover of deciduous shrubs which may influence net ecosystem exchange of CO2 from this C-rich ecosystem. Monitoring soil respiration (Rs) as a crucial component of the ecosystem carbon balance at regional scales is difficult given the remoteness of these ecosystems and the intensiveness of measurements that is required. Here we use direct measurements of Rs from contrasting tundra plant communities combined with direct measurements of aboveground plant productivity via Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to predict soil respiration across four key vegetation communities in a tundra ecosystem. Soil respiration exhibited a nonlinear relationship with NDVI (y = 0.202e3.508x, p < 0.001). Our results further suggest that NDVI and soil temperature can help predict Rs if vegetation type is taken into consideration. We observed, however, that NDVI is not a relevant explanatory variable in the estimation of SOC in a single-study analysis.

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  • 16. Balke, Thorsten
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Increasing Synchrony of Annual River‐Flood Peaks and Growing Season in Europe2019Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 46, nr 17-18, s. 10446-10453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing climate, time sensitive ecological interactions such as pollination and predation are vulnerable to temporal mismatch with direct consequences for ecosystem functioning. It is not known if synchrony and asynchrony of ecological and physical processes such as flood disturbance and plant phenology may similarly be affected by climate change. Here, by spatially merging temperature and flood peak data, we show for the first time that in Central and Eastern Europe, annual river flood peaks increasingly occur within the thermal growing season. This is due to the combined effect of earlier spring onsets and later flood peaks. Such increased physical‐phenological synchrony may especially impact river biogeomorphology and riparian floodplain ecosystem functioning through uprooting of seedlings and increased hydraulic roughness during major flood events.

  • 17. Baranov, Viktor
    et al.
    Jourdan, Jonas
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany.
    Wagner, Rüdiger
    Haase, Peter
    Complex and nonlinear climate-driven changes in freshwater insect communities over 42 years2020Inngår i: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 1241-1251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing biodiversity crisis becomes evident in the widely observed decline in abundance and diversity of species, profound changes in community structure, and shifts in species' phenology. Insects are among the most affected groups, with documented decreases in abundance up to 76% in the last 25–30 years in some terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying the underlying drivers is a major obstacle as most ecosystems are affected by multiple stressors simultaneously and in situ measurements of environmental variables are often missing. In our study, we investigated a headwater stream belonging to the most common stream type in Germany located in a nature reserve with no major anthropogenic impacts except climate change. We used the most comprehensive quantitative long‐term data set on aquatic insects available, which includes weekly measurements of species‐level insect abundance, daily water temperature and stream discharge as well as measurements of additional physicochemical variables for a 42‐year period (1969–2010). Overall, water temperature increased by 1.88°C and discharge patterns changed significantly. These changes were accompanied by an 81.6% decline in insect abundance, but an increase in richness (+8.5%), Shannon diversity (+22.7%), evenness (+22.4%), and interannual turnover (+34%). Moreover, the community's trophic structure and phenology changed: the duration of emergence increased by 15.2 days, whereas the peak of emergence moved 13.4 days earlier. Additionally, we observed short‐term fluctuations (<5 years) in almost all metrics as well as complex and nonlinear responses of the community toward climate change that would have been missed by simply using snapshot data or shorter time series. Our results indicate that climate change has already altered biotic communities severely even in protected areas, where no other interacting stressors (pollution, habitat fragmentation, etc.) are present. This is a striking example of the scientific value of comprehensive long‐term data in capturing the complex responses of communities toward climate change.

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  • 18.
    Beckebanze, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Runkle, Benjamin R.K.
    Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, AR, Fayetteville, United States.
    Walz, Josefine
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Wille, Christian
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam – Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam, Germany.
    Holl, David
    Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Helbig, Manuel
    Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Boike, Julia
    Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; Department of Geography, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Sachs, Torsten
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam – Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam, Germany.
    Kutzbach, Lars
    Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lateral carbon export has low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance of a polygonal tundra catchment2022Inngår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 19, nr 16, s. 3863-3876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost-affected soils contain large quantities of soil organic carbon (SOC). Changes in the SOC pool of a particular ecosystem can be related to its net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in which the balance of carbon (C) influxes and effluxes is expressed. For polygonal tundra landscapes, accounts of ecosystem carbon balances in the literature are often solely based on estimates of vertical carbon fluxes. To fill this gap, we present data regarding the lateral export rates of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from a polygonal tundra site in the north Siberian Lena River delta, Russia. We use water discharge observations in combination with concentration measurements of waterborne carbon to derive the lateral carbon fluxes from one growing season (2 June–8 September 2014 for DOC, 8 June–8 September 2014 for DIC). To put the lateral C fluxes into context, we furthermore present the surface–atmosphere eddy covariance fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from this study site. The results show cumulative lateral DIC and DOC fluxes of 0.31–0.38 and 0.06–0.08 g m−2, respectively, during the 93 d observation period (8 June–8 September 2014). Vertical turbulent fluxes of CO2-C and CH4-C accumulated to −19.0 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 0.02 g m−2 in the same period. Thus, the lateral C export represented about 2 % of the net ecosystem exchange of (NEE) CO2. However, the relationship between lateral and surface–atmosphere fluxes changed over the observation period. At the beginning of the growing season (early June), the lateral C flux outpaced the surface-directed net vertical turbulent CO2 flux, causing the polygonal tundra landscape to be a net carbon source during this time of the year. Later in the growing season, the vertical turbulent CO2 flux dominated the NECB.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 19. Beer, Christian
    et al.
    Zimov, Nikita
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Porada, Philipp
    Zimov, Sergey
    Protection of Permafrost Soils from Thawing by Increasing Herbivore Density2020Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 4170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will cause a substantial future greenhouse gas release from warming and thawing permafrost-affected soils to the atmosphere enabling a positive feedback mechanism. Increasing the population density of big herbivores in northern high-latitude ecosystems will increase snow density and hence decrease the insulation strength of snow during winter. As a consequence, theoretically 80% of current permafrost-affected soils (<10 m) is projected to remain until 2100 even when assuming a strong warming using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Importantly, permafrost temperature is estimated to remain below -4<degrees>C on average after increasing herbivore population density. Such ecosystem management practices would be therefore theoretically an important additional climate change mitigation strategy. Our results also highlight the importance of new field experiments and observations, and the integration of fauna dynamics into complex Earth System models, in order to reliably project future ecosystem functions and climate.

