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  • 1.
    Abdel-Shafi, Seham
    et al.
    Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    El-Nemr, Mona
    Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Enan, Gamal
    Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Osman, Ali
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Sitohy, Mahmoud
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Isolation and characterization of antibacterial conglutinins from Lupine seeds2023In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 28, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main target of this work is to discover new protein fractions from natural resources with high antibacterial action. The 7S and 11S globulin fractions, as well as the basic subunit (BS), were isolated from lupine seeds (Lupinus termis), chemically characterized, and screened for antibacterial activity against seven pathogenic bacteria. SDS-PAGE revealed molecular weights ranging from 55 to 75 kDa for 7S globulin, 20–37 kD for 11S globulin, and 20 kD for the BS. 11S globulin and the BS migrated faster on Urea-PAGE toward the cathode compared to 7S globulin. FTIR and NMR showed different spectral patterns between the 7S and 11S globulins but similar ones between 11S globulin and the BS. The MICs of the BS were in the range of 0.05–2 μg/mL against Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to higher values for 11S globulin. The BS surpassed 11S globulin in antibacterial action, while 7S globulin showed no effect. The MICs of 11S globulin and the BS represented only 5% and 2.5% of the specific antibiotic against L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated different signs of cellular deformation and decay in the protein-treated bacteria, probably due to interaction with the bacterial cell wall and membranes. 11S globulin and the BS can be nominated as effective food biopreservatives.

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  • 2. Abraham, Edit
    et al.
    Miskolczi, Pal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ayaydin, Ferhan
    Yu, Ping
    Kotogany, Edit
    Bako, Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Oetvoes, Krisztina
    Horvath, Gabor V.
    Dudits, Denes
    Immunodetection of retinoblastoma-related protein and its phosphorylated form in interphase and mitotic alfalfa cells2011In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 2155-2168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are primarily considered as key regulators of G(1)/S phase transition, with functional roles in a variety of cellular events during plant growth and organ development. Polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal region of the Arabidopsis RBR1 protein also specifically recognizes the alfalfa 115 kDa MsRBR protein, as shown by the antigen competition assay. The MsRBR protein was detected in all cell cycle phases, with a moderate increase in samples representing G(2)/M cells. Antibody against the human phospho-pRb peptide (Ser807/811) cross-reacted with the same 115 kDa MsRBR protein and with the in vitro phosphorylated MsRBR protein C-terminal fragment. Phospho-MsRBR protein was low in G(1) cells. Its amount increased upon entry into the S phase and remained high during the G(2)/M phases. Roscovitine treatment abolished the activity of alfalfa MsCDKA1;1 and MsCDKB2;1, and the phospho-MsRBR protein level was significantly decreased in the treated cells. Colchicine block increased the detected levels of both forms of MsRBR protein. Reduced levels of the MsRBR protein in cells at stationary phase or grown in hormone-free medium can be a sign of the division-dependent presence of plant RBR proteins. Immunolocalization of the phospho-MsRBR protein indicated spots of variable number and size in the labelled interphase nuclei and high signal intensity of nuclear granules in prophase. Structures similar to phospho-MsRBR proteins cannot be recognized in later mitotic phases. Based on the presented western blot and immunolocalization data, the possible involvement of RBR proteins in G(2)/M phase regulation in plant cells is discussed.

  • 3. Abreu, Ilka N.
    et al.
    Aksmann, Anna
    Bajhaiya, Amit K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Algal Biotechnology Lab, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Benlloch, Reyes
    Giordano, Mario
    Pokora, Wojciech
    Selstam, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Moritz, Thomas
    Changes in lipid and carotenoid metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during induction of CO2-concentrating mechanism: Cellular response to low CO2 stress2020In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 52, article id 102099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthetic organisms strictly depend on CO2 availability and the CO2:O2 ratio, as both CO2/O2 compete for catalytic site of Rubisco. Green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can overcome CO2 shortage by inducing CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM). Cells transferred to low-CO2 are subjected to light-driven oxidative stress due to decrease in the electron sink. Response to environmental perturbations is mediated to some extent by changes in the lipid and carotenoid metabolism. We thus hypothesize that when cells are challenged with changes in CO2 availability, changes in the lipidome and carotenoids profile occur. These changes expected to be transient, when CCM is activated, CO2 limitation will be substantially ameliorated. In our experiments, cells were transferred from high (5%) to low (air equilibrium) CO2. qPCR analysis of genes related to CCM and lipid metabolism was carried out. Lipidome was analyzed both in whole cells and in isolated lipid droplets. We characterized the changes in polar lipids, fatty acids and ketocarotenoids. In general, polar lipids significantly and transiently increased in lipid droplets during CCM. Similar pattern was observed for xanthophylls, ketocarotenoids and their esters. The data supports our hypothesis about the roles of lipids and carotenoids in tackling the oxidative stress associated with acclimation to sub-saturating CO2.

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  • 4.
    Achour, Cyrinne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Canonical and non-canonical functions of METTL3 in breast cancer2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene expression is spatially and temporally regulated at multiple levels. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal modification in messenger RNA (mRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs). m6A plays important roles in multiple cellular processes including stem cell pluripotency, adipogenesis, spermatogenesis, neurogenesis, circadian rhythm and development by modulating RNA splicing, export, stability, degradation and translation. Although aberrant m6A methylation has been reported in various types of cancer, the underlying molecular functions of METTL3, the solely catalytic subunit of the m6A-methylase complex, has yet to be defined.

    m6A has been recently identified in nascent pre-mRNA, and more specifically intronic m6A has been linked to exon skipping events. The occurrence of impaired alternative splicing (AS) is frequently found during the development of cancer. We performed transcriptome wide analysis in breast cancer cell lines and explored AS events. Our results define an AS signature for breast tumorigenesis. We found that METTL3 modulates AS directly through m6A deposition at the intron-exon junctions or indirectly by the m6A deposition in transcripts encoding for splicing factors and transcription factors. In particular, we show that MYC mRNA harbours the m6A mark, suggesting that METTL3 regulates AS indirectly via the regulation of MYC expression. Indeed, the targets of MYC overlapped with METTL3-associated AS events. Importantly, five of the AS events identified and validated in vitro, are linked to a worse prognosis in breast cancer patients. Additionally, we show that METTL3 enhances the breast cancer phenotype through a dual mechanism depending on its sub-cellular localization. We find that the canonical nuclear function of METTL3 decorates transcripts that are involved in cell proliferation and migration. We observe that METTL3 is highly expressed in the cytoplasmic compartment of breast cancer cells from patients. Remarkably, we uncover that the cytoplasmic METTL3 interacts with subunits of the exocyst, whose subunit EXOC7 has been linked to cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Notably, we show that breast cancer cell lines depleted of METTL3 display less gelatinase activity and invadopodia formation, supporting the role of METTL3 in cell invasion via exocytosis.

    m6A is a reversible modification, which can be demethylated by the erasers FTO and ALKBH5. Depletion of FTO has been shown to increase the level of m6A in mRNA, however recent studies have reported that FTO could demethylate N6,2´-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), adjacent to the 7-methylguanosine cap on mRNA. In the cellular model of colorectal cancer CRC1, depletion of FTO leads to a cancer stem cell phenotype and confers chemotherapy resistance. By performing m6A-RNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeRIP), we show that knockdown of FTO in CRC1 cells does not affect the global level of m6A in mRNA but of m6Am level.

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  • 5.
    Achour, Cyrinne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Bhattarai, Devi Prasad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Esteva-Socias, Margalida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth
    Malla, Sandhya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Seier, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Marchand, Virginie
    Motorine, Yuri
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Gilthorpe, Jonathan D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Marzese, Diego Matias
    Bally, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Roman, Angel-Carlos
    Pich, Andreas
    Aguilo, Francesca
    Reshaping the role of METTL3 in breast tumorigenesisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Achour, Cyrinne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Bhattarai, Devi Prasad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Groza, Paula
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Roman, Ángel-Carlos
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain.
    Aguilo, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    METTL3 regulates breast cancer-associated alternative splicing switches2023In: Oncogene, ISSN 0950-9232, E-ISSN 1476-5594, Vol. 42, p. 911-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative splicing (AS) enables differential inclusion of exons from a given transcript, thereby contributing to the transcriptome and proteome diversity. Aberrant AS patterns play major roles in the development of different pathologies, including breast cancer. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant internal modification of eukaryotic mRNA, influences tumor progression and metastasis of breast cancer, and it has been recently linked to AS regulation. Here, we identify a specific AS signature associated with breast tumorigenesis in vitro. We characterize for the first time the role of METTL3 in modulating breast cancer-associated AS programs, expanding the role of the m6A-methyltransferase in tumorigenesis. Specifically, we find that both m6A deposition in splice site boundaries and in splicing and transcription factor transcripts, such as MYC, direct AS switches of specific breast cancer-associated transcripts. Finally, we show that five of the AS events validated in vitro are associated with a poor overall survival rate for patients with breast cancer, suggesting the use of these AS events as a novel potential prognostic biomarker.

