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  • 1.
    Aalto, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biodiversity and habitat conditions in reaches with high flow velocity along gradients in hydrological and geomorphological alteration: A study of six rivers in Sweden2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of rivers in the developed world are affected by human alteration, which in turn negatively affects the species that rely on these highly diverse and species rich areas to survive. Homogenization of previously heterogenic areas due to a change in water discharge and the substrate availability in the rivers is often regarded as the main reason for the loss of species richness in rivers and the riparian zone. Because of this, there are a lot of restoration projects which main goal is to increase heterogeneity. The goal of this thesis is to compare hydrology and geomorphology variables between four types of reaches with high flow velocity (rapids in free-flowing reaches, rapids with regulated flow, impounded reaches and reaches in outlet channels below hydropower plants). In this thesis I wanted to find out how changes in geomorphology and hydrology affect fish species richness, riparian vegetation richness and aquatic vascular plants species richness. The result show that both fish species richness and riparian vegetation species richness are negatively affected by the changes in geomorphology and hydrology. There was no significant difference for aquatic vascular plants when comparing the regulation types. The most altered reach type, outlet channels, had significantly fewer fish species compared to the less altered reach type, impounded reaches. Outlet channels also had less riparian vegetation cover compared to all other regulation types, and fewer riparian vegetation species compared to both free-flowing reaches and impounded reaches. In conclusion, hydropower plants and timber floating have both negatively impacted the riverine ecosystem, and in turn caused a decrease in species richness for fish and riparian plants. The reaches studied in this thesis will continue to be altered and the species richness and species composition will change from an ecosystem that relied on the natural flow regime to an ecosystem more used to the flow regime created by the hydropower plants. 

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  • 2. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, p. 660-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 3. Abeli, Thomas
    et al.
    Orsenigo, Simone
    Guzzon, Filippo
    Fae, Matteo
    Balestrazzi, Alma
    Carlsson-Graner, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mueller, Jonas V.
    Mondoni, Andrea
    Geographical pattern in the response of the arctic-alpine Silene suecica (Cariophyllaceae) to the interaction between water availability and photoperiod2015In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 327-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesized a geographical pattern of the plant performance (seedling development, biomass production, relative water content and chlorophyll content) as a result of response to the interaction between photoperiod and water availability in populations of the arctic-alpine Silene suecica from different latitudes, thus experiencing different photoperiods during the growing season. Particularly, we expected a lower drought sensitivity in northern compared to southern populations as a consequence of harsher conditions experienced by the northern populations in terms of water availability. The experiment was carried out under common garden conditions, manipulating the water availability (wet and dry) and the photoperiod (21 and 16 h). We found an interaction between photoperiod and water availability on plant height, leaves, growth, biomass and total chlorophyll. However, the photoperiod neither counteracted nor intensified the effect of drought. Plants exposed to drought compensated for decreasing water availability by reducing their shoot growth. Changes in the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were observed. Northern populations showed a higher basal growth performance and a greater response to the changed water regime (from wet to dry) than the southern populations. Southern populations showed a reduced ability to respond to drought, but their low basal performance may be advantageous under low water availability, avoiding water loss. In contrast, northern populations showed a stronger plastic response that limited the negative effects of reduced water availability. This study highlights the possibility that the plant response to environmental constraints (specifically water availability) may follow a geographical pattern.

  • 4.
    Abreu, Clare I.
    et al.
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Bello, Martina Dal
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Bunse, Carina
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution of Microbial Model Systems, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gore, Jeff
    Physics of Living Systems, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Warmer temperatures favor slower-growing bacteria in natural marine communities2023In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 9, no 19, article id eade8352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth’s life-sustaining oceans harbor diverse bacterial communities that display varying composition across time and space. While particular patterns of variation have been linked to a range of factors, unifying rules are lacking, preventing the prediction of future changes. Here, analyzing the distribution of fast- and slow-growing bacteria in ocean datasets spanning seasons, latitude, and depth, we show that higher seawater temperatures universally favor slower-growing taxa, in agreement with theoretical predictions of how temperature-dependent growth rates differentially modulate the impact of mortality on species abundances. Changes in bacterial community structure promoted by temperature are independent of variations in nutrients along spatial and temporal gradients. Our results help explain why slow growers dominate at the ocean surface, during summer, and near the tropics and provide a framework to understand how bacterial communities will change in a warmer world.

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  • 5. Adeleke, Rasheed
    et al.
    Bello-Akinosho, Maryam
    Maila, Mphekgo
    Lee, Natuschka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Lehrstuhl für Mikrobiologie, Technische Universität München.
    Roles of extremophiles in bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil environment2020In: Biotechnological applications of extremophilic microorganisms / [ed] Natuschka M. Lee, Walter de Gruyter, 2020, p. 197-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6. Aerts, R.
    et al.
    Callaghan, T. V.
    Dorrepaal, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Systems Ecology, Department of Ecological Science, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van Logtestijn, R. S. P.
    Cornelissen, J. H. C.
    Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 809-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis < Betula < Rubus. After 4 years, overall mass loss in the climate-treatment plots was 10 % higher compared to the ambient incubation environment. Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

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  • 7. Aguiar, Francisca C.
    et al.
    Segurado, Pedro
    Martins, Maria Joao
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Portela, Maria Manuela
    Merritt, David M.
    The abundance and distribution of guilds of riparian woody plants change in response to land use and flow regulation2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 2227-2240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Many riparian ecosystems in Mediterranean Europe are affected by land use and flow alteration by dams. We focused on understanding how these stressors and their components affect riparian forests in the region. We asked the following questions: (1) Are there well‐defined, responsive riparian guilds? (2) Do dam‐induced streamflows determine abundance and distribution of riparian guilds? (3) What are the main drivers governing composition and cover of riparian guilds in regulated rivers?