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  • 20. Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Rydin, Hakan
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Flatberg, Kjell Ivar
    Galanina, Olga
    Galka, Mariusz
    Ganeva, Anna
    Goia, Irina
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Hajek, Michal
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Harris, Lorna I.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Jirousek, Martin
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Laine, Anna M.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Lapshina, Elena
    Limpens, Juul
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    Mitchell, Edward A. D.
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Payne, Richard J.
    Philippov, Dmitriy A.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Robinson, Sean
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Rochefort, Line
    Singer, David
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Vellak, Kai
    Waddington, James Michael
    Granath, Gustaf
    Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region2021Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 417-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genusSphagnum-the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands-remains unclear. We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundantSphagnumspecies across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth and vascular plant cover) on these two responses. Employing structural equation models (SEMs), we explored both indirect and direct effects of drivers onSphagnumgrowth. Variation in growth was large, but similar within and between peatlands. Length growth showed a stronger response to predictors than NPP. Moreover, the smaller and denserSphagnum fuscumgrowing on hummocks had weaker responses to climatic variation than the larger and looserSphagnum magellanicumgrowing in the wetter conditions. Growth decreased with increasing vascular plant cover within a site. Between sites, precipitation and temperature increased growth forS. magellanicum. The SEMs indicate that indirect effects are important. For example, vascular plant cover increased with a deeper water table, increased nitrogen deposition, precipitation and temperature. These factors also influencedSphagnumgrowth indirectly by affecting moss shoot density. Synthesis. Our results imply that in a warmer climate,S. magellanicumwill increase length growth as long as precipitation is not reduced, whileS. fuscumis more resistant to decreased precipitation, but also less able to take advantage of increased precipitation and temperature. Such species-specific sensitivity to climate may affect competitive outcomes in a changing environment, and potentially the future carbon sink function of peatlands.

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  • 21.
    Berner, Logan T.
    et al.
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Orndahl, Kathleen M.
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Rose, Melissa
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Tamstorf, Mikkel
    Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Arndal, Marie F.
    Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    College of Forestry, Wildlife, and Environment, Auburn University, Auburn, United States.
    Humphreys, Elyn R.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
    Loranty, Michael M.
    Department of Geography, Colgate University, Hamilton, United States.
    Ludwig, Sarah M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, Palisades, United States.
    Nyman, Johanna
    Jeb E. Brooks School of Public Policy, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States.
    Juutinen, Sari
    Climate System Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aurela, Mika
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Happonen, Konsta
    Finnish Youth Research Society, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mikola, Juha
    Bioeconomy and Environment Unit, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Vankoughnett, Mathew R.
    Applied Research, Nova Scotia Community College, Middleton, Canada.
    Iversen, Colleen M.
    Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Salmon, Verity G.
    Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States; Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Yang, Dedi
    Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Kumar, Jitendra
    Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Grogan, Paul
    Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Danby, Ryan K.
    Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Scott, Neal A.
    Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Deschamps, Lucas
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Lévesque, Esther
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Maire, Vincent
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Morneault, Amélie
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Gauthier, Gilles
    Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Department of Biology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Gignac, Charles
    Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Department of Plant Science, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Boudreau, Stéphane
    Department of Biology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Gaspard, Anna
    Department of Biology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Kholodov, Alexander
    Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Greaves, Heather E.
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Walker, Donald
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Gregory, Fiona M.
    Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, København, Denmark.
    Kumpula, Timo
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Villoslada, Miguel
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland; Institute of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ylänne, Henni
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Luoto, Miska
    Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Ecosystems and Environment Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Hölzel, Norbert
    Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Epstein, Howard
    Department of Environmental Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States.
    Heim, Ramona J.
    Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bunn, Andrew
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Western Washington University, Bellingham, United States.
    Holmes, Robert M.
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Hung, Jacqueline K. Y.
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Virkkala, Anna-Maria
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States; Bioeconomy and Environment Unit, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    The Arctic plant aboveground biomass synthesis dataset2024Inngår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant biomass is a fundamental ecosystem attribute that is sensitive to rapid climatic changes occurring in the Arctic. Nevertheless, measuring plant biomass in the Arctic is logistically challenging and resource intensive. Lack of accessible field data hinders efforts to understand the amount, composition, distribution, and changes in plant biomass in these northern ecosystems. Here, we present The Arctic plant aboveground biomass synthesis dataset, which includes field measurements of lichen, bryophyte, herb, shrub, and/or tree aboveground biomass (g m−2) on 2,327 sample plots from 636 field sites in seven countries. We created the synthesis dataset by assembling and harmonizing 32 individual datasets. Aboveground biomass was primarily quantified by harvesting sample plots during mid- to late-summer, though tree and often tall shrub biomass were quantified using surveys and allometric models. Each biomass measurement is associated with metadata including sample date, location, method, data source, and other information. This unique dataset can be leveraged to monitor, map, and model plant biomass across the rapidly warming Arctic.