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  • 7.
    Adhikari, Deepak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Signaling pathways in the development of female germ cells2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Primordial follicles are the first small follicles to appear in the mammalian ovary. Women are born with a fixed number of primordial follicles in the ovaries. Once formed, the pool of primordial follicles serves as a source of developing follicles and oocytes. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate the functional role of the intra-oocyte signaling pathways, especially the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and survival. We found that a primordial follicle remains dormant when the PI3K and mTORC1 signaling in its oocyte is activated to an appropriate level, which is just sufficient to maintain its survival, but not sufficient for its growth initiation. Hyperactivation of either of these signaling pathways causes global activation of the entire pool of primordial follicles leading to the exhaustion of all the follicles in young adulthood in mice. Mammalian oocytes, while growing within the follicles, remain arrested at prophase I of meiosis. Oocytes within the fully-grown antral follicles resume meiosis upon a preovulatory surge of leutinizing hormone (LH), which indicates that LH mediates the resumption of meiosis. The prophase I arrest in the follicle-enclosed oocyte is the result of low maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, and resumption of meiosis upon the arrival of hormonal signals is mediated by activation of MPF. MPF is a complex of cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, which is essential and sufficient for entry into mitosis. Although much of the mitotic cell cycle machinery is shared during meiosis, lack of Cdk2  in mice leads to a postnatal loss of all oocytes, indicating that Cdk2 is important for oocyte survival, and probably oocyte meiosis also. There have been conflicting results earlier about the role of Cdk2 in metaphase II arrest of Xenopus  oocytes. Thus the second aim of the thesis was to identify the specific Cdk that is essential for mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. We generated mouse models with oocytespecific deletion of Cdk1  or Cdk2  and studied the specific requirements of Cdk1 and Cdk2 during resumption of oocyte meiosis. We found that only Cdk1 is essential and sufficient for the oocyte meiotic maturation. Cdk1 does not only phosphorylate the meiotic phosphoproteins during meiosis resumption but also phosphorylates and suppresses the downstream protein phosphatase 1, which is essential for protecting the Cdk1 substrates from dephosphorylation.

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    Thesis-Deepak Adhikari
  • 8.
    Adhikari, Deepak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Liu, Kui
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regulation of quiescence and activation of oocyte growth in primordial follicles2013In: Oogenesis / [ed] Giovanni Coticchio; David F. Albertini; Lucia De Santis, London: Springer, 2013, 1, p. 49-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Once formed, the pool of dormant primordial follicles serves as the source of developing follicles and fertilizable ova for the duration of a female’s reproductive life. Depending upon the species, primordial follicles can remain quiescent for months, years, or even decades, and the highly regulated process of primordial follicle activation ensures the availability of growing follicles throughout the reproductive period. We have recently begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of follicular quiescence and the activation of primordial follicles, mainly through the use of genetically modified mouse models. Both overactivation as well as the failure of activation of primordial follicles can lead to pathological conditions such as premature ovarian failure (POF) in the experimental models. A thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate quiescence and activation of oocyte growth in primordial follicles will have important biological and clinical implications.

  • 9. Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj
    et al.
    Bolduc, Francois
    Bru, Pierrick
    RNA Group/Groupe ARN, Département de Biochimie, Faculté de Médecine des Sciences de la Santé, Pavillon de Recherche Appliquée au Cancer, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; Present address: Institutionen för Fysiologisk Botanik, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Perreault, Jean-Pierre
    Insights Into Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Quasi-Species From Infection to Disease2020In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 11, article id 1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viroids are non-coding RNA plant pathogens that are characterized by their possession of a high mutation level. Although the sequence heterogeneity in viroid infected plants is well understood, shifts in viroid population dynamics due to mutations over the course of infection remain poorly understood. In this study, the ten most abundant sequence variants of potato spindle tuber viroid RG1 (PSTVd) expressed at different time intervals in PSTVd infected tomato plants were identified by high-throughput sequencing. The sequence variants, forming a quasi-species, were subjected to both the identification of the regions favoring mutations and the effect of the mutations on viroid secondary structure and viroid derived small RNAs (vd-sRNA). At week 1 of PSTVd infection, 25% of the sequence variants were similar to the "master" sequence (i.e., the sequence used for inoculation). The frequency of the master sequence within the population increased to 70% at week 2 after PSTVd infection, and then stabilized for the rest of the disease cycle (i.e., weeks 3 and 4). While some sequence variants were abundant at week 1 after PSTVd infection, they tended to decrease in frequency over time. For example, the variants with insertions at positions 253 or 254, positions that could affect the Loop E as well as the metastable hairpin I structure that has been shown important during replication and viroid infectivity, resulted in decreased frequency. Data obtained byin silicoanalysis of the viroid derived small RNAs (vd-sRNA) was also analyzed. A few mutants had the potential of positively affecting the viroid's accumulation by inducing the RNA silencing of the host's defense related genes. Variants with mutations that could negatively affect viroid abundance were also identified because their derived vd-sRNA were no longer capable of targeting any host mRNA or of changing its target sequence from a host defense gene to some other non-important host gene. Together, these findings open avenues into understanding the biological role of sequence variants, this viroid's interaction with host components, stable and metastable structures generated by mutants during the course of infection, and the influence of sequence variants on stabilizing viroid population dynamics.

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  • 10. Agah, Azin
    et al.
    Kyriakides, Themis R.
    Letrondo, Nikole
    Björkblom, Benny
    Departments of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Bornstein, P.
    Thrombospondin 2 levels are increased in aged mice: consequences for cutaneous wound healing and angiogenesis2004In: Matrix Biology, ISSN 0945-053X, E-ISSN 1569-1802, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin 2 (TSP2), belongs to a group of matricellular proteins that are induced in response to injury and modulate the healing of dermal wounds. Thus, TSP-2-null mice display abnormal connective tissue architecture and increased angiogenesis in the dermis, and heal wounds at an accelerated rate. In this study, we report that the content of TSP2 is increased in the uninjured skin of aged mice. Furthermore, in primary dermal fibroblasts, TSP2 expression is increased both as a function of the age of the donor and days in culture. To determine the significance of the increased TSP2 in aged mice (two years or older), we performed full-thickness excisional wounds and compared their healing in aged and young (3–4 months) wild-type and TSP2-null mice. Gross morphological examination of wounds indicated that aged TSP2-null mice healed faster than their aged wild-type counterparts, but healing in aged mice was always sub-optimal in comparison to that in young animals. Surprisingly, despite the increase in TSP2, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, in wounds in aged mice, the vascular density of these wounds was not reduced in comparison to that in young animals. However, immunohistochemical analysis of healing wounds revealed a shift in the peak content of TSP2, from day 10 in young mice to day 14 or later in aged mice, and there was a corresponding delay in the expected increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 levels in aged TSP2-null mice. We suggest that the delay in expression of TSP2 and MMP2 in the wounds of aged mice could contribute to their impaired rate of wound healing.

  • 11.
    Aguilar, Ximena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Folding and interaction studies of subunits in protein complexes2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins function as worker molecules in the cell and their natural environment is crowded. How they fold in a cell-like environment and how they recognize their interacting partners in such conditions, are questions that underlie the work of this thesis.

    Two distinct subjects were investigated using a combination of biochemical- and biophysical methods. First, the unfolding/dissociation of a heptameric protein (cpn10) in the presence of the crowding agent Ficoll 70. Ficoll 70 was used to mimic the crowded environment in the cell and it has been used previously to study macromolecular crowding effects, or excluded volume effects, in protein folding studies. Second, the conformational changes upon interaction between the Mediator subunit Med25 and the transcription factor Dreb2a from Arabidopsis thaliana. Mediator is a transcriptional co-regulator complex which is conserved from yeast to humans. The molecular mechanisms of its action are however not entirely understood. It has been proposed that the Mediator complex conveys regulatory signals from promoter-bound transcription factors (activators/repressors) to the RNA polymerase II machinery through conformational rearrangements.

    The results from the folding study showed that cpn10 was stabilized in the presence of Ficoll 70 during thermal- and chemical induced unfolding (GuHCl). The thermal transition midpoint increased by 4°C, and the chemical midpoint by 0.5 M GuHCl as compared to buffer conditions. Also the heptamer-monomer dissociation was affected in the presence of Ficoll 70, the transition midpoint was lower in Ficoll 70 (3.1 μM) compared to in buffer (8.1 μM) thus indicating tighter binding in crowded conditions. The coupled unfolding/dissociation free energy for the heptamer increased by about 36 kJ/mol in Ficoll. Altogether, the results revealed that the stability effect on cpn10 due to macromolecular crowding was larger in the individual monomers (33%) than at the monomer-monomer interfaces (8%).

    The results from the interaction study indicated conformational changes upon interaction between the A. thaliana Med25 ACtivator Interaction Domain (ACID) and Dreb2a. Structural changes were probed to originate from unstructured Dreb2a and not from the Med25-ACID. Human Med25-ACID was also found to interact with the plant-specific Dreb2a, even though the ACIDs from human and A. thaliana share low sequence homology. Moreover, the human Med25-interacting transcription factor VP16 was found to interact with A. thaliana Med25. Finally, NMR, ITC and pull-down experiments showed that the unrelated transcription factors Dreb2a and

    VP16 interact with overlapping regions in the ACIDs of A. thaliana and human Med25.

    The results presented in this thesis contribute to previous reports in two different aspects. Firstly, they lend support to the findings that the intracellular environment affects the biophysical properties of proteins. It will therefore be important to continue comparing results between in vitro and cell-like conditions to measure the magnitude of such effects and to improve the understanding of protein folding and thereby misfolding of proteins in cells. Better knowledge of protein misfolding mechanisms is critical since they are associated to several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's. Secondly, our results substantiate the notion that transcription factors are able to bind multiple targets and that they gain structure upon binding. They also show that subunits of the conserved Mediator complex, despite low sequence homologies, retain a conserved structure and function when comparing evolutionary diverged species.