    2. We inventoried the cover of riparian woody species in free‐flowing rivers and downstream of dams. We performed a cluster analysis and ordination to derive riparian guilds, using abundance data from 66 riparian woody species and 26 functional plant traits. We used a reduced set of principal components for the environment, land use and hydrology, and general linear modelling to explore the effect of these factors (separately and combined) on riparian guilds.

    3. We found that: (1) four dominant guilds are responsive to disturbance in southwestern European streams, namely the obligate riparian, water‐stress tolerant, deciduous competitive and Mediterranean evergreen guilds; (2) a set of land use and hydrological variables differentially affect the diverse co‐occurring riparian guilds; (3) frequency and duration of high flow pulses and the low‐flow conditions were major drivers of change in landscapes dominated by intensive agriculture and forestry; (4) storage reservoirs reduced the cover of obligate riparian and Mediterranean evergreen guilds, and increased the abundance of water‐stress tolerant and deciduous competitive guilds, while run‐of‐river dams, having limited water storage, reduced both obligate and deciduous competitive guilds.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Future research in southwestern Europe should address the resilience of riparian guilds and the effects of interacting landscape factors and stressors on guild distribution. Streamflow regulations downstream of reservoirs should focus on specific flow components, namely the magnitude of flows, and frequency and duration of extreme flow events. For successful mitigation of the dam‐induced effects on riparian vegetation, river management plans must incorporate the environmental and land use site‐specific contexts.

  • 8.
    Aguilera, Anabella
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Bas Conn, Laura
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Gurlit, Leandra
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Śliwińska-Wilczewska, Sylwia
    Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada; Laboratory of Marine Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Budzałek, Gracjana
    Laboratory of Marine Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Ecophysiological analysis reveals distinct environmental preferences in closely related Baltic Sea picocyanobacteria2023In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster 5 picocyanobacteria significantly contribute to primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems. Estuarine populations are highly diverse and consist of many co-occurring strains, but their physiology remains largely understudied. In this study, we characterized 17 novel estuarine picocyanobacterial strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and pigment genes (cpcB and cpeBA) uncovered multiple estuarine and freshwater-related clusters and pigment types. Assays with five representative strains (three phycocyanin rich and two phycoerythrin rich) under temperature (10–30°C), light (10–190 μmol photons m−2 s−1), and salinity (2–14 PSU) gradients revealed distinct growth optima and tolerance, indicating that genetic variability was accompanied by physiological diversity. Adaptability to environmental conditions was associated with differential pigment content and photosynthetic performance. Amplicon sequence variants at a coastal and an offshore station linked population dynamics with phylogenetic clusters, supporting that strains isolated in this study represent key ecotypes within the Baltic Sea picocyanobacterial community. The functional diversity found within strains with the same pigment type suggests that understanding estuarine picocyanobacterial ecology requires analysis beyond the phycocyanin and phycoerythrin divide. This new knowledge of the environmental preferences in estuarine picocyanobacteria is important for understanding and evaluating productivity in current and future ecosystems.

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  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution (Limnology), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Goedkoop, Willem
    Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fatty Acid Ratios in Freshwater Fish, Zooplankton and Zoobenthos - Are There Specific Optima?2009In: Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Martin Kainz, Michael T. Brett, Michael T. Arts, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 147-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), termed omega-3 and omega-6 in food (or here as n-3 and n-6 PUFA, respectively), are essential for all vertebrates and probably also for nearly all invertebrates. The absolute concentrations of the different PUFA are important, as is an appropriate balance between the two. The optimal ratio of n-3/n-6 is not known for most organisms but is anticipated to be more or less species-specific (Sargent et al. 1995). The three most important PUFA in vertebrates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6). Both EPA and ARA are precursors for biologically active eicosanoids that are vital components of cell membranes and play many dynamic roles in mediating and controlling a wide array of cellular activities (Crawford et al. 1989; Harrison 1990; Henderson et al. 1996; see Chap. 9). Since n-3 and n-6 PUFA cannot be synthesized de novo by most metazoans, they must be included in the diet, either as EPA, DHA and ARA, or as their precursors, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, precursor of EPA and DHA) and linoleic acid (LIN, 18:2n-6, precursor of ARA) (Bell et al. 1986; Sargent et al. 1995). Both ALA and LIN are produced in the thylacoid membranes of algae and plants with chlorophyll (Sargent at al. 1987).