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  • 22.
    Berríos-Negrón, Luis
    Konstfack and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Breathtaking greenhouse parastructures2020Inngår i: Agropoetics reader / [ed] Elena Agudio; Marleen Boschen, Berlin: The Institute for Endotic Research , 2020, s. 181-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This is an early draft excerpt from the "convolutes" included in the author's later PhD titled "Breathtaking Greenhouse Parastructures." The work is related to the author's exhibition at Savvy Contemporary in Berlin (31.08.– 06.10.2019). The focus of the research is on exploring the technology of the greenhouse as a specimen, display, and virtual reality. The author believes that the greenhouse plays a significant role in shaping the industrial, misogynist, and ethnocentric conception of natural science and history. The greenhouse acts as a dividing force between humans and nature, perpetuating the illusion of interior and exterior spaces. The author aims to break free from this binary understanding by reticulating away from the messianic promises and colonial violence associated with "greenhouse." They seek to uproot the colonial drive embedded in their externalization of knowledge and explore alternative paths for relating to the object of colonial-industrial capitalism. The presented excerpt offers a glimpse into the author's perspective as a Puerto Rican & Caribbean artist and invites further exploration of the PhD work.

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  • 23.
    Bidleman, Terry Frank
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Environment Canada, Canada.
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Binnur Kurt-Karakus, Perihan
    Wong, Fiona
    Hung, Hayley
    Ma, Jianmin
    Stern, Gary
    Rosenberg, Bruno
    Chiral Chemicals as Tracers of Atmospheric Sources and Fate Processes in a World of Changing Climate2013Inngår i: Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 2186-5116, Vol. 2, nr 19, Special Issue: Proceedings of 19th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, s. S0019-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under national and international regulations reduces “primary” emissions, but “secondary” emissions continue from residues deposited in soil, water, ice and vegetation during former years of usage. In a future, secondary source controlled world, POPs will follow the carbon cycle and biogeochemical processes will determine their transport, accumulation and fate. Climate change is likely to affect mobilisation of POPs through e.g., increased temperature, altered precipitation and wind patterns, flooding, loss of ice cover in polar regions, melting glaciers, and changes in soil and water microbiology which affect degradation and transformation. Chiral compounds offer advantages for following transport and fate pathways because of their ability to distinguish racemic (newly released or protected from microbial attack) and nonracemic (microbially degraded) sources. This paper discusses the rationale for this approach and suggests applications where chiral POPs could aid investigation of climate-mediated exchange and degradation processes. Multiyear measurements of two chiral POPs, trans-chlordane and α-HCH, at a Canadian Arctic air monitoring station show enantiomer compositions which cycle seasonally, suggesting varying source contributions which may be under climatic control. Large-scale shifts in the enantioselective metabolism of chiral POPs in soil and water might influence the enantiomer composition of atmospheric residues, and it would be advantageous to include enantiospecific analysis in POPs monitoring programs.

  • 24.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wik-Persson, M.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Landscape-scale patterns of sediment sulfur accumulation in Swedish lakes2008Inngår i: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 39, s. 61-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfur has played a central role in the acidification of many lakes in Scandinavia and other regions. As part of the research into sulfur cycling, numerous studies have analyzed the sediment record in order to develop insights into past in-lake cycling of sulfur, particularly in the context of reconstructing past deposition rates. Although many of these studies have shown that it is not easy to interpret the sediment record in terms of past sulfur deposition rates, analyses of sulfur in sediment still provide valuable information on the response of lakes to anthropogenic sulfur deposition. Here, we have analyzed sulfur in top and bottom samples from short surface cores (25-35 cm, representing >= 250 years) as well as bulk cores from similar to 110 lakes located throughout Sweden, which were collected during 1986, as well as in more-detailed profiles from six lakes. The lakes with the highest surface sediment concentrations (9-24 mg S g(-1) dry mass) and the highest calculated inventories of 'excess' sulfur (20-180 g S m(-2)) are found in southern Sweden and around one industrial area along the northeastern coast where sulfur deposition rates and lake-water concentrations have been highest. For many lakes in the central and northern inland region it is common that the sediment cores exhibit either no enrichment or even a decline in sulfur concentrations in near-surface sediments, which we suggest was the pre-pollution norm for lakes. Although interpreting sulfur sediment profiles is problematic for reconstructing deposition, a more-comprehensive spatial sampling approach shows that there is a good geographic agreement between sulfur deposition, lake-water chemistry and sediment sulfur accumulation.