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  • 12.
    Aguilar, Ximena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Brännström, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Schleucher, Jurgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Interaction Studies of the Human and Arabidopsis thaliana Med25-ACID Proteins with the Herpes Simplex Virus VP16-and Plant-Specific Dreb2a Transcription Factors2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, p. e98575-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediator is an evolutionary conserved multi-protein complex present in all eukaryotes. It functions as a transcriptional coregulator by conveying signals from activators and repressors to the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. The Arabidopsis thaliana Med25 (aMed25) ACtivation Interaction Domain (ACID) interacts with the Dreb2a activator which is involved in plant stress response pathways, while Human Med25-ACID (hMed25) interacts with the herpes simplex virus VP16 activator. Despite low sequence similarity, hMed25-ACID also interacts with the plant-specific Dreb2a transcriptional activator protein. We have used GST pull-down-, surface plasmon resonance-, isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR chemical shift experiments to characterize interactions between Dreb2a and VP16, with the hMed25 and aMed25-ACIDs. We found that VP16 interacts with aMed25-ACID with similar affinity as with hMed25-ACID and that the binding surface on aMed25-ACID overlaps with the binding site for Dreb2a. We also show that the Dreb2a interaction region in hMed25-ACID overlaps with the earlier reported VP16 binding site. In addition, we show that hMed25-ACID/Dreb2a and aMed25-ACID/Dreb2a display similar binding affinities but different binding energetics. Our results therefore indicate that interaction between transcriptional regulators and their target proteins in Mediator are less dependent on the primary sequences in the interaction domains but that these domains fold into similar structures upon interaction.

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  • 13. Ahad, Abdul
    et al.
    Keech, Olivier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Lindén, Pernilla
    Brouwer, Bastiaan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Stenlund, Hans
    Moritz, Thomas
    Jansson, Stefan
    Gardeström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Comparison between leaves from darkened plants and individually-darkened leaves reveals differential metabolic strategies in response to darknessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14. Ahlstrand, Tuuli
    et al.
    Tuominen, Heidi
    Beklen, Arzu
    Torittu, Annamari
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sormunen, Raija
    Pöllänen, Marja T.
    Permi, Perttu
    Ihalin, Riikka
    A novel intrinsically disordered outer membrane lipoprotein of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds various cytokines and plays a role in biofilm response to interleukin-1β and interleukin-82017In: Virulence, ISSN 2150-5594, E-ISSN 2150-5608, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 115-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not have a well-defined and stable 3-dimensional fold. Some IDPs can function as either transient or permanent binders of other proteins and may interact with an array of ligands by adopting different conformations. A novel outer membrane lipoprotein, bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI) of the opportunistic oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds a key gatekeeper proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. Because the amino acid sequence of the novel lipoprotein resembles that of fibrinogen binder A of Haemophilus ducreyi, BilRI could have the potential to bind other proteins, such as host matrix proteins. However, from the tested host matrix proteins, BilRI interacted with neither collagen nor fibrinogen. Instead, the recombinant non-lipidated BilRI, which was intrinsically disordered, bound various pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BilRI played a role in the in vitro sensing of IL-1β and IL-8 because low concentrations of cytokines did not decrease the amount of extracellular DNA in the matrix of bilRI− mutant biofilm as they did in the matrix of wild-type biofilm when the biofilms were exposed to recombinant cytokines for 22 hours. BilRI played a role in the internalization of IL-1β in the gingival model system but did not affect either IL-8 or IL-6 uptake. However, bilRI deletion did not entirely prevent IL-1β internalization, and the binding of cytokines to BilRI was relatively weak. Thus, BilRI might sequester cytokines on the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans to facilitate the internalization process in low local cytokine concentrations.

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  • 15.
    Aisenbrey, Christopher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bechinger, Burkhard
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Macromolecular Crowding at Membrane Interfaces: Adsorption and Alignment of Membrane Peptides2008In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 375, p. 376-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Association of proteins to cellular membranes is involved in various biological processes. Various theoretical models have been developed to describe this adsorption mechanism, commonly implying the concept of an ideal solution. However, due to the two-dimensional character of membrane surfaces intermolecular interactions between the adsorbed molecules become important. Therefore previously adsorbed molecules can influence the adsorption behavior of additional protein molecules and their membrane-associated structure. Using the model peptide LAH4, which upon membrane-adsorption can adopt a transmembrane as well as an in-planar configuration, we carried out a systematic study of the correlation between the peptide concentration in the membrane and the topology of this membrane-associated polypeptide. We could describe the observed binding behavior by establishing a concept, which includes intermolecular interactions in terms of a scaled particle theory.

    High surface concentration of the peptide shifts the molecules from an in-planar into a transmembrane conformation, a process driven by the reduction of occupied surface area per molecule. In a cellular context, the crowding-dependent alignment might provide a molecular switch for a cell to sense and control its membrane occupancy. Furthermore, crowding might have pronounced effects on biological events, such as the cooperative behavior of antimicrobial peptides and the membrane triggered aggregation of amyloidogenic peptides.

  • 16.
    Aisenbrey, Christopher
    et al.
    Institut de Chimie Universit0 Louis Pasteur Strasbourg—CNRS, UMR 7177 4, Rue Blaise Pascal, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Max-Planck-Institut f>r Biochemie Am Klopferspitz 18A, 82152 Martinsried (Germany).
    Cusan, Monica
    Lambotte, Stephan
    Jasperse, Pieter
    Georgescu, Julia
    Harzer, Ulrike
    Bechinger, Burkhard
    Specific Isotope Labeling of Colicin E1 and B Channel Domains For Membrane Topological Analysis by Oriented Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy2008In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 944-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach is presented to selectively label the methionines of the colicin E1 and B channel domains, each about 200 residues in size, and use them for oriented solid-state NMR investigations. By combining site-directed mutagenesis, bacterial overexpression in a methionine auxotroph E. coli strain and biochemical purification, quantitative amounts of the proteins for NMR structural investigations were obtained. The proteins were selectively labeled with 15N at only one, or at a few, selected sites. Multidimensional heteronuclear correlation high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to monitor the quality of isotopic labeling. Thereafter the proteins were reconstituted into oriented phospholipid bilayers and investigated by proton-decoupled 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The colicin E1 thermolytic fragment that carries a single 15N methionine within its hydrophobic helix 9 region exhibited 15N resonances that are characteristic of helices that are oriented predominantly parallel to the membrane surface at low temperature, and a variety of alignments and conformations at room temperature. This suggests that the protein can adopt both umbrella and pen-knife conformations.

  • 17.
    Alam, Athar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Golovliov, Igor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Javed, Eram
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Kumar, Rajender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ådén, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Dissociation between the critical role of ClpB of Francisella tularensis for the heat shock response and the DnaK interaction and its important role for efficient type VI secretion and bacterial virulence2020In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 1-27, article id e1008466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Author summary Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. This highly virulent bacterium encodes an atypical T6SS lacking ClpV, the ATPase crucial for prototypic T6SS sheath disassembly. It, however, possesses ClpB, a protein critical for heat shock survival via its interaction with DnaK. Since ClpB possesses ATPase activity, it has been hypothesized to provide a compensatory function for the absence of ClpV, a hypothesis supported by the recent findings from us and others. Here, we investigated how F. tularensis ClpB controls T6S. In silico modelling of the ClpB-DnaK complex identified key interactions that were experimentally verified. For example, mutating one of the DnaK-interacting residues rendered the bacterium exquisitely susceptible to heat shock, but had no effect on T6S and virulence. In contrast, removing the N-terminal of ClpB only had a slight effect on the heat shock response, but strongly compromised both T6S and virulence. Intriguingly, the Escherichia coli ClpB could fully complement the function of F. tularensis ClpB. The data demonstrate that the two critical roles of ClpB, mediating heat shock survival and effective T6S, are dissociated and that the N-terminal is crucial for T6S and virulence. Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious, intracellular bacterium possesses an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is essential for its virulence. The chaperone ClpB, a member of the Hsp100/Clp family, is involved in Francisella T6SS disassembly and type VI secretion (T6S) is impaired in its absence. We asked if the role of ClpB for T6S was related to its prototypical role for the disaggregation activity. The latter is dependent on its interaction with the DnaK/Hsp70 chaperone system. Key residues of the ClpB-DnaK interaction were identified by molecular dynamic simulation and verified by targeted mutagenesis. Using such targeted mutants, it was found that the F. novicida ClpB-DnaK interaction was dispensable for T6S, intracellular replication, and virulence in a mouse model, although essential for handling of heat shock. Moreover, by mutagenesis of key amino acids of the Walker A, Walker B, and Arginine finger motifs of each of the two Nucleotide-Binding Domains, their critical roles for heat shock, T6S, intracellular replication, and virulence were identified. In contrast, the N-terminus was dispensable for heat shock, but required for T6S, intracellular replication, and virulence. Complementation of the Delta clpB mutant with a chimeric F. novicida ClpB expressing the N-terminal of Escherichia coli, led to reconstitution of the wild-type phenotype. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the ClpB-DnaK interaction does not contribute to T6S, whereas the N-terminal and NBD domains displayed critical roles for T6S and virulence.

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  • 18.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Optical projection tomography based 3D-spatial and quantitative assessments of the diabetic pancreas2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The gastrointestinal tract comprises a number of digestive organs including the stomach and pancreas. The stomach is involved in the digestion and short term storage of food while the pancreas is a mixed endocrine and exocrine gland which provides the body with hormones and enzymes essential for nutritional utilisation. The pancreas consists of three different cell lineages, acinar, ductal and endocrine cells. The endocrine cells, organised in the islets of Langerhans, are scattered throughout the exocrine parenchyma and regulate blood glucose levels by production of hormones such as glucagon and insulin.

    The Nkx family of homeodomain proteins controls numerous processes during development. Previous studies have identified two members belonging to the Nkx6 subfamily of Nkx proteins, Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2. We have described the cloning and embryonic expression pattern of Nkx6.3. All three members of the Nkx6 gene family were shown to be expressed in partially overlapping domains during the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Nkx6.2 was also identified as a transient marker for pancreatic exocrine cells.