  • 10.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden; Department of Tree Breeding, Skogforsk, Sävar, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Karolina Ida Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Hellmér, Maria
    Department of Biology, Science Division, Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Emelie
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Granberg, Malin
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Dacklin, Ingrid
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Elving, Josefine
    Department of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, Swedish Veterinary Agency, Sweden.
    Brindefalk, Björn
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden; Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Upstream land use with microbial downstream consequences: iron and humic substances link to Legionella spp2024In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 256, article id 121579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensified land use can disturb water quality, potentially increasing the abundance of bacterial pathogens, threatening public access to clean water. This threat involves both direct contamination of faecal bacteria as well as indirect factors, such as disturbed water chemistry and microbiota, which can lead to contamination. While direct contamination has been well described, the impact of indirect factors is less explored, despite the potential of severe downstream consequences on water supply. To assess direct and indirect downstream effects of buildings, farms, pastures and fields on potential water sources, we studied five Swedish lakes and their inflows. We analysed a total of 160 samples in a gradient of anthropogenic activity spanning four time points, including faecal and water-quality indicators. Through species distribution modelling, Random Forest and network analysis using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data, our findings highlight that land use indirectly impacts lakes via inflows. Land use impacted approximately one third of inflow microbiota taxa, in turn impacting ∌20–50 % of lake taxa. Indirect effects via inflows were also suggested by causal links between e.g. water colour and lake bacterial taxa, where this influenced the abundance of several freshwater bacteria, such as Polynucleobacter and Limnohabitans. However, it was not possible to identify direct effects on the lakes based on analysis of physiochemical- or microbial parameters. To avoid potential downstream consequences on water supply, it is thus important to consider possible indirect effects from upstream land use and inflows, even when no direct effects can be observed on lakes. Legionella (a genus containing bacterial pathogens) illustrated potential consequences, since the genus was particularly abundant in inflows and was shown to increase by the presence of pastures, fields, and farms. The approach presented here could be used to assess the suitability of lakes as alternative raw water sources or help to mitigate contaminations in important water catchments. Continued broad investigations of stressors on the microbial network can identify indirect effects, avoid enrichment of pathogens, and help secure water accessibility.

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  • 11.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Giles, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    García-Gil, M. Rosario
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Life stage-specific inbreeding depression in long-lived Pinaceae species depends on population connectivity2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 8834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inbreeding depression (ID) is a fundamental selective pressure that shapes mating systems and population genetic structures in plants. Although it has been shown that ID varies over the life stages of shorter-lived plants, less is known about how the fitness effects of inbreeding vary across life stages in long-lived species. We conducted a literature survey in the Pinaceae, a tree family known to harbour some of the highest mutational loads ever reported. Using a meta-regression model, we investigated distributions of inbreeding depression over life stages, adjusting for effects of inbreeding levels and the genetic differentiation of populations within species. The final dataset contained 147 estimates of ID across life stages from 41 studies. 44 Fst estimates were collected from 40 peer-reviewed studies for the 18 species to aid genetic differentiation modelling. Partitioning species into fragmented and well-connected groups using Fst resulted in the best way (i.e. trade-off between high goodness-of-fit of the model to the data and reduced model complexity) to incorporate genetic connectivity in the meta-regression analysis. Inclusion of a life stage term and its interaction with the inbreeding coefficient (F) dramatically increased model precision. We observed that the correlation between ID and F was significant at the earliest life stage. Although partitioning of species populations into fragmented and well-connected groups explained little of the between-study heterogeneity, the inclusion of an interaction between life stage and population differentiation revealed that populations with fragmented distributions suffered lower inbreeding depression at early embryonic stages than species with well-connected populations. There was no evidence for increased ID in late life stages in well-connected populations, although ID tended to increase across life stages in the fragmented group. These findings suggest that life stage data should be included in inbreeding depression studies and that inbreeding needs to be managed over life stages in commercial populations of long-lived plants.

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  • 12.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mathisen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mats
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Thelaus, Johanna
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oligotyping reveals divergent responses of predation resistant bacteria to aquatic productivity and plankton compositionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation-resistance has been suggested to be a key for persistence of pathogenic bacteria in aquatic environments. Little is known about driving factors for different types of protozoa resistant bacteria (PRB). We studied if presence of PRB is linked to specific plankton taxa, the aquatic nutrient state, or predation pressure on bacteria. Nineteen freshwater systems were sampled and analyzed for PRB, plankton composition and physicochemical variables. Three PRB genera were identified; Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium and Rickettsia. Use of minimum entropy decomposition algorithm and phylogenetic analysis showed that different nodes (representing OTUs of high taxonomic resolution) matched to environmental isolates of the three genera. Links between the PRB genera and specific plankton taxa were found, but showed different relationships depending on if 18S rRNA OTU or microscopy data were used in the analysis. Mycobacterium spp. was negatively correlated to aquatic nutrient state, while Pseudomonas showed the opposite pattern. Rickettsia spp. was positively related to predation pressure on bacteria. Both Mycobacterium and Rickettsia were more abundant in systems with high eukaryotic diversity, while Pseudomonas occurred abundantly in waters with low prokaryotic diversity. The different drivers may be explained by varying ecological strategies, where Mycobacterium and Rickettsia are slow growing and have an intracellular life style, while Pseudomonas is fast growing and opportunistic. Here we give an insight to the possibilities of newly advanced methods such as sequencing and oligotyping to link potential pathogens with biomarkers. This as a tool to assist predictions of the occurrence and persistence of environmental pathogens.