  • 25.
    Blennow, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Persson, Johannes
    Department of Philosophy, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Persson, Erik
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Hanewinkel, Mark
    University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Forest owners' response to climate change: university education trumps value profile2016Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id e0155137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do forest owners' levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climatechange? The cultural cognition thesis (CCT) has cast serious doubt on the familiar andoften criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concernedabout climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintainthat citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the mostconcerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization isgreatest, and thus individuals with more limited scientific literacy and numeracy are moreconcerned about climate change under certain circumstances than those with higher scientificliteracy and numeracy. The CCT predicts that cultural and other values will trump thepositive effects of education on some forest owners' attitudes to climate change. Here,using survey data collected in 2010 from 766 private forest owners in Sweden and Germany,we provide the first evidence that perceptions of climate change risk are uncorrelatedwith, or sometimes positively correlated with, education level and can be explained withoutreference to cultural or other values. We conclude that the recent claim that advanced scientificliteracy and numeracy polarizes perceptions of climate change risk is unsupported bythe forest owner data. In neither of the two countries was university education found toreduce the perception of risk from climate change. Indeed in most cases university educationincreased the perception of risk. Even more importantly, the effect of university educationwas not dependent on the individuals' value profile.

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  • 26. Blum, Matthias
    et al.
    Ducoing, Cristián
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    McLaughin, Eoin
    A sustainable century: genuine savings in developing and developed countries, 1900-20002017Inngår i: National wealth: what is missing, why it matters / [ed] Kirk Hamilton and Cameron Hepburn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, s. 89-113Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter traces the long-run development of genuine savings (GS) during the twentieth century using a panel of developed countries (Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland, France, the US, and Australia) and resource-abundant countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico) representing approximately 50% of the world’s output in terms of GDP by 1950. It includes large economies and small open economies, and resource-rich and resource-scarce countries, allowing comparison of their historical experiences. Components of GS considered include physical and human capital as well as resource extraction and pollution damages. Generally, there is evidence of positive GS over the course of the twentieth century, although the two world wars and the Great Depression left considerable marks, but also striking differences between Latin American and developed countries when total factor productivity is included; this could be a signal of natural resource curse or technological gaps unnoticed in previous works.

  • 27.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The belowground growing season2022Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 12, s. 11-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 Canada.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.
    The hidden season: growing season is 50% longer below than above ground along an arctic elevation gradient2016Inngår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 209, nr 3, s. 978-986Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is compelling evidence from experiments and observations that climate warming prolongs the growing season in arctic regions. Until now, the start, peak, and end of the growing season, which are used to model influences of vegetation on biogeochemical cycles, were commonly quantified using above-ground phenological data. Yet, over 80% of the plant biomass in arctic regions can be below ground, and the timing of root growth affects biogeochemical processes by influencing plant water and nutrient uptake, soil carbon input and microbial activity. We measured timing of above- and below-ground production in three plant communities along an arctic elevation gradient over two growing seasons. Below-ground production peaked later in the season and was more temporally uniform than above-ground production. Most importantly, the growing season continued c. 50% longer below than above ground. Our results strongly suggest that traditional above-ground estimates of phenology in arctic regions, including remotely sensed information, are not as complete a representation of whole-plant production intensity or duration, as studies that include root phenology. We therefore argue for explicit consideration of root phenology in studies of carbon and nutrient cycling, in terrestrial biosphere models, and scenarios of how arctic ecosystems will respond to climate warming.

  • 29. Bokhorst, Stef
    et al.
    Huiskes, Ad
    Aerts, Rien
    Convey, Peter
    Cooper, Elisabeth J
    Dalen, Linda
    Erschbamer, Brigitta
    Gudmundsson, Jon
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Hollister, Robert D
    Johnstone, Jill
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg S
    Lebouvier, Marc
    Van De Vijver, Bart
    Wahren, Carl-Henrik
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Variable temperature effects of Open Top Chambers at polar and alpine sites explained by irradiance and snow depth2013Inngår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 64-74Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental manipulation studies are integral to determining biological consequences of climate warming. Open Top Chambers (OTCs) have been widely used to assess summer warming effects on terrestrial biota, with their effects during other seasons normally being given less attention even though chambers are often deployed year-round. In addition, their effects on temperature extremes and freeze-thaw events are poorly documented. To provide robust documentation of the microclimatic influences of OTCs throughout the year, we analysed temperature data from 20 studies distributed across polar and alpine regions. The effects of OTCs on mean temperature showed a large range (-0.9 to 2.1 degrees C) throughout the year, but did not differ significantly between studies. Increases in mean monthly and diurnal temperature were strongly related (R-2 = 0.70) with irradiance, indicating that PAR can be used to predict the mean warming effect of OTCs. Deeper snow trapped in OTCs also induced higher temperatures at soil/vegetation level. OTC-induced changes in the frequency of freeze-thaw events included an increase in autumn and decreases in spring and summer. Frequency of high-temperature events in OTCs increased in spring, summer and autumn compared with non-manipulated control plots. Frequency of low-temperature events was reduced by deeper snow accumulation and higher mean temperatures. The strong interactions identified between aspects of ambient environmental conditions and effects of OTCs suggest that a detailed knowledge of snow depth, temperature and irradiance levels enables us to predict how OTCs will modify the microclimate at a particular site and season. Such predictive power allows a better mechanistic understanding of observed biotic response to experimental warming studies and for more informed design of future experiments. However, a need remains to quantify OTC effects on water availability and wind speed (affecting, for example, drying rates and water stress) in combination with microclimate measurements at organism level.