    Analysing gene expression patterns and morphological features in tissues and organs is often performed by stereologic sampling which is a labour-intensive two dimensional approach that rely on certain assumptions when calculating e.g. β-cell mass and islet number in the pancreas. By combined improvements in immunohistochemical protocols, computational processing and tomographic scanning, we have developed a methodology based on optical projection tomography (OPT) allowing for 3D visualisation and quantification of specifically labelled objects within intact adult mouse organs. In the pancreas, this technique allows for spatial and quantitative measurements of total islet number and β-cell mass. We have further developed a protocol allowing for high resolution regional analyses based on global OPT assessments of the pancreatic constitution. This methodology is likely to facilitate detailed cellular and molecular analysis of user defined regions of interest in the pancreas, at the same time providing information on the overall disease state of the gland.

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) can occur at any age and is characterized by the marked inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing β-cells. Information on the key cellular and molecular events underlying the recruitment of lymphocytes, their infiltration of the islets of Langerhans and consequent β-cell destruction is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of T1D. Using the developed methodology we have recorded the spatial and quantitative distribution of islet β-cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in the non obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for T1D. This study shows that the smaller islets, which are predominantly organised in the periphery of the organ, are the first to disappear during the progression of T1D. The larger islets appear more resistant and our data suggest that a compensatory proliferative process is going on side by side with the autoimmune-induced β-cell destruction. Further, the formation of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in areas apparently unaffected by insulitis suggests that local factors may provide cues for the homing of these lymphocytes back to the pancreas.

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  • 19. Al-Behadili, Ali
    et al.
    Uhler, Jay P.
    Berglund, Anna-Karin
    Peter, Bradley
    Doimo, Mara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Reyes, Aurelio
    Wanrooij, Sjoerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Zeviani, Massimo
    Falkenberg, Maria
    A two-nuclease pathway involving RNase H1 is required for primer removal at human mitochondrial OriL2018In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 46, no 18, p. 9471-9483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of Ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) during primer removal and ligation at the mitochondrial origin of light-strand DNA synthesis (OriL) is a key, yet poorly understood, step in mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Here, we reconstitute the replication cycle of L-strand synthesis in vitro using recombinant mitochondrial proteins and model OriL substrates. The process begins with initiation of DNA replication at OriL and ends with primer removal and ligation. We find that RNase H1 partially removes the primer, leaving behind the last one to three ribonucleotides. These 5′-end ribonucleotides disturb ligation, a conclusion which is supported by analysis of RNase H1-deficient patient cells. A second nuclease is therefore required to remove the last ribonucleotides and we demonstrate that Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) can execute this function in vitro. Removal of RNA primers at OriL thus depends on a two-nuclease model, which in addition to RNase H1 requires FEN1 or a FEN1-like activity. These findings define the role of RNase H1 at OriL and help to explain the pathogenic consequences of disease causing mutations in RNase H1.

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  • 20. Alekeyenko, Artyom A.
    et al.
    Ho, Joshua W. K.
    Peng, Shouyong
    Gelbart, Marnie
    Tolstorukov, Michael Y.
    Plachetka, Annette
    Kharchenko, Peter V.
    Jung, Youngsook L.
    Gorchakov, Andrey A.
    Larschan, Erica
    Gu, Tingting
    Minoda, Aki
    Riddle, Nicole C.
    Schwartz, Yuri B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Elgin, Sarah C. R.
    Karpen, Gary H.
    Pirrotta, Vincenzo
    Kuroda, Mitzi I.
    Park, Peter J.
    Sequence-Specific Targeting of Dosage Compensation in Drosophila Favors an Active Chromatin Context2012In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e1002646-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Drosophila MSL complex mediates dosage compensation by increasing transcription of the single X chromosome in males approximately two-fold. This is accomplished through recognition of the X chromosome and subsequent acetylation of histone H4K16 on X-linked genes. Initial binding to the X is thought to occur at "entry sites" that contain a consensus sequence motif ("MSL recognition element" or MRE). However, this motif is only similar to 2 fold enriched on X, and only a fraction of the motifs on X are initially targeted. Here we ask whether chromatin context could distinguish between utilized and non-utilized copies of the motif, by comparing their relative enrichment for histone modifications and chromosomal proteins mapped in the modENCODE project. Through a comparative analysis of the chromatin features in male S2 cells (which contain MSL complex) and female Kc cells (which lack the complex), we find that the presence of active chromatin modifications, together with an elevated local GC content in the surrounding sequences, has strong predictive value for functional MSL entry sites, independent of MSL binding. We tested these sites for function in Kc cells by RNAi knockdown of Sxl, resulting in induction of MSL complex. We show that ectopic MSL expression in Kc cells leads to H4K16 acetylation around these sites and a relative increase in X chromosome transcription. Collectively, our results support a model in which a pre-existing active chromatin environment, coincident with H3K36me3, contributes to MSL entry site selection. The consequences of MSL targeting of the male X chromosome include increase in nucleosome lability, enrichment for H4K16 acetylation and JIL-1 kinase, and depletion of linker histone H1 on active X-linked genes. Our analysis can serve as a model for identifying chromatin and local sequence features that may contribute to selection of functional protein binding sites in the genome.

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  • 21.
    Aleksandrova, Elena V.
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Wu, Kelvin J. Y.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, MA, Cambridge, United States.
    Tresco, Ben I. C.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, MA, Cambridge, United States.
    Syroegin, Egor A.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Killeavy, Erin E.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, RI, Kingston, United States.
    Balasanyants, Samson M.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Svetlov, Maxim S.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States; Center for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Gregory, Steven T.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, RI, Kingston, United States.
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Myers, Andrew G.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, MA, Cambridge, United States.
    Polikanov, Yury S.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States; Center for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Structural basis of Cfr-mediated antimicrobial resistance and mechanisms to evade it2024In: Nature Chemical Biology, ISSN 1552-4450, E-ISSN 1552-4469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial ribosome is an essential drug target as many clinically important antibiotics bind and inhibit its functional centers. The catalytic peptidyl transferase center (PTC) is targeted by the broadest array of inhibitors belonging to several chemical classes. One of the most abundant and clinically prevalent resistance mechanisms to PTC-acting drugs in Gram-positive bacteria is C8-methylation of the universally conserved A2503 nucleobase by Cfr methylase in 23S ribosomal RNA. Despite its clinical importance, a sufficient understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Cfr-mediated resistance is currently lacking. Here, we report a set of high-resolution structures of the Cfr-modified 70S ribosome containing aminoacyl- and peptidyl-transfer RNAs. These structures reveal an allosteric rearrangement of nucleotide A2062 upon Cfr-mediated methylation of A2503 that likely contributes to the reduced potency of some PTC inhibitors. Additionally, we provide the structural bases behind two distinct mechanisms of engaging the Cfr-methylated ribosome by the antibiotics iboxamycin and tylosin. 

  • 22.
    Alenius, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University.
    Bohm, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Identification of a novel neural cell adhesion molecule-related gene with a potential role in selective axonal projection1997In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 272, no 42, p. 26083-26086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe here the cloning of mouse complementary DNAs encoding a novel protein, Rb-8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM), with a predicted extracellular region of five immunoglobulin Ca-type domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains, Alternative splicing is likely to generate two RNCAM isoforms, which are differently attached to the cell membrane, These structural features and overall sequence identity identify this protein as a novel member of a cell adhesion molecule subgroup together with vertebrate neural cell adhesion molecule, Aplysia cell adhesion molecule, and Drosophila fasciclin II, In insects, fasciclin II is present on a restricted subset of embryonic central nervous system axons where it controls selective axon fasciculation. Intriguingly, RNCAM likewise is expressed in subsets of olfactory and vomeronasal neurons with topographically defined axonal projections, The spatial expression RNCAM corresponds precisely to that of certain odorant receptor expression zones of the olfactory epithelium. These expression patterns thus render RNCAM the first described cell adhesion molecule with a potential regulatory role in formation of selective axonal projections important for olfactory sensory information coding.

  • 23.
    Al-Furoukh, Natalie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ianni, Alessandro
    Nolte, Hendrik
    Hölper, Soraya
    Krüger, Marcus
    Wanrooij, Sjoerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Braun, Thomas
    ClpX stimulates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in mammalian cells2015In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Cell Research, ISSN 0167-4889, E-ISSN 1879-2596, Vol. 1853, no 10, p. 2580-2591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteostasis is crucial for life and maintained by cellular chaperones and proteases. One major mitochondrial protease is the ClpXP complex, which is comprised of a catalytic ClpX subunit and a proteolytic ClpP subunit. Based on two separate observations, we hypothesized that ClpX may play a leading role in the cellular function of ClpXP. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of ClpX overexpression on a myoblast proteome by quantitative proteomics. ClpX overexpression results in the upregulation of markers of the mitochondria( proteostasis pathway, known as the "mitochondrial unfolded protein response" (UPRmt). Although this pathway is described in detail in Caenorhabditis elegans, it is not clear whether it is conserved in mammals. Therefore, we compared features of the classical nematode UPRmt with our mammalian ClpX-triggered UPRmt dataset. We show that they share the same retrograde mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling pathway that involves the key UPRmt transcription factor CHOP (also known as Ddit3, CEBPZ or GADD153). In conclusion, our data confirm the existence of a mammalian UPRmt that has great similarity to the C elegans pathway. Furthermore, our results illustrate that ClpX overexpression is a good and simple model to study the underlying mechanisms of the UPRmt in mammalian cells.