  • 13.
    Ahlm, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Prey specialization and diet of frogs in Borneo2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of the diet of frogs indicate that most adult frogs are mainly insectivorous. Overall, frogs are viewed more as generalists than specialists in terms of their diet. However, despite earlier studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge regarding what frogs tend to eat and the degree of specialization. The aim of this study was to investigate the diet choice of frogs in a tropical ecosystem. The present study was conducted in a well-known hotspot for frogs with 66 of the 156 known frog species in Borneo found in a protected area comprising of primary rainforest.

     

    Frogs were caught in the field and their stomachs were flushed. The stomach content was retrieved, sorted to prey categories, and the diet analysed. In addition, the frogs were identified to species level. The frogs belonged to five families: Bufonidae, Dicroglossidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae. My results show that the most common food source was ants, which constituted 63.7 % of the total food for all studied frog families. Termites, beetles and spiders made up 11.7 %, 4.2 % and 2.8 % of the total prey, respectively. The results from the analysis of Shannon’s diversity index supported two diet specialist families, the Bufonidae and Megophridae, which had a significantly lower mean diversity index compared to the generalist Dicroglossidae. To better reveal differences in frog’s diet in this ecosystem, further studies using larger sample size are needed.

     

     

     

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  • 14.
    Ajaikumar, Samikannu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ahlkvist, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, William
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kordas, K
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Piispankatu 8, FIN-20500, Turku/Åbo, Finland.
    Oxidation of α-pinene over gold containing bimetallic nanoparticles supported on reducible TiO2 by DPU method2011In: Applied Catalysis A: General, ISSN 0926-860X, E-ISSN 1873-3875, Vol. 392, no 1-2, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of bimetallic catalysts Au–M (where M = Cu, Co and Ru) were supported on a reducible TiO2 oxide via deposition-precipitation (DP) method with a slow decomposition of urea as the precipitating agent. The characteristic structural features of the prepared materials were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XPS results indicated the formation of alloyed bimetallic particles on the TiO2 support. TEM results confirmed the fine dispersion of metal nanoparticles on the support with an average particle size in the range of 3–5 nm. An industrially important process, oxy-functionalization of α-pinene was carried out over the prepared bimetallic heterogeneous catalysts under liquid phase conditions. Reaction parameters such as the reaction time, temperature, and the effect of solvent were studied for optimal conversion of α-pinene into verbenone. The major products obtained were verbenone, verbenol, α-pinene oxide and alkyl-pinene peroxide. The activity of the catalysts followed the order; AuCu/TiO2 > AuCo/TiO2 > Cu/TiO2 > Au/TiO2 > AuRu/TiO2. Upon comparison of the various catalysts, AuCu/TiO2 was found to be an active and selective catalyst towards the formation of verbenone. The temperature, nature of the catalysts and the choice of solvents greatly influenced the reaction rate.

  • 15.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Trophic interactions involving mysid shrimps (Mysidacea) in the near-bottom habitat in the Baltic Sea2004In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 457-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a six month mesocosm tank experiment, hypotheses were tested concerning the role of benthopelagic mysid shrimps (Mysidacea) in the near-bottom food web of the Bothnian Sea, in the northern Baltic Sea. The first hypothesis tested was that the mysids interact, through predation, with benthic deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis amphipods. A second hypothesis tested was that the sediment type is important for the overwintering success of the mysids. Changes in abundance and mass were recorded for M. affinis and mysids when separate and when coexisting, in two sediment types differing in organic content (food level); soft muddy clay (rich) and fine sand (poor). Despite the fact that newborn M. affinis offspring, a plausible target for predation by mysids, were present in substantial numbers in the tanks, no consistent evidence for any interaction between these taxa was found. The biomass of mysids was slightly higher in the muddy clay than in the sand tanks, and the mechanism behind this substrate effect is discussed. A third hypothesis, that the mysids interact with near-bottom zooplankton, was investigated. The tanks were continually supplied with in situ near-bottom sea-water containing a seminatural assemblage of near-bottom plankton. As a result of mysid predation, tanks with mysids had lower abundance and biomass of cyclopoid copepods than tanks without mysids. Thus, the major interaction found was predation on near-bottom zooplankton by mysids and it is suggested that this interaction could potentially be an important food link, especially during periods with low food availability in the pelagic system.