  • 30. Brigham-Grette, Julie
    et al.
    Melles, Martin
    Minyuk, Pavel
    Andreev, Andrei
    Tarasov, Pavel
    DeConto, Robert
    Koenig, Sebastian
    Nowaczyk, Norbert
    Wennrich, Volker
    Rosén, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Haltia, Eeva
    Cook, Tim
    Gebhardt, Catalina
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Snyder, Jeff
    Herzschuh, Ulrike
    Pliocene warmth, polar amplification, and stepped pleistocene cooling recorded in NE arctic russia2013Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 340, nr 6139, s. 1421-1427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the evolution of Arctic polar climate from the protracted warmth of the middle Pliocene into the earliest glacial cycles in the Northern Hemisphere has been hindered by the lack of continuous, highly resolved Arctic time series. Evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, in northeast (NE) Arctic Russia, shows that 3.6 to 3.4 million years ago, summer temperatures were similar to 8 degrees C warmer than today, when the partial pressure of CO2 was similar to 400 parts per million. Multiproxy evidence suggests extreme warmth and polar amplification during the middle Pliocene, sudden stepped cooling events during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, and warmer than present Arctic summers until similar to 2.2 million years ago, after the onset of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. Our data are consistent with sea-level records and other proxies indicating that Arctic cooling was insufficient to support large-scale ice sheets until the early Pleistocene.

  • 31. Brodie, Juliet
    et al.
    Williamson, Christopher J.
    Smale, Dan A.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Mieszkowska, Nova
    Santos, Rui
    Cunliffe, Michael
    Steinke, Michael
    Yesson, Christopher
    Anderson, Kathryn M.
    Asnaghi, Valentina
    Brownlee, Colin
    Burdett, Heidi L.
    Burrows, Michael T.
    Collins, Sinead
    Donohue, Penelope J. C.
    Harvey, Ben
    Foggo, Andrew
    Noisette, Fanny
    Nunes, Joana
    Ragazzola, Federica
    Raven, John A.
    Schmidt, Daniela N.
    Suggett, David
    Teichberg, Mirta
    Hall-Spencer, Jason M.
    The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world2014Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 13, s. 2787-2798Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweed and seagrass communities in the northeast Atlantic have been profoundly impacted by humans, and the rate of change is accelerating rapidly due to runaway CO2 emissions and mounting pressures on coastlines associated with human population growth and increased consumption of finite resources. Here, we predict how rapid warming and acidification are likely to affect benthic flora and coastal ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic in this century, based on global evidence from the literature as interpreted by the collective knowledge of the authorship. We predict that warming will kill off kelp forests in the south and that ocean acidification will remove maerl habitat in the north. Seagrasses will proliferate, and associated epiphytes switch from calcified algae to diatoms and filamentous species. Invasive species will thrive in niches liberated by loss of native species and spread via exponential development of artificial marine structures. Combined impacts of seawater warming, ocean acidification, and increased storminess may replace structurally diverse seaweed canopies, with associated calcified and noncalcified flora, with simple habitats dominated by noncalcified, turf-forming seaweeds.

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  • 32.
    Brook, Barry
    et al.
    Faculty of Science, Engineering & Technology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.
    Edney, Kingsley
    School of Politics & International Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Hillerbrand, Rafaela
    Ethics & Philosophy of Technology, TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Symons, Jonathan
    Department of Modern History, Politics & International Relations, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Energy research within the UNFCCC: a proposal to guard against ongoing climate-deadlock2016Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 803-813Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that an international ‘Low-Emissions Technology Commitment’ should be incorporated into the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiation process in order to promote innovation that will enable deepdecarbonization. The goal is to accelerate research, development, and demonstration of safe, scalable, and affordable lowemissions energy technologies. Such a commitment should be based on three elements. First, it should operate within existing UNFCCC negotiations so as to encourage developed states to offer directed funding for energy research as part of their national contributions. Second, pledges should be binding, verifiable, and coordinated within an international energy-research plan.Third, expert scientific networks and participating governments should collaborate to design a coordinated global research and technology-demonstration strategy and oversee national research efforts. To this end an Intergovernmental Panel on Low-Emissions Technology Research might be established. This proposal offers some insurance against the risk that the political impasse in international negotiations cannot be overcome. The higher costs associated with low-emissions alternatives to fossil fuels currently creates significant economic and political resistance to their widespread adoption. To breach this impasse, amechanism supporting accelerated energy research is needed that seeks to reduce future abatement costs, share experienceand ‘learning-by-doing’ in first-of-a-kind demonstrations, and thus facilitate future widespread deployments. These actions will also assist in addressing inequalities in energy access.

  • 33.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database Inter-linking Multiproxy Environmental Data with Archaeological Investigations and Ecology2013Inngår i: Archaeology in the Digital Era: Papers from the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, 26-29 March 2012 / [ed] Graeme Earl, Tim Sly, Angeliki Chrysanthi, Patricia Murrieta-Flores, Constantinos Papadopoulos, Iza Romanowska & David Wheatley, Amsterdam University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, s. 320-331Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of data on past environmental and climate changes, as well as human interactions with these, has long since passed the level where it is manageable outside of large scale database systems. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database project aims to not only store and disseminate such data, but also provide tools for querying and analysing them, whilst maintaining a close connection with the archaeological and ecological data that are essential for their comprehensive interpretation. Large scale, geographically and chronologically unrestricted databases provide us with essentially unlimited scope for putting individual sites into a broader context and applying locally collated data to the investigation of earth system level changes. By providing integrated access to data from a variety of proxies, including plant macrofossils, pollen, insects and geochemistry, along with dating evidence, more complex questions can be answered where any single proxy would not be able to provide comprehensive answers.