  • 24.
    Alinaghi, Masoumeh
    et al.
    Sartorius Corporate Research, Sartorius, Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Surowiec, Izabella
    Sartorius Corporate Research, Sartorius, Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Scholze, Steffi
    Sartorius Stedim Biotech GmbH, Göttingen, Germany.
    McCready, Chris
    Sartorius Corporate Research, ON, Oakville, Canada.
    Zehe, Christoph
    Sartorius Corporate Research, Sartorius Stedim Cellca GmbH, Ulm, Germany.
    Johansson, Erik
    Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Sartorius Corporate Research, Sartorius, Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cloarec, Olivier
    Sartorius Corporate Research, Sartorius, Sartorius Stedim Data Analytics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hierarchical time-series analysis of dynamic bioprocess systems2022In: Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1860-6768, E-ISSN 1860-7314, Vol. 17, no 12, article id 2200237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are leading types of ‘blockbuster’ biotherapeutics worldwide; they have been successfully used to treat various cancers and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Biotherapeutics process development and manufacturing are complicated due to lack of understanding the factors that impact cell productivity and product quality attributes. Understanding complex interactions between cells, media, and process parameters on the molecular level is essential to bring biomanufacturing to the next level. This can be achieved by analyzing cell culture metabolic levels connected to vital process parameters like viable cell density (VCD). However, VCD and metabolic profiles are dynamic parameters and inherently correlated with time, leading to a significant correlation without actual causality. Many time-series methods deal with such issues. However, with metabolic profiling, the number of measured variables vastly exceeds the number of experiments, making most of existing methods ill-suited and hard to interpret. Methods and Major

    Results: Here we propose an alternative workflow using hierarchical dimension reduction to visualize and interpret the relation between evolution of metabolic profiles and dynamic process parameters. The first step of proposed method is focused on finding predictive relation between metabolic profiles and process parameter at all time points using OPLS regression. For each time point, the p(corr) obtained from OPLS model is considered as a differential metabogram and is further assessed using principal components analysis (PCA).

    Conclusions: Compared to traditional batch modeling, applying proposed methodology on metabolic data from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) antibody production characterized the dynamic relation between metabolic profiles and critical process parameters.

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  • 25. Allas, Ular
    et al.
    Toom, Lauri
    Selyutina, Anastasia
    Maeorg, Uno
    Medina, Ricardo
    Merits, Andres
    Rinken, Ago
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
    Kaldalu, Niilo
    Tenson, Tanel
    Antibacterial activity of the nitrovinylfuran G1 (Furvina) and its conversion products2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2-Bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl) furan (G1 or Furvina) is an antimicrobial with a direct reactivity against thiol groups. It is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. By reacting with thiol groups it causes direct damage to proteins but, as a result, is very short-living and interconverts into an array of reaction products. Our aim was to characterize thiol reactivity of G1 and its conversion products and establish how much of antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects are due to the primary activity of G1 and how much can be attributed to its reaction products. Stability of G1 in growth media as well as its conversion in the presence of thiols was characterized. The structures of G1 decomposition products were determined using NMR and mass-spectroscopy. Concentration-and time-dependent killing curves showed that G1 is bacteriostatic for Escherichia coli at the concentration of 16 mu g/ml and bactericidal at 32 mu g/ml. However, G1 is inefficient against non-growing E. coli. Addition of cysteine to medium reduces the antimicrobial potency of G1. Nevertheless, the reaction products of G1 and cysteine enabled prolonged antimicrobial action of the drug. Therefore, the activity of 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl) furan is a sum of its immediate reactivity and the antibacterial effects of the conversion products.

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  • 26.
    Alling, Teodor
    et al.
    Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Funk, Christiane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gentili, Francesco G.
    Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordic microalgae produce biostimulant for the germination of tomato and barley seeds2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgal biomass may have biostimulating effects on plants and seeds due to its phytohormonal content, and harnessing this biostimulating effect could contribute to sustainable agriculture. Two Nordic strains of freshwater microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were each cultivated in a photobioreactor receiving untreated municipal wastewater. The algal biomass and the supernatant after algal cultivation were tested on tomato and barley seeds for biostimulating effects. Intact algal cells, broken cells, or harvest supernatant were applied to the seeds, and germination time, percentage and germination index were evaluated. Seeds treated with C. vulgaris, in particular intact cells or supernatant, had up to 25 percentage units higher germination percentage after 2 days and an overall significantly faster germination time (germinated on average between 0.5 and 1 day sooner) than seeds treated with S. obliquus or the control (water). The germination index was higher in C. vulgaris treatments than in the control for both tomato and barley, and this was observed for both broken and intact cells as well as supernatant. The Nordic strain of C. vulgaris cultivated in municipal wastewater thus shows potential for use as biostimulant in agriculture, adding novel economic and sustainability benefits.

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  • 27. Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Horváth, Ilona Sárvári
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Karlstad University.
    Overexpression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor and multidrug resistance genes conveys enhanced resistance to lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors2010In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 264-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates is an obstacle for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol and other commodities. In this investigation, the possibility of generating more inhibitor-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae by genetic engineering was explored. Based on previous results from studies of deletion mutants, three S. cerevisiae genes (ATR1, FLR1, YAP1) involved in multidrug resistance and stress response of yeast were selected for overexpression in three S. cerevisiae strains. The resistance of the transformed strains to lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitors and a dilute-acid spruce hydrolysate was evaluated in fermentation experiments. Overexpression of FLR1 resulted in enhanced resistance to the phenolic inhibitor coniferyl aldehyde and the furan aldehyde HMF (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde). Overexpression of ATR1 conferred increased resistance to coniferyl aldehyde. Strains overexpressing YAP1, which encodes a transcription factor, displayed increased resistance to coniferyl aldehyde, HMF, and the spruce hydrolysate. An ethanol productivity of 0.17 g ethanol × l−1 × h−1 was achieved for a YAP1-overexpressing transformant cultivated in spruce hydrolysate, whereas a control transformant, which did not overexpress YAP1, only reached a productivity of 0.05 g ethanol × l−1 × h−1

  • 28.
    Altincekic, Nadide
    et al.
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Jores, Nathalie
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Löhr, Frank
    Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Richter, Christian
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Ehrhardt, Claus
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Blommers, Marcel J. J.
    SavernaTherapeutics, Biel-Benken, Switzerland.
    Berg, Hannes
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Öztürk, Sare
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Gande, Santosh L.
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Linhard, Verena
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Orts, Julien
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vienna, Josef-Holaubek-Platz 2, Vienna, Austria.
    Abi Saad, Marie Jose
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vienna, Josef-Holaubek-Platz 2, Vienna, Austria.
    Bütikofer, Matthias
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kaderli, Janina
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Karlsson, B. Göran
    Swedish NMR Centre, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; SciLifeLab, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brath, Ulrika
    Swedish NMR Centre, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sauer, Uwe H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Perrakis, Anastassis
    Oncode Institute and Division of Biochemistry, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Langer, Julian
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Banci, Lucia
    Magnetic Resonance Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Consorzio Interuniversitario Risonanze Magnetiche Metalloproteine, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Cantini, Francesca
    Magnetic Resonance Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Consorzio Interuniversitario Risonanze Magnetiche Metalloproteine, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Fragai, Marco
    Magnetic Resonance Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Consorzio Interuniversitario Risonanze Magnetiche Metalloproteine, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Grifagni, Deborah
    Magnetic Resonance Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Barthel, Tatjana
    Macromolecular Crystallography, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, Berlin, Germany.
    Wollenhaupt, Jan
    Macromolecular Crystallography, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, Berlin, Germany.
    Weiss, Manfred S.
    Macromolecular Crystallography, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, Berlin, Germany.
    Robertson, Angus
    NIH, LCP NIDDK, MD, Bethesda, United States.
    Bax, Adriaan
    NIH, LCP NIDDK, MD, Bethesda, United States.
    Sreeramulu, Sridhar
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Schwalbe, Harald
    Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany; Center of Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Targeting the main protease (Mpro, nsp5) by growth of fragment scaffolds exploiting structure-based methodologies2023In: ACS Chemical Biology, ISSN 1554-8929, E-ISSN 1554-8937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main protease Mpro, nsp5, of SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) is one of its most attractive drug targets. Here, we report primary screening data using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of four different libraries and detailed follow-up synthesis on the promising uracil-containing fragment Z604 derived from these libraries. Z604 shows time-dependent binding. Its inhibitory effect is sensitive to reducing conditions. Starting with Z604, we synthesized and characterized 13 compounds designed by fragment growth strategies. Each compound was characterized by NMR and/or activity assays to investigate their interaction with Mpro. These investigations resulted in the four-armed compound 35b that binds directly to Mpro. 35b could be cocrystallized with Mpro revealing its noncovalent binding mode, which fills all four active site subpockets. Herein, we describe the NMR-derived fragment-to-hit pipeline and its application for the development of promising starting points for inhibitors of the main protease of SCoV2.

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  • 29.
    Amer, Ayad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Costa, Tiago
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Farag, Salah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Avican, Ummehan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Genetically engineered frameshifted YopN-TyeA chimeras influence type III secretion system function in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e77767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type III secretion is a tightly controlled virulence mechanism utilized by many gram negative bacteria to colonize their eukaryotic hosts. To infect their host, human pathogenic Yersinia spp. translocate protein toxins into the host cell cytosol through a preassembled Ysc-Yop type III secretion device. Several of the Ysc-Yop components are known for their roles in controlling substrate secretion and translocation. Particularly important in this role is the YopN and TyeA heterodimer. In this study, we confirm that Y. pseudotuberculosis naturally produce a 42 kDa YopN-TyeA hybrid protein as a result of a +1 frame shift near the 3 prime of yopN mRNA, as has been previously reported for the closely related Y. pestis. To assess the biological role of this YopN-TyeA hybrid in T3SS by Y. pseudotuberculosis, we used in cis site-directed mutagenesis to engineer bacteria to either produce predominately the YopN-TyeA hybrid by introducing +1 frame shifts to yopN after codon 278 or 287, or to produce only singular YopN and TyeA polypeptides by introducing yopN sequence from Y. enterocolitica, which is known not to produce the hybrid. Significantly, the engineered 42 kDa YopN-TyeA fusions were abundantly produced, stable, and were efficiently secreted by bacteria in vitro. Moreover, these bacteria could all maintain functionally competent needle structures and controlled Yops secretion in vitro. In the presence of host cells however, bacteria producing the most genetically altered hybrids (+1 frameshift after 278 codon) had diminished control of polarized Yop translocation. This corresponded to significant attenuation in competitive survival assays in orally infected mice, although not at all to the same extent as Yersinia lacking both YopN and TyeA proteins. Based on these studies with engineered polypeptides, most likely a naturally occurring YopN-TyeA hybrid protein has the potential to influence T3S control and activity when produced during Yersinia-host cell contact.