  • 16.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Uppföljning av naturtypen 1140 blottade ler- och sandbottnar i Bottenviken och Södra Östersjön: En pilotstudie2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 17.
    Albertsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Leonardsson, K
    Deposit-feeding amphipods (Monoporeia affinis) reduce the recruitment of copepod nauplii from benthic resting eggs in the northern Baltic Sea2001In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 793-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally investigated the effect of different densities of the burrowing, deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis on the recruitment of zooplankton from benthic resting eggs. Intact sediment cores with in situ density and species composition of zooplankton resting eggs and benthic fauna were collected in the northern Bothnian Sea, part of the Baltic Sea. We removed as many M, affinis as possible from the cores and then added different numbers of ill. affinis to the cores to generate a range of densities. The cores were exposed to different densities of M. affinis for either 3 or 40 days, after which the hatched zooplankton was registered. One subset of the cores were initially incubated under low temperature (2-3 degreesC, to prevent hatching) for 37 days (the resting phase), to allow for effects of M. affinis on unhatched resting eggs. These cores were then incubated under higher temperature (13 degreesC) for 3 days (the hatching phase), to induce hatching and allow for effects on hatching or hatched specimens. In a second subset of cores with the same time and temperature schedule, the M. affinis density was experimentally reduced at the start of the hatching phase, to evaluate the effect of M. affinis during the hatching phase. To a third subset of cores, we immediately initiated the hatching phase, without an experimental resting phase, to evaluate the effects induced during the resting phase. The most common zooplankton species that hatched was Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda), followed by Bosmina longispina maritima (Cladocera). In all cores that were subjected to a resting phase, the numbers of hatched E. affinis were log-linearly negatively related to density of M. affinis. An increase of M. affinis density from 1,000 to 5,000 individuals m(-2), normal field densities, reduced the hatching by 60-70%. The negative impact was mainly exerted during the hatching phase, suggesting predation on, burial of or physical injury of hatching nauplii or eggs in a late development stage as likely mechanisms. Also, the number of B. longispina maritima that hatched was reduced by M. affinis during the hatching phase, but no clear relation to density of M. affinis could be identified. The results show that M. affinis can reduce recruitment to zooplankton from benthic resting eggs. Such impact by the benthos on resting stages of zooplankton is therefore a potentially significant link between the benthic and pelagic systems.

  • 18.
    Albertsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Leonardsson, K
    Impact of a borrowing deposit-feeder, Monoporeia affinis, on viable zooplankton resting eggs in the northern Baltic Sea2000In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 611-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of different densities of the burrowing deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis on the potential for recruitment of zooplankton from benthic resting eggs. Hatching of resting eggs was induced in the laboratory on sliced and resuspended 1-cm depth-sections of sediment cores, collected at six stations ill an archipelago area of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea. The uppermost 5 cm of the sediment was studied. The most common species that hatched was Eurytemor affinis (Copepoda). Individuals from another copepod genus, Acartia, hatched in significant numbers only in the cores from two stations with low amphipod abundance. Cores from stations with high amphipod densities showed a deeper distribution of emerging E. affinis nauplii compared with stations with few amphipods: the oxidised sediment layer was also deeper at high M. affinis densities than at low. Total (0 to 5 cm strata pooled) number of hatched E. affinis nauplii was independent of amphipod density. This indicates that the effect of M. affinis on E. affinis eggs involves deeper burial due to bioturbation, rather than predation. Decreased benthic recruitment of zooplankton at localities with high M. affinis density is suggested, since more deeply positioned eggs are less likely to hatch. When hatching was induced in intact, non-sliced cores from one station, the number of E. affinis nauplii that hatched was on average 43% of the number that hatched in the upper centimetre of the sliced cores from the same station. This fraction (43%), if applied to the other stations, implied a potential for benthic recruitment of up to 80000 ind m(-2) for E. affinis. Due to its high abundance, M. affinis is likely to greatly reduce benthic recruitment of zooplankton in this system.

  • 19.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundberg, Per
    Nutrient addition extends flowering display, which gets tracked by seed predators, but not by their parasitoids2008In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 117, p. 473-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although phenological matching between two and three trophic interactions has received some attention, it has largely been disregarded in explaining the lack of strong cascade dynamics in terrestrial systems. We studied the response of the specialist seed predator, Paroxyna plantaginis (Tephritidae) and associated generalist parasitoids (Chalcidoidea) to controlled fertilisation of individuals of naturally growing Tripolium vulgare (Asteraceae) on four island populations (Skeppsvik Archipelago, Sweden). We consistently found evidence of nutrient limitation: fertilised plants increased their biomass, produced more capitula (the oviposition units for tephritid flies), were more at risk of attack by the tephritids, and puparia were heavier in fertilised plants. During some parts of the season tephritids became more heavily parasitized, supporting the presence of cascade dynamics, however net parasitism over season decreased in response to nutrient addition. We found no evidence that capitulum size complicated parasitoid access to the tephritids, however the extended bud production prolonged the flowering season. Thus, tephritids utilized the surplus production of capitula throughout the entire season, while parasitoids did not expand their oviposition time window accordingly. Implications for top down regulation and cascade dynamics in the system are discussed.

  • 20.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Siddique, Abu Bakar
    Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität Greifswald, Institut für Botanik und Landschaftsökologie, Greifswald, Germany.
    Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Unterseher, Martin
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Both plant genotype and herbivory shape aspen endophyte communities2018In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 187, no 2, p. 535-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salicinoid phenolic glycosides are common defence substances in salicaceous trees and specialist leaf beetles use these compounds for their own defence against predators. Salicinoids vary qualitatively and qualitatively in aspen (Populus tremula) and this variation has a genetic basis. The foliar endophyte mycobiome is plentiful and we hypothesised that it is related to plant genotype, potentially mediated by salicinoid composition, and that interactions with the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula may alter this relationship. We studied these three-way interactions in controlled greenhouse experiments. Endophytic fungi were isolated from sterilised leaf tissues with and without beetle damage, and from beetles. We confirmed that endophyte composition was influenced by host genotype. Beetle activity added generalist morphs to the mycobiome that overrode the initial host association. Yeast-like genera (Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula) were isolated only from beetle-damaged tissues and from beetles, whereas fast-growing filamentous fungi dominated beetle-free control plants. Competition experiments between filamentous fungi of plant origin and beetle-related yeasts suggested interaction of both stimulating and inhibiting modes of action amongst the fungi. As a result, we detected examples of amensalism, commensalism, parasitism and competition between the morphs tested, but we found no evidence of mutualism, and consequently no co-evolutionary relationship could be demonstrated, between yeasts carried by beetles, host genotype and associated filamentous morphs. Endophyte studies are method-dependent and high-throughput sequencing technology best define the fungal mycobiome, culturing however continues to be a cheap way to provide fundamental ecological insights and it is also required for experimental studies.