  • 34.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP): the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research2009Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes the development and practical application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental, climatic and biodiversity reconstruction from beetle assemblages. BugsCEP consists of a database of ecology and distribution data for over 9400 insect taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It contains abundance and summary data for over 770 sites, most of the known European Quaternary fossil coleopteran record, supported by a bibliography of over 3700 sources. Built in statistics, including a specially developed habitat classification system, provide semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions to aid in the interpretation of sites. BugsCEP's querying and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to explore the fossil record of species by searching ecology and distribution data. The Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon, including predictive modelling and the graphical output of reconstructions and climate space maps. BugsCEP is available from www.bugscep.com.

  • 35.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Bateman, Mark D.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.
    Bennike, Ole
    GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, ØsterVoldgade 10, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Chase, Brian M.
    Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution-Montpellier (ISEM), Universite´ de Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Bat 22, CC061, Place Euge`ne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France.
    Frederick, Charles
    6Department of Geography and the Environment, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Greenwood, Malcolm
    Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK.
    Murton, Julian
    Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RH, UK.
    Murton, Della
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK.
    Mid-Devensian climate and landscape in England: new data from Finningley, South Yorkshire2019Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikkel-id 190577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive evidence for the Late Devensian, less is known about Early and Middle Devensian (approx. 110-30 ka) climates and environments in the UK. The Greenland ice-core record suggests the UK should have endured multiple changes, but the terrestrial palaeo-record lacks sufficient detail for confirmation from sites in the British Isles. Data from deposits at Finningley, South Yorkshire, can help redress this. A channel with organic silts, dated 40 314-39 552 cal a BP, contained plant macrofossil and insect remains showing tundra with dwarf-shrub heath and bare ground. Soil moisture conditions varied from free draining to riparian, with ponds and wetter vegetated areas. The climate was probably low arctic with snow cover during the winter. Mutual climatic range (MCR), based on Coleoptera, shows the mean monthly winter temperatures of -22 to -2 degrees C and summer ones of 8-14 degrees C. Periglacial structures within the basal gravel deposits and beyond the glacial limits indicate cold-climate conditions, including permafrost. A compilation of MCR reconstructions for other Middle Devensian English sites shows that marine isotope stage 3-between 59 and 28 ka-experienced substantial variation in climate consistent with the Greenland ice-core record. The exact correlation is hampered by temporal resolution, but the Finningley site stadial at approximately 40 ka may correlate with the one of the Greenland stadials 7-11.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on2014Inngår i: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society), ISSN 0140-1890, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP: Coleopteran Ecology Package (software)2006Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    BugsCEP is a research and teaching aid for palaeoentomology, entomology and ecology. As well as habitat and distribution data, it includes tools for climate and environmental reconstruction, and facilities for storing site based abundance/collection data. A variety of searching and reporting functions greatly augment the efficiency of beetle based research.

    Bugs is built around a comprehensive database of beetle ecology and European fossil records which has been accumulated over the past 20 years.

  • 38.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    How can a database full of Bugs help reconstruct the climate?2002Inngår i: Archaeological Informatics - Pushing the Envelope - CAA 2001 - Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology: Proceedings of the 29th Conference, Gotland, April 2001, British Archaeological Reports , 2002, s. 453-461Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The BUGS Insect Ecology Package was originally constructed (using Dbase and Clipper) to compile Coleoptera (beetle) habitat and distribution data from a myriad of sources into one, easy to use, and publicly available database. Its primary users were researchers and teachers within the palaeoentomology field. The present system, five versions and many revisions later, is built in MS Access 2000, and covers some 5300 species, 2000 references, and 240 sites (archaeological and Quaternary), and is of value to archaeologists, ecologists, and conservationists alike.

    BUGS is essentially a relational database management system constructed around three components:

    - the species data (modern ecology and distribution)

    - the bibliography

    - the site data with species lists

    Its implementation in several institutions has greatly accelerated the efficiency with which palaeoentomological investigations can be carried out, and greatly improved the teaching of the subject.

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are performed by the superimposition of the ecology and distribution of modern insect populations over fossil assemblages. At the moment, this is essentially performed semi-quantitatively by cross-reference of the data (which BUGS collates for a species list and then exports as an RTF file to any word processing package). BUGS contains a wealth of ecological data which can be employed in the interpretation of archaeological sites and contexts. In natural deposits, away from the artificial heat islands created by human activity, insect distributions are essentially constrained by climatic parameters. Tim Atkinson (UEA) and Dave Perry (formerly at Birmingham University) digitally encoded the temperature range data for over 400 species into a program for the calculation of palaeoclimates through the MCR (Mutual Climatic Range) method, and this has been extensively used in the modelling of Quaternary climates from beetle remains. The aim of our present phase of BUGS development is to implement MCR functionality into the BUGS database system. From this point it should be possible to move on to other ecological variables such as habitat and vegetation types, and increase the precision of modern climatic data, thus enhancing the value of insects in archaeological interpretation and the modelling of past climates.