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  • 30.
    Amer, Ayad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gurung, Jyoti
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Costa, Tiago
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Ruuth, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Zavialov, Anton
    Joint Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    YopN and TyeA Hydrophobic Contacts Required for Regulating Ysc-Yop Type III Secretion Activity by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2016In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 6, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yersinia bacteria target Yop effector toxins to the interior of host immune cells by the Ysc-Yop type III secretion system. A YopN-TyeA heterodimer is central to controlling Ysc-Yop targeting activity. A + 1 frameshift event in the 3-prime end of yopN can also produce a singular secreted YopN-TyeA polypeptide that retains some regulatory function even though the C-terminal coding sequence of this YopN differs greatly from wild type. Thus, this YopN C-terminal segment was analyzed for its role in type III secretion control. Bacteria producing YopN truncated after residue 278, or with altered sequence between residues 279 and 287, had lost type III secretion control and function. In contrast, YopN variants with manipulated sequence beyond residue 287 maintained full control and function. Scrutiny of the YopN-TyeA complex structure revealed that residue W279 functioned as a likely hydrophobic contact site with TyeA. Indeed, a YopNW279G mutant lost all ability to bind TyeA. The TyeA residue F8 was also critical for reciprocal YopN binding. Thus, we conclude that specific hydrophobic contacts between opposing YopN and TyeA termini establishes a complex needed for regulating Ysc-Yop activity.

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  • 31.
    Andersen, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and CuZn-superoxide dismutase: a clinical, genetic and enzymatic study1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Andersen, Peter M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Nilsson, P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Marklund, Stefan L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    CuZn-superoxide dismutase, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in blood from individuals homozygous for ASP90ALA CuZn-superoxide dismutase mutation1998In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 715-720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Andersson, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tan, Ee Phie
    Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, CA, United States.
    McGreal, Steven R.
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, Kansas University, KS, United States.
    Apte, Udayan
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, Kansas University, KS, United States.
    Hanover, John A.
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Health, MD, United States.
    Slawson, Chad
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kansas University, KS, United States.
    Lagerlöf, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    O-GlcNAc cycling mediates energy balance by regulating caloric memory2021In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 165, article id 105320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caloric need has long been thought a major driver of appetite. However, it is unclear whether caloric need regulates appetite in environments offered by many societies today where there is no shortage of food. Here we observed that wildtype mice with free access to food did not match calorie intake to calorie expenditure. While the size of a meal affected subsequent intake, there was no compensation for earlier under- or over-consumption. To test how spontaneous eating is subject to caloric control, we manipulated O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), an energy signal inside cells dependent on nutrient access and metabolic hormones. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation in mice increasing or decreasing O-GlcNAcylation regulated daily intake by controlling meal size. Meal size was affected at least in part due to faster eating speed. Without affecting meal frequency, O-GlcNAc disrupted the effect of caloric consumption on future intake. Across days, energy balance was improved upon increased O-GlcNAc levels and impaired upon removal of O-GlcNAcylation. Rather than affecting a perceived need for calories, O-GlcNAc regulates how a meal affects future intake, suggesting that O-GlcNAc mediates a caloric memory and subsequently energy balance.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, C. David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mishra, Brijesh Kumar
    Forsgren, Nina
    Ekström, Fredrik
    Linusson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Physical Mechanisms Governing Substituent Effects on Arene-Arene Interactions in a Protein Milieu2020In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 124, no 30, p. 6529-6539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arene-arene interactions play important roles in protein-ligand complex formation. Here, we investigate the characteristics of arene-arene interactions between small organic molecules and aromatic amino acids in protein interiors. The study is based on X-ray crystallographic data and quantum mechanical calculations using the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and selected inhibitory ligands as a model system. It is shown that the arene substituents of the inhibitors dictate the strength of the interaction and the geometry of the resulting complexes. Importantly, the calculated interaction energies correlate well with the measured inhibitor potency. Non-hydrogen substituents strengthened all interaction types in the protein milieu, in keeping with results for benzene dimer model systems. The interaction energies were dispersion-dominated, but substituents that induced local dipole moments increased the electrostatic contribution and thus yielded more strongly bound complexes. These findings provide fundamental insights into the physical mechanisms governing arene-arene interactions in the protein milieu and thus into molecular recognition between proteins and small molecules.

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  • 35.
    Andersson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Li, Xingru
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Lorenz, Fryderyk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Golovleva, Irina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Wahlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Li, Aihong
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Reduction in WT1 Gene Expression During Early Treatment Predicts the Outcome in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia2012In: Diagnostic molecular pathology (Print), ISSN 1052-9551, E-ISSN 1533-4066, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression has been suggested as an applicable minimal residual disease marker in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated the use of this marker in 43 adult AML patients. Quantitative assessment of WT1 gene transcripts was performed using real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assay. Samples from both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow were analyzed at diagnosis and during follow-up. A strong correlation was observed between WT1 normalized with 2 different control genes (beta-actin and ABL1, P < 0.001). WT1 mRNA level at diagnosis was of no prognostic relevance (P > 0.05). A >= 1-log reduction in WT1 expression in bone marrow samples taken < 1 month after diagnosis significantly correlated with an improved overall survival (P = 0.004) and freedom from relapse (P = 0.010) when beta-actin was used as control gene. Furthermore, a reduction in WT1 expression by >= 2 logs in peripheral blood samples taken at a later time point significantly correlated with a better outcome for overall survival (P = 0.004) and freedom from relapse (P = 0.012). This result was achieved when normalizing against both b-actin and ABL1. These results therefore suggest that WT1 gene expression can provide useful information for minimal residual disease detection in adult AML patients and that combined use of control genes can give more informative results.

  • 36.
    Andersson, David C.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Martinez, N.
    Zeller, D.
    Rondahl, S. H.
    Koza, M. M.
    Frick, B.
    Ekstrom, F.
    Peters, J.
    Linusson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Changes in dynamics of alpha-chymotrypsin due to covalent inhibitors investigated by elastic incoherent neutron scattering2017In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, no 37, p. 25369-25379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential role of enzymes is to catalyze various chemical reactions in the human body and inhibition of the enzymatic activity by small molecules is the mechanism of action of many drugs or tool compounds used to study biological processes. Here, we investigate the effect on the dynamics of the serine protease alpha-chymotrypsin when in complex with two different covalently bound inhibitors using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The results show that the inhibited enzyme displays enhanced dynamics compared to the free form. The difference was prominent at higher temperatures (240-310 K) and the type of motions that differ include both small amplitude motions, such as hydrogen atom rotations around a methyl group, and large amplitude motions, such as amino acid side chain movements. The measurements were analyzed with multivariate methods in addition to the standard univariate methods, allowing for a more in-depth analysis of the types of motions that differ between the two forms. The binding strength of an inhibitor is linked to the changes in dynamics occurring during the inhibitor-enzyme binding event and thus these results may aid in the deconvolution of this fundamental event and in the design of new inhibitors.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Prefibrillar oligomeric Transthyretin mutants - amyloid conformation, toxicity and association with Serum amyloid P component2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloidoses represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by abnormal protein metabolism leading to extracellular deposition of fibrillar, proteinaceous amyloid in various tissues and organs of the body. To date more than 20 different proteins have been linked to diseases with amyloid depositions, of which Alzheimer’s disease and the prion-associated diseases are the most well known. Despite the origin of protein in the amyloid, the fibrils share some common biochemical and biophysical properties such as a diameter of 8-13 nm, a β-pleated sheet secondary structure packed in an ordered crystal-like way, Congo red and thioflavin binding with characteristic spectroscopic patterns and decoration of the fibrils with Serum amyloid P component and glycoseaminoglycans.

    The plasma protein transthyretin (TTR) is associated with familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) and senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). FAP is a lethal, autosomal inherited disorder caused by point mutations in the TTR-gene. More than 80 different mutations have been associated with amyloid formation and linked to FAP. The interpretation is that amino acid replacements at different sites of the polypeptide lead to reduced stability. Mutant TTR were constructed that have a strong tendency to self-aggregate under physiological conditions. The precipitates were shown to be amyloid by staining with thioflavin T and Congo red. As the mutants were sensitive to trypsin cleavage compared to plasma TTR, we suggest that the mutants represent amyloid precursors or that they may share structural properties with intermediates on a pathway leading to amyloid deposition. Monoclonal antibodies were generated that exclusively recognize the amyloidogenic folding of TTR providing direct biochemical evidence for a structural change in amyloidogenic intermediates. Two cryptic epitopes were mapped to a domain of TTR, where most mutations associated with amyloidosis occur and is proposed to be displaced at the initial phase of amyloid formation. Amyloidogenic intermediates of TTR were shown to induce a toxic, free radical dependent, response in cultured neuroblastoma cells. Morphological studies revealed a correlation between toxicity (apoptosis) and the presence of immature amyloid suggesting that mature full-length fibrils represent an inert end stage, which might serve as a rescue mechanism.