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  • 21. Alegria Zufia, Javier
    et al.
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Legrand, Catherine
    Seasonality of coastal picophytoplankton growth, nutrient limitation, and biomass contribution2021In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 12, article id 786590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picophytoplankton in the Baltic Sea includes the simplest unicellular cyanoprokaryotes (Synechococcus/Cyanobium) and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE). Picophytoplankton are thought to be a key component of the phytoplankton community, but their seasonal dynamics and relationships with nutrients and temperature are largely unknown. We monitored pico- and larger phytoplankton at a coastal site in Kalmar Sound (K-Station) weekly during 2018. Among the cyanoprokaryotes, phycoerythrin-rich picocyanobacteria (PE-rich) dominated in spring and summer while phycocyanin-rich picocyanobacteria (PC-rich) dominated during autumn. PE-rich and PC-rich abundances peaked during summer (1.1 × 105 and 2.0 × 105 cells mL–1) while PPE reached highest abundances in spring (1.1 × 105 cells mL–1). PPE was the main contributor to the total phytoplankton biomass (up to 73%). To assess nutrient limitation, bioassays with combinations of nitrogen (NO3 or NH4) and phosphorus additions were performed. PE-rich and PC-rich growth was mainly limited by nitrogen, with a preference for NH4 at >15°C. The three groups had distinct seasonal dynamics and different temperature ranges: 10°C and 17–19°C for PE-rich, 13–16°C for PC-rich and 11–15°C for PPE. We conclude that picophytoplankton contribute significantly to the carbon cycle in the coastal Baltic Sea and underscore the importance of investigating populations to assess the consequences of the combination of high temperature and NH4 in a future climate.

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  • 22.
    Alegria Zufia, Javier
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Farnelid, Hanna
    Seasonal dynamics in picocyanobacterial abundance and clade composition at coastal and offshore stations in the Baltic Sea2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 14330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picocyanobacteria (< 2 um in diameter) are significant contributors to total phytoplankton biomass. Due to the high diversity within this group, their seasonal dynamics and relationship with environmental parameters, especially in brackish waters, are largely unknown. In this study, the abundance and community composition of phycoerythrin rich picocyanobacteria (PE-SYN) and phycocyanin rich picocyanobacteria (PC-SYN) were monitored at a coastal (K-station) and at an offshore station (LMO; similar to 10 km from land) in the Baltic Sea over three years (2018-2020). Cell abundances of picocyanobacteria correlated positively to temperature and negatively to nitrate (NO3) concentration. While PE-SYN abundance correlated to the presence of nitrogen fixers, PC-SYN abundance was linked to stratification/shallow waters. The picocyanobacterial targeted amplicon sequencing revealed an unprecedented diversity of 2169 picocyanobacterial amplicons sequence variants (ASVs). A unique assemblage of distinct picocyanobacterial clades across seasons was identified. Clade A/B dominated the picocyanobacterial community, except during summer when low NO3, high phosphate (PO4) concentrations and warm temperatures promoted S5.2 dominance. This study, providing multiyear data, links picocyanobacterial populations to environmental parameters. The difference in the response of the two functional groups and clades underscore the need for further high-resolution studies to understand their role in the ecosystem.

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  • 23.
    Alegria Zufía, Javier
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Picophytoplankton seasonal dynamics in the Baltic Sea2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Picophytoplankton (<2 μm diameter) is a diverse group of picocyanobacterial and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE).Picophytoplankton contribute significantly to total phytoplankton biomassand can dominate primary production in oceans, lakes and estuaries. In the estuarine Baltic Sea, the composition of picophytoplankton is linked to the north to south salinity gradient but knowledge of the seasonal dynamics interms of abundance, biomass and diversity is largely unknown. This thesis investigated the in situ dynamics, bottom up and top down controls of picocyanobacteria (SYN; consisting of primarily Synechococcus and Cyanobium among other genuses) and PPE at two sampling stations, one coastal and one offshore. Monitoring data over three years (2018-2020) showed high biomass contribution across all seasons. Picocyanobacterial peak abundances occurred from spring to summer at the coastal station and in late-summer to autumn at the offshore station (up to 4.7 × 105 cells mL-1).Differentiation of pigment populations showed that phycoerythrin rich(PE)-SYN was the main contributor to SYN abundances except at the coastalstation during summer, when PE-SYN and phycocyanin rich (PC)-SYN had equal contributions. PPE peak abundances occurred during late summer to autumn (up to 1.1 × 105 cells mL-1 cells ml-1). Temperature was linked topicophytoplankton growth and abundance, with PE-SYN, PCSYN and PPEadapted to different temperature ranges. Temperature also affected SYNnitrogen preference: SYN was nitrogen limited during early summer and at>15°C there was a preference for ammonium over nitrate. Clade A/B dominated the SYN community, except during summer at the coastal station when low nitrate and warm temperatures promoted S5.2 dominance. Grazing was observed to control SYN and PPE abundances and had an effect on the SYN community structure. Identification and laboratory experiments of key Synechococcus strains using a range of salinity, temperature and light conditions provided important insights into the physiological diversity of co-occurring ecotypes and links to the SYN dynamics that were observed in the field. In summary, this thesis provided novel information of picophytoplankton dynamics and community structure in the Baltic Sea. The results show that picophytoplankton play a relevant role in Baltic Sea and shows the importance of monitoring programs to understand picophytoplankton dynamics.