  • 39.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Paleoentomology: Insects and other Arthropods in Environmental Archaeology2014Inngår i: The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, s. 5740-5755Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, and as suchare present in a wider variety of habitats than most other organism groups.This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi &Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccatingand anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for thereconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeologicalenvironments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information onthe immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may beeither complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology orindicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of tradingconnections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source.They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions,on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate.Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily availablematerials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usuallydisarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and accessto well curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature,computer software and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 40.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Paleoentomology: insects and other arthropods in environmental archaeology2018Inngår i: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and as such are present in a wider variety of habitats than most other complex organisms. This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi and Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccating and anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for the reconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeological environments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information on the immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may be either complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology or indicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of trading connections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source. They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions, on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate. Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily available materials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usually disarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and access to well-curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature, computer software, and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 41.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    SEAD - Progress Report Spring 2014
  • 42.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes-CSIC, Spain.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    González, José M.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Marrasé, Cèlia
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO22016Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 483-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes1; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled2, 3, 4, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a <2.5 μg l−1); however, the changes in gene expression under high-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a >20 μg l−1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  • 43. Burdett, H. L.
    et al.
    Carruthers, M.
    Donohue, P. J. C.
    Wicks, L. C.
    Hennige, S. J.
    Roberts, J. M.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.
    Effects of high temperature and CO2 on intracellular DMSP in the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa2014Inngår i: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 161, nr 7, s. 1499-1506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant warming and acidification of the oceans is projected to occur by the end of the century. CO2 vents, areas of upwelling and downwelling, and potential leaks from carbon capture and storage facilities may also cause localised environmental changes, enhancing or depressing the effect of global climate change. Cold-water coral ecosystems are threatened by future changes in carbonate chemistry, yet our knowledge of the response of these corals to high temperature and high CO2 conditions is limited. Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and its breakdown product dimethylsulphide (DMS), are putative antioxidants that may be accumulated by invertebrates via their food or symbionts, although recent research suggests that some invertebrates may also be able to synthesise DMSP. This study provides the first information on the impact of high temperature (12 A degrees C) and high CO2 (817 ppm) on intracellular DMSP in the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa from the Mingulay Reef Complex, Scotland (56A degrees 49'N, 07A degrees 23'W), where in situ environmental conditions are meditated by tidally induced downwellings. An increase in intracellular DMSP under high CO2 conditions was observed, whilst water column particulate DMS + DMSP was reduced. In both high temperature treatments, intracellular DMSP was similar to the control treatment, whilst dissolved DMSP + DMS was not significantly different between any of the treatments. These results suggest that L. pertusa accumulates DMSP from the surrounding water column; uptake may be up-regulated under high CO2 conditions, but mediated by high temperature. These results provide new insight into the biotic control of deep-sea biogeochemistry and may impact our understanding of the global sulphur cycle, and the survival of cold-water corals under projected global change.

  • 44. Burdett, Heidi
    et al.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Law, Alan
    Using coralline algae to understand historic marine cloud cover2011Inngår i: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 302, nr 1-2, s. 65-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-living coralline algae lay down growth bands formed by areas of more and less calcified cells which, in certain species, are associated with winter and summer growth respectively. Band width and cell calcification of Lithothamnion glaciale from Scotland were compared to annual and seasonal cloud cover and sea surface temperature (SST). There was a negative relationship between summer calcification (the degree of cellular carbonate infilling) and winter cloud cover. Annual and summer SST were also negatively related to summer calcification. This indicates that summer calcification may be affected by the previous winter's cloud cover and that summer's/year's SST. No relationships between band width and cloud cover were observed. A cloud cover hindcast using summer calcification and SST indicated a modest rise in cloud cover trends from 1910 to 2006 and a 12 (mean) year cyclicity in cloud cover, however, the latter may be associated with other site-specific factors. This study demonstrates the utility of densitometric algochronology in understanding marine temperature and cloud cover histories. 

  • 45. Burdett, Heidi L.
    et al.
    Aloisio, Elena
    Calosi, Piero
    Findlay, Helen S.
    Widdicombe, Stephen
    Hatton, Angela D.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; School of Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    The effect of chronic and acute low pH on the intracellular DMSP production and epithelial cell morphology of red coralline algae2012Inngår i: Marine Biology Research, ISSN 1745-1000, E-ISSN 1745-1019, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 756-763Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) by marine algae has major impacts on the global sulphur cycle and may influence local climate through the formation of dimethylsulphide (DMS). However, the effect of global change on DMSP/DMS (DMS(P)) production by algae is not well understood. This study examined the effect of low pH on DMS(P) production and epithelial cell morphology of the free-living red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale. Three pH treatments were used in the 80-day experiment: (1) current pH level (8.18, control), (2) low, chronic pH representing a 2100 ocean acidification (OA) scenario (7.70) and (3) low, acute pH (7.75, with a 3-day spike to 6.47), representing acute variable conditions that might be associated with leaks from carbon capture and storage infrastructure, at CO2 vent sites or in areas of upwelling. DMS(P) production was not significantly enhanced under low, stable pH conditions, indicating that red coralline algae may have some resilience to OA. However, intracellular and water column DMS(P) concentrations were significantly higher than the control when pH was acutely spiked. Cracks were observed between the cell walls of the algal skeleton in both low pH treatments. It is proposed that this structural change may cause membrane damage that allows DMS(P) to leak from the cells into the water column, with subsequent implications for the cycling of DMS(P) in coralline algae habitats.