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma glycoprotein universally found associated with amyloid depositions independently of protein origin. SAP’s role in amyloid formation is contradictory since both inhibition and promotion of aggregation have been shown in the case of fibril formation from the Aβ peptide of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloidogenic prefibrils of TTR were shown to bind SAP and no interference with aggregation was detected. SAP co-localize in patches with mutant TTR on the surface of neuroblastoma cells and prevent apoptosis induced by mutant TTR and Aβ peptide, while several other molecules known to decorate amyloid fibrils were without effect.

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  • 38.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Olofsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Holm Nielsen, Ellen
    Svehag, SvenErik
    Lundgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Only amyloidogenic inermediates of transthyretin induce apoptosis2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 294, no 2, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In diseases like Alzheimer's disease and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) amyloid deposits co-localize with areas of neurodegeneration. FAP is associated with mutations of the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR). We can here show an apoptotic effect of amyloidogenic mutants of TTR on a human neuroblastoma cell line. Toxicity could be blocked by catalase indicating a free oxygen radical dependent mechanism. The toxic effect was dependent on the state of aggregation and unexpectedly mature fibrils from FAP-patients who failed to exert an apoptotic response. Morphological studies revealed a correlation between toxicity and the presence of immature amyloid. Thus, we can show that toxicity is associated with early stages of fibril formation and propose that mature full-length fibrils represent an inert end stage, which might serve as a rescue mechanism. 

  • 39.
    Andersson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Immunopathogenesis of relapsing fever borreliosis2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relapsing fever (RF) is caused by different species of Borrelia transmitted by soft ticks or by the human body louse. Illness is characterized by reappearing peaks of high concentrations of spirochetes in blood, concordant with fever peaks separated by asymptomatic periods. Neuroborreliosis is one of the most severe manifestations of RF borreliosis. To understand the immune response during early RF, we analyzed immune cells in brain and kidney of mice infected with B. crocidurae during the acute infection. Our results indicate that brain defense is comprised primarily of innate immune cells. Despite the infiltration of innate immune cells, Borrelia was not completely eradicated. A failure of the host brain to clear the bacteria may give the pathogen a niche where it can persist. Using our mouse model, we revealed that Borrelia duttonii could persist in the mouse brain for up to 270 days, without being present in the circulation. The infection was silent with no change in host gene expression, and the spirochetes could re-enter the circulation after immunosuppression. We propose that the brain is used by the pathogen to evade host immunity and serves as a possible natural reservoir for B. duttonii, a spirochete that has rarely been found in any mammalian host other than man. Borrelia-induced complications during pregnancy have been reported, and are especially common in RF. In our established mouse model of gestational RF, we could show that the fetuses suffered from severe pathology and growth retardation, probably as a consequence of placental destruction. We could also show trans-placental transmission of the bacteria leading to neonatal RF. Surprisingly, pregnant dams had a lower bacterial load and less severe disease, showing that pregnancy has a protective effect during RF. We have used the gestational RF model to investigate host factors favoring disease resolution. Because the spleen is the primary organ responsible for trapping and removing blood-borne pathogens, we have compared temporal changes in spleen immune cell populations and cytokine/chemokine induction during the infection. Spleens of pregnant mice had earlier neutrophil infiltration, as well as faster and higher production of pro-inflammatory mediators. This rapid, robust response suggests a more effective host defense. Thus, an enhanced pro-inflammatory response during pregnancy imparts a distinct advantage in controlling the severity of relapsing fever infection.

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  • 40.
    Andersson, Niki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biology and biodiversity of tardigrades in the world and in Sweden: Current status and future visions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are small water-dwelling invertebrates that can live almost anywhere in the world. Even though they are well-known our knowledge about them is still scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to explore our current knowledge about tardigrades by: (1) explore their global phylogeny and biogeography based on bioinformatics (2) screen for tardigrades in select locations of northern Sweden and compare with other Swedish locations, and (3) identify at least one tardigrade from northern Sweden and explore the published biomarkers for further identification. The bulk of this thesis was based on evaluation of the Silva database for analyzing SSU (small subunit) and LSU (large subunit) tardigrade sequences and create phylogenetic trees. Some initial lab work was performed using samples of moss and lichen from Piteå, Vindeln and Öland. Results show that only few countries have been explored with regard to tardigrades, and in Sweden more research have been performed in the south compared to the north. The phylogenetic trees give a rough overview of tardigrade relatedness but many of the sequences need to be improved and more sequence work from additional environments is needed. In the lab tardigrades were only found from the Piteå samples, and one of those was identified as Macrobiotus hufelandi, for which a new biomarker was created. Overall, tardigrade research need to continue and expand to other regions in order to understand how these organisms differ between different environments, and more work is needed to ensure higher quality of sequences added to databases.

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  • 41. Andres Valderrama, J
    et al.
    Shingler, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Carmona, Manuel
    Diaz, Eduardo
    AccR is a master regulator involved in carbon catabolite repression of the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds in Azoarcus sp CIB2014In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 289, no 4, p. 1892-1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we characterized the first known transcriptional regulator that accounts for carbon catabolite repression (CCR) control of the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds in bacteria. The AccR response regulator of Azoarcus sp. CIB controls succinate-responsive CCR of the central pathways for the anaerobic catabolism of aromatics by this strain. Phosphorylation of AccR to AccR-P triggers a monomer-to-dimer transition as well as the ability to bind to the target promoter and causes repression both in vivo and in vitro. Substitution of the Asp(60) phosphorylation target residue of the N-terminal receiver motif of AccR to a phosphomimic Glu residue generates a constitutively active derivative that behaves as a superrepressor of the target genes. AccR-P binds in vitro to a conserved inverted repeat (ATGCA-N-6-TGCAT) present at two different locations within the P-N promoter of the bzd genes for anaerobic benzoate degradation. Because the DNA binding-proficient C-terminal domain of AccR is monomeric, we propose an activation mechanism in which phosphorylation of Asp(60) of AccR alleviates interdomain repression mediated by the N-terminal domain. The presence of AccR-like proteins encoded in the genomes of other -proteobacteria of the Azoarcus/Thauera group further suggests that AccR constitutes a master regulator that controls anaerobic CCR in these bacteria.

  • 42.
    Andresen, Liis
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Tenson, Tanel
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Cationic bactericidal peptide 1018 does not specifically target the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bacterial stringent response is a key regulator of bacterial virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance, and is a promising target for the development of new antibacterial compounds. The intracellular nucleotide (p)ppGpp acts as a messenger orchestrating the stringent response. A synthetic peptide 1018 was recently proposed to specifically disrupt biofilms by inhibiting the stringent response via direct interaction with (p) ppGpp (de la Fuente-Nunez et al. (2014) PLoS Pathogens). We have interrogated the specificity of the proposed molecular mechanism. When inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic and biofilm growth is tested simultaneously in the same assay, peptides 1018 and the control peptide 8101 generated by an inversion of the amino acid sequence of 1018 are equally potent, and, importantly, do not display a preferential activity against biofilm. 1018 inhibits planktonic growth of Escherichia coli equally efficiently either when the alleged target, (p) ppGpp, is essential (MOPS media lacking amino acid L-valine), or dispensable for growth (MOPS media supplemented with L-valine). Genetic disruption of the genes relA and spoT responsible for (p) ppGpp synthesis moderately sensitizes-rather than protects-E. coli to 1018. We suggest that the antimicrobial activity of 1018 does not rely on specific recognition of the stringent response messenger (p) ppGpp.

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  • 43.
    André, Domenique
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The role of the Populus FT genes in the regulation of tree growth.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In annual plants, flowering related genes were initially thought to have the only function to coordinate and execute reproductive development. In perennial species like poplar, however, it became clear that these genes seem to have acquired additional functions in the regulation of the yearly growth cycle. The two poplar orthologs of the Arabidopsis “florigen” FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), PtFT1 and PtFT2, are associated with flowering as well as other aspects of phenology. After duplication they have diverged in expression pattern, and maybe also in function and their gene regulatory networks. In this study I have characterized the role of PtFT1 and PtFT2 during the yearly growth cyle, as well as the interaction between, FT-like genes, poplar homologs of the Arabidopsis flowering time repressor TFL1 and PHYTOCHROME A in the regulation of tree flowering. The preliminary data show new unexpected functional relations between these genes and new previously undescribed effects on plant growth and development.

  • 44. Ans, Muhammad
    et al.
    Iqbal, Javed
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Saif, Muhammad Jawwad
    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif
    Ayub, Khurshid
    Designing of non-fullerene 3D star-shaped acceptors for organic solar cells2019In: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 25, no 5, article id 129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and fabrication of solar cells have recently witnessed the exploration of non-fullerene-based acceptor molecules for higher efficiency. In this study, the optical and electronic properties of four new three-dimensional (3D) star-shaped acceptor molecules (M1, M2, M3, and M4) are evaluated for use as acceptor molecules in organic solar cells. These molecules contain a triphenylamine donor core with diketopyrrolopyrrole acceptor arms linked via a thiophene bridge unit. Molecules M1–M4 are characterized by different end-capped acceptor moieties, including 2-(5-methylene-6-oxo-5,6-dihydrocyclopenta-b-thiophen-4-ylidene)malononitrile (M1), 2-(2-methylene-3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-1-ylidene)malononitrile (M2), 2-(5-methyl-2-methylene-3-oxo-2,3-dihydroinden-1-ylidene)malononitrile (M3), and 3-methyl-5-methylnene-thioxothiazolidin-4-one (M4). The properties of the newly designed molecules were compared with a well-known reference compound R, which was recently reported as an excellent acceptor molecule for organic solar cells. Molecules M1–M4 exhibit suitable frontier molecular orbital patterns for charge mobility. M2 shows maximum absorption (λmax) at 846.8 nm in dichloromethane solvent, which is ideal for the design of transparent solar cells. A strong electron withdrawing end-capped acceptor causes a red shift in absorption spectra. All molecules are excellent for hole mobility due to a lower value of λh compared to the reference R.