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  • 24.
    Alewell, C
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leifeld, J
    Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Switzerland.
    Rollog, M
    Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats2011In: Biogeosciences Discussions, ISSN 1810-6277, E-ISSN 1810-6285, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 527-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palsa peats are unique northern ecosystems formed under an arctic climate and characterizedby an unique biodiversity and ecology. The stability of the palsas are seriouslythreatened by climate warming which will change the permafrost dynamic and5 results in degradation of the mires. We used stable carbon isotope depth profiles intwo palsa mires of Northern Sweden to track environmental change during the formationof the mires. Carbon isotope (13C) depth profile of the yet undisturbed mireStorflaket indicated very low to no degradation of the peat in the water saturated depressions(hollows) but increased rates of anaerobic degradation at the Stordalen site.10 The latter might be induced by degradation of the permafrost cores in the uplifted areas(hummocks) and subsequent braking and submerging of the hummock peat intothe hollows due to climate warming. Carbon isotope depth profiles of hummocks indicateda turn from aerobic mineralisation to anaerobic degradation at a peat depthbetween 4 to 25 cm. The age of these turning point was 14C dated between 150 and15 670 years and could thus not be caused by anthropogenically induced climate change.We found the uplifting of the hummocks due to permafrost heave the most likely explanationfor our findings. We thus concluded that differences in carbon isotope profiles ofthe hollows might point to the disturbance of the mires due to climate warming or dueto differences in hydrology. The characteristic profiles of the hummocks are indicators20 for micro-geomorphic change during permafrost up heaving.

  • 25.
    Alftberg Melin, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Change in growth and overall condition in populations of anadromous burbot (Lota lota) in the Gulf of Bothnia2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many populations of burbot (Lota lota)around the world have been extirpated, are endangered or are in serious decline both regarding numbers but also in size. The aim of this study was to investigate if growth and overall condition in populations of anadromous burbot in the Gulf of Bothnia has changed over time and if so, discuss potential causes behind. This was done by comparing size at age and individual level condition indices of the two populations of anadromous burbot in Sävarån and Rickleån to previous studies from the same rivers. The results showed thatgrowth of young burbot has increased between the time period 2001-2014 to 2019in Sävarånand also a change towards a higher frequency of young individuals and a lack of older ones. Furthermore, an increase over time in condition was observed in Sävarån. In Rickleån the growth at the age of 3 had increased from both 1969-1971 and 2001-2014 to 2019. At the age of 4 to 9 a decrease in growth was shown from the time period 1969-1971 to 2001-2014 in Rickleån. A shift towards warmer water temperatures due to climate change might be an explanation in the observed change in both growth and condition in the population of burbots in Sävarån and Rickleån. Furthermore, the observed change in age frequency in Sävarån could also be a result of an increase in water temperature but could also be an effect of restoration and the control of pH in Sävarån.

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  • 26.
    Al-Hayali, Abdullah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    DO BUMBLEBEES PARTITION AN ELEVATIONAL GRADIENT BY BODY SIZE?2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the climate warms, Arctic bumblebee species face the loss of habitat and must deal with increased competition from southern species tracking their thermal and habitat niches north, for example Bombus terrestris. Previous studies demonstrate that bumblebees follow Bergmann’s rule, i.e., larger body sizes at higher latitudes, despite bumblebees not being considered truly ectothermic, as they can generate heat through muscular activity (i.e., beating their wings). This study seeks to confirm and understand the relationship between body size and temperature using an elevational gradient as a proxy for climate. In this study, I examined 13 plots (420-1164 m.a.s.l.) set along the 3.4 km transect up the slope of Mt. Nuolja in Abisko National Park, Sweden. For body size, I chose to use the commonly accepted proxy distance between the base of the wings (i.e., intertegular distance). For temperature, I chose the mean temperature at time of visitation. Results show that climate is a significant explanatory variable for bumblebee body size, with an overall increasing body size with increasing elevation (i.e., colder climate), although most of the variance is explained by caste, i.e., queens having a larger body size than workers. Body size also shows some correlation with day of capture, which can be explained by changes in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, flowering plant species) during the growing season experienced by the different emerging times for the castes. Given that caste was the most useful explanatory variable for body size, future studies could look at a larger environmental gradient, for example, by sampling at multiple locations along the entire Scandes mountain range to see if the effects found are localized. Further, specific habitat and specific traits of preferred plants may also help to elucidate body-size differences between species and castes. For example, many bumblebee species’ castes emerge at a specific time of year when only certain flowering plant species in specific habitats are available. This important research would also help to illuminate whether bumblebees and the species of plants they pollinate remain synchronous as climate warming accelerates. Nevertheless, my results show an overall positive relationship between bumblebee body size and elevation, indicating that a warming climate will result in reduced body sizes among bumble bee species. Future studies will have to investigate what consequences this will have for Arctic bumblebee populations – and for the plants that rely on bumblebee visits for their pollination.