  • 46. Burdett, Heidi L.
    et al.
    Hatton, Angela D.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Effects of reduced salinity on the photosynthetic characteristics and intracellular DMSP concentrations of the red coralline alga, Lithothamnion glaciale2015Inngår i: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 162, nr 5, s. 1077-1085Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid- to high-latitude fjordic coastal environments experience naturally variable salinity regimes. Climate projections suggest that freshwater input into the coastal ocean will increase in the future, exposing coastal organisms to further periods of reduced salinity. This study investigated the effect of low salinity on Lithothamnion glaciale, a red coralline alga found in mid- to high-latitude fjordic regions, during a 21-day experiment. Specific measurements included: the intracellular concentration of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP, an algal secondary metabolite and major precursor to the climatically active gas dimethylsulphide), pigment composition and photosynthetic characteristics. No significant difference in intracellular DMSP concentrations was observed between treatments, suggesting that the primary function for DMSP in L. glaciale is not as a compatible solute, perhaps favouring an antioxidant role . Photosynthetic parameters (including pigment composition) exhibited a mixed response, suggesting some degree of photosynthetic resilience to reduced salinity. This study provides evidence of intracellular mechanisms adopted by L. glaciale in response to reduced salinity. This has significant implications for the survival of L. glaciale under a projected freshening scenario and provides organism-level detail to ecosystem-level projected changes should lower-salinity conditions become more frequent and more intense in the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47. Burdett, Heidi L.
    et al.
    Perna, Gabriela
    McKay, Lucy
    Broomhead, Gemma
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    King Abdullah University for Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
    Community-level sensitivity of a calcifying ecosystem to acute in situ CO2 enrichment2018Inngår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 587, s. 73-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of change in ocean carbonate chemistry is a vital determinant in the magnitude of effects observed. Benthic marine ecosystems are facing an increasing risk of acute CO2 exposure that may be natural or anthropogenically derived (e.g. engineering and industrial activities). However, our understanding of how acute CO2 events impact marine life is restricted to individual organisms, with little understanding for how this manifests at the community level. Here, we investigated in situ the effect of acute CO2 enrichment on the coralline algal ecosystem - a globally ubiquitous, ecologically and economically important habitat, but one which is likely to be sensitive to CO2 enrichment due to its highly calcified reef-like structures engineered by coralline algae. Most notably, we observed a rapid community-level shift to favour net dissolution rather than net calcification. Smaller changes from net respiration to net photosynthesis were also observed. There was no effect on the net flux of DMS/DMSP (algal secondary metabolites), nor on the nutrients nitrate and phosphate. Following return to ambient CO2 levels, only a partial recovery was seen within the monitoring timeframe. This study highlights the sensitivity of biogenic carbonate marine communities to acute CO2 enrichment and raises concerns over the capacity for the system to 'bounce back' if subjected to repeated acute high-CO2 events.

  • 48.
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Blomqvist, Sven
    Konsekvenser för Östersjöns biologi av förändrat klimat under 21:a århundradet2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Béguin, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hales, Simon
    University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Louis, Valérie R
    Institute for Public Health, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The opposing effects of climate change and socio-economic development on the global distribution of malaria2011Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 1209-1214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global geographic distribution of malaria results from a complex interaction between climatic and non-climatic factors. Over the past century, socio-economic development and public health measures have contributed to a marked contraction in the distribution of malaria. Previous assessments of the potential impact of global changes on malaria have not quantified the effects of non-climate factors. In this paper, we describe an empirical model of the past, present and future-potential geographic distribution of malaria which incorporates both the effects of climate change and of socio-economic development. A logistic regression model using temperature, precipitation and gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) identifies the recent global geographic distribution of malaria with high accuracy (sensitivity 85% and specificity 95%). Empirically, climate factors have a substantial effect on malaria transmission in countries where GDPpc is currently less than US$20,000. Using projections of future climate, GDPpc and population consistent with the IPCC A1B scenario, we estimate the potential future population living in areas where malaria can be transmitted in 2030 and 2050. In 2050, the projected population at risk is approximately 5.2 billion when considering climatic effects only, 1.95 billion when considering the combined effects of GDP and climate, and 1.74 billion when considering GDP effects only. Under the A1B scenario, we project that climate change has much weaker effects on malaria than GDPpc increase. This outcome is, however, dependent on optimistic estimates of continued socioeconomic development. Even then, climate change has important effects on the projected distribution of malaria, leading to an increase of over 200 million in the projected population at risk.

  • 50. Cairns, David M.
    et al.
    Lafon, Charles W.
    Mouton, Michelle F.
    Stuteville, Rachel L.
    Young, Amanda B.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Comparing two methods for ageing trees with suppressed, diffuse-porous rings (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii)2012Inngår i: Dendrochronologia, ISSN 1125-7865, E-ISSN 1612-0051, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 252-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual growth rings of diffuse porous species such as mountain birch are often difficult to distinguish when samples are collected from trees that grow at treeline or in other harsh environments. In this study we document the differences in seedling and sapling ring counts obtained from two methods of analysis: a traditional analysis based on reflected light and low-power microscopy and one based on transmitted light with higher power magnification that uses thin-sections of the samples. Rings are easier to resolve using the more labor-intensive transmitted light method. Small rings are often missed when using the reflected light method, resulting in an underestimation of tree age. The dates estimated by the standard method agreed with those determined using the thin-sectioning method in 9.6% of the cases. Most commonly, the standard method gave a younger age than did thin-sectioning (72.4% of the trees). In only 18.03% of the cases did the standard method result in a greater age than did thin-sectioning. The reflected light method produced age estimations that were on average 1.37 years younger than those determined using the transmitted light method. The difference between the two methods was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with mean ring-width. Age-class histograms based on the two methods show little difference at coarser aggregation levels (decades and pentads), but annualized age-class histograms have less agreement between the two methods. Therefore, we suggest using the more labor-intensive thin-sectioning method when annualized age counts are necessary in suppressed seedlings and saplings, for example, comparing tree establishment with annual climate conditions at treeline.

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