  • 45.
    Antonsson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Regulation of NF-κB by Calmodulin2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cells experience numerous external signals which they must respond to. Such signals arriving at the cell surface are transduced via various signal transduction pathways and often ultimately result in regulation of transcription. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of genes important for processes such as immune and inflammatory responses, cell growth, development and cell survival. NF-κB proteins are normally kept inactive in the cytoplasm due to masking of their nuclear localisation signal (NLS) by inhibitory IκB proteins. A large number of stimuli lead to the activation of IκB-kinase (IKK). Active IKK phosphorylates IκB and thereby labels it for ubiquitination and, subsequently, degradation by the proteasome. Liberated NF-κB enters the nucleus, where it takes part in the regulation of its target genes.

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca2+-binding protein which is considered to be the predominant intracellular Ca2+ sensor. CaM plays a major role in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, including transcription. CaM regulates transcription both indirectly through CaM-dependent kinases and phosphatases and directly through interaction with transcription factors.

    CaM was found to bind directly and in a Ca2+-dependent fashion to the two NF-κB family members c-Rel and RelA. The CaM-NF-κB interactions were strongly enhanced by NF-κB activating stimuli and this enhancement was blocked by the addition of IκB, suggesting that c-Rel and RelA can bind CaM after their signal-induced release from IκB. Compared to wild-type c-Rel, CaM binding-deficient mutants were shown to exhibit an increased nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity on Ca2+-regulated cytokine promoters. The results suggest that CaM can inhibit transport of c-Rel, but not of RelA, to the nucleus and thereby differentially regulate the activation of NF-κB proteins following cell stimulation. CaM was also found to affect NF-κB activity indirectly through the action of a CaM-dependent kinase (CaMK). Studies of the events leading to IκBα phosphorylation revealed that CaM and CaMKII inhibitors blocked phorbol ester induced activation of IKK. Furthermore, CaM and CaMKII inhibitors also blocked T cell receptor/CD3 induced IκBα degradation, and expression of an inhibitor-resistant derivative of the γ isoform of CaMKII caused the inhibitors lose their effect on phorbol ester induced IκBα degradation. Finally, expression of a constitutively active CaMKII resulted in the activation of NF-κB. These results identify CaMKII as a mediator of IKK activation, specifically in response to T cell receptor/CD3 and phorbol ester stimulation.

    In conclusion, this thesis describes the identification of CaM as a dual regulator of NF-κB proteins, acting both directly and indirectly to affect the activity of this family of transcription factors.

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  • 46.
    Antti, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sellstedt, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Metabolic effects of an aspartate aminotransferase-inhibitor on two T-cell lines2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0208025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An emerging method to help elucidate the mode of action of experimental drugs is to use untargeted metabolomics of cell-systems. The interpretations of such screens are however complex and more examples with inhibitors of known targets are needed. Here two T-cell lines were treated with an inhibitor of aspartate aminotransferase and analyzed with untargeted GC-MS. The interpretation of the data was enhanced by the use of two different cell-lines and supports aspartate aminotransferase as a target. In addition, the data suggest an unexpected off-target effect on glutamate decarboxylase. The results exemplify the potency of metabolomics to provide insight into both mode of action and off-target effects of drug candidates.

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  • 47.
    Apcher, Sebastien
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, Institut Gustave Roussy, Inserm UMR1015, Immunologie des tumeurs et Immunothérapie contre le cancer, Villejuif, France.
    Tovar-Fernadez, Maria
    ICCVS, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Ducellier, Sarah
    Université Paris-Saclay, Institut Gustave Roussy, Inserm UMR1015, Immunologie des tumeurs et Immunothérapie contre le cancer, Villejuif, France.
    Thermou, Aikaterini
    ICCVS, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Nascimento, Megane
    Université Paris-Saclay, Institut Gustave Roussy, Inserm UMR1015, Immunologie des tumeurs et Immunothérapie contre le cancer, Villejuif, France.
    Sroka, Ewa
    ICCVS, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Fahraeus, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology. ICCVS, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland; Inserm UMRS1131, Institut de Génétique Moléculaire, Paris, France; RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, ZBrno, Czech Republic.
    mRNA translation from an antigen presentation perspective: A tribute to the works of Nilabh Shastri2022In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 141, p. 305-308Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of mRNA translation has witnessed an impressive expansion in the last decade. The once standard model of translation initiation has undergone, and is still undergoing, a major overhaul, partly due to more recent technical advancements detailing, for example, initiation at non-AUG codons. However, some of the pioneering works in this area have come from immunology and more precisely from the field of antigen presentation to the major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) pathway. Despite early innovative studies from the lab of Nilabh Shastri demonstrating alternative mRNA translation initiation as a source for MHC-I peptide substrates, the mRNA translation field did not include these into their models. It was not until the introduction of the ribo-sequence technique that the extent of non-canonical translation initiation became widely acknowledged. The detection of peptides on MHC-I molecules by CD8 + T cells is extremely sensitive, making this a superior model system for studying alternative mRNA translation initiation from specific mRNAs. In view of this, we give a brief history on alternative initiation from an immunology perspective and its fundamental role in allowing the immune system to distinguish self from non-self and at the same time pay tribute to the works of Nilabh Shastri.

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  • 48.
    Arabuli, Lili
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Iashchishyn, Igor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Romanova, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Musteikyte, Greta
    Smirnovas, Vytautas
    Chaudhary, Himanshu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Svedružić, Željko M.
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Co-aggregation of S100A9 with DOPA and cyclen-based compounds manifested in amyloid fibril thickening without altering rates of self-assembly2021In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 22, no 16, article id 8556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amyloid cascade is central for the neurodegeneration disease pathology, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and remains the focus of much current research. S100A9 protein drives the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in these diseases. DOPA and cyclen-based compounds were used as amyloid modifiers and inhibitors previously, and DOPA is also used as a precursor of dopamine in Parkinson’s treatment. Here, by using fluorescence titration experiments we showed that five selected ligands: DOPA-D-H-DOPA, DOPA-H-H-DOPA, DOPA-D-H, DOPA-cyclen, and H-E-cyclen, bind to S100A9 with apparent Kd in the sub-micromolar range. Ligand docking and molecular dynamic simulation showed that all compounds bind to S100A9 in more than one binding site and with different ligand mobility and H-bonds involved in each site, which all together is consistent with the apparent binding determined in fluorescence experiments. By using amyloid kinetic analysis, monitored by thioflavin-T fluorescence, and AFM imaging, we found that S100A9 co-aggregation with these compounds does not hinder amyloid formation but leads to morphological changes in the amyloid fibrils, manifested in fibril thickening. Thicker fibrils were not observed upon fibrillation of S100A9 alone and may influence the amyloid tissue propagation and modulate S100A9 amyloid assembly as part of the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade in neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • 49. Arend, Andres
    et al.
    Masso, Raivo
    Masso, Marika
    Selstam, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Electron microscope immunocytochemical localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and-2 in pseudopregnant rat corpus luteum during luteolysis2004In: Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators, ISSN 1098-8823, E-ISSN 2212-196X, Vol. 74, no 1-4, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostaglandins converted from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases play an important regulatory role in regression of the corpus luteum. To reveal luteal distribution of cyclooxygenase isoforms during luteolysis, an electron microscope immunocytochemical study was performed. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 were found both in luteal steroid-producing and interstitial cells on days 13, 15 and 18 of the adult pseudopregnant rat. Cyclooxygenase-2 immunolabelling was predominantly seen in non-luteal cells. The two enzymes were localized in similar fashion to the plasma membrane, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lipid bodies and mitochondria, but differently in the nuclear compartment. Cyclooxygenase-1 labelling was found only in the perinuclear region, while cyclooxygenase-2 was localized to the nuclear envelope, region of condensed heterochromatin as well as at the perimeter of the heterochromatin. Nuclear residence may indicate additional roles for cyclooxygenase-2 in regulating gene expression. Identification of both enzymes on lipid bodies suggests that these inclusions may be involved in luteal prostanoid production.

  • 50.
    Arias, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Obudulu, Ogonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Zhao, Xiaoling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Ansolia, Preeti
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Zhang, Xueyang
    Paul, Suman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bygdell, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pirmoradian, Mohammad
    Zubarev, Roman A.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Wingsle, Gunnar
    Bajhaiya, Amit K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nuclear proteome analysis of Chlamydomonas with response to CO2 limitation2020In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 46, article id 101765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga that can survive at a wide range of inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrations by regulating the activity of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) as well as other cellular functions. Under CO2 limited conditions, C. reinhardtii cells display a wide range of adaptive responses including changes in photosynthetic electron transport, mitochondria localization in the cells, the structure of the pyrenoid starch sheath, and primary metabolism. In addition to these functional and structural changes, gene and protein expression are also affected. Several physiological aspects of the CO2 response mechanism have been studied in detail. However, the regulatory components (transcription factors and transcriptional regulators) involved in this process are not fully characterized. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of the C. reinhardtii nuclear proteome using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The study aims to identify the proteins that govern adaptation to varying CO2 concentrations in Chlamydomonas. The nuclear proteome of C. reinhardtii cells grown in the air at high (5%) and low (0.04%) CO2 concentrations were analyzed. Using this approach, we identified 1378 proteins in total, including 90 putative transcription factors and 27 transcriptional regulators. Characterization of these new regulatory components could shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying acclimation to CO2 stress.

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