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  • 27.
    Alimpić, Filip
    et al.
    Singidunum University - Environment and Sustainable Development, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Milovanović, Jelena
    Singidunum University - Environment and Sustainable Development, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Pielech, Remigiusz
    Department of Forest Biodiversity, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Kraków, Poland.
    Hinkov, Georgi
    Forest Research Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dufour, Simon
    Université Rennes 2/UMR LETG, Rennes, France.
    Beza, Marcin
    The Kostrzyca Forest Gene Bank, Miłków, Poland.
    Bilir, Nebi
    Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Isparta, Turkey.
    del Blanco, Luis Santos
    CSIC-INIA-CIFOR, Madrid, Spain.
    Božič, Gregor
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bruno, Daniel
    Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (Spanish National Research Council; IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza, Spain.
    Chiarabaglio, Pier Mario
    CREA - Research Centre for Forestry and Wood, Casale Monferrato AL, Italy.
    Doncheva, Neli
    WWF Bulgaria, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gültekin, Yaşar Selman
    Forest Economics Department, Düzce University, Faculty of Forest, Düzce, Turkey.
    Ivanković, Mladen
    Croatian Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Croatia.
    Kelly-Quinn, Mary
    School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    La Porta, Nicola
    Edmund Mach Foundation, Trento, Italy.
    Nonić, Marina
    University of Belgrade - Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Notivol, Eduardo
    CITA (Agricultural Research Centre), Aragon, Spain.
    Papastergiadou, Eva
    School of Natural Sciences - University of Patras, Rio, Greece.
    Šijačić-Nikolić, Mirjana
    University of Belgrade - Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Vietto, Lorenzo
    CREA - Research Centre for Forestry and Wood, Casale Monferrato AL, Italy.
    Villar, Marc
    INRAE-ONF-BioForA, Orléans, France.
    Zhelev, Petar
    University of Forestry, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María
    Forest Research Centre - School of Agriculture - University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The status and role of genetic diversity of trees for the conservation and management of riparian ecosystems: A European experts' perspective2022In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 2476-2485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian vegetation supports high biodiversity providing many services and is, therefore, an important landscape element. Riparian ecosystems are subject to numerous pressures leading to population decline and genetic erosion of riparian plants. This may have cascading effects at various ecosystem levels, including decreasing ecosystem services, so identifying the current status of genetic diversity of riparian tree species is vital to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts.

    We aimed to elicit expert views on the status and importance of genetic diversity of tree species, and conservation needs across European riparian ecosystems. Sharing of such information among researchers, managers and policymakers has the potential to enhance ecological restoration and management of riparian ecosystems.

    We identified experts in riparian genetic resources conservation and management across Europe. These included stakeholders with different perspectives, ranging from researchers to practitioners. We designed a set of questionnaires where our identified experts were asked to answer questions related to the status and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species in their respective countries. Specifically, we asked about societal awareness, legislative tools, good practices and conservation or restoration projects accounting for intraspecific genetic diversity and differentiation of tree species in riparian ecosystems. Questionnaire responses were analysed and discussed in light of the scientific literature to define needs and priorities related to the management and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species.

    The experts recognized that a combination of in situ and ex situ measures and/or integrative conservation of riparian ecosystems is the most appropriate option for conserving the genetic diversity of riparian tree species. Simultaneous application of conservation measures at the level of priority species, identified by experts, and protection of riparian areas are required.

    Synthesis and applications. This study revealed the importance of recognizing the ecological processes that shape the genetic diversity of riparian tree species in hydrographic networks (dendritic spatial configuration, specific patterns of gene flow among riparian populations, fragmentation of river by dams) but also the need to overcome socio-economic barriers, such as lack of policy priority, deficiency in funding and weak legislation framework.

  • 28. Aljetlawi, A A
    et al.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Leonardsson, K
    Effect of food and sediment pre-treatment in experiments with a deposit-feeding amphipod, Monoporeia affinis2000In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 249, no 2, p. 263-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally investigated the effects of different pre-treatments of the sediment, and the effect of daily addition of fresh phytoplankton, on the growth and survival of 1-year-old (1 +) individuals of the deposit feeder Monoporeia affinis (Amphipoda). We used three different types of sieved sediment: pre-frozen muddy clay, non-pre-frozen muddy clay, and fine sand. The muddy clay contained phytoplankton originating from the surface sediment sampled in the field during the late spring bloom. No phytoplankton was initially present in sand. The experiment lasted for 18 days. M. affinis responded to the daily phytoplankton addition by increasing growth. Phytoplankton addition had no significant effects on the survival of M. affinis. Upon phytoplankton addition, the sandy and non-frozen muddy clay gave similar growth and survival responses. In contrast, the pre-frozen sediment resulted in significantly lower growth and survival. The growth was negative in all treatments without phytoplankton. Thus, the high initial chlorophyll content in the muddy clay was not of sufficient quality or concentration to allow a positive growth response in M. affinis. The growth of M. affinis was significantly correlated with the reduction of the chlorophyll. Our results indicated that M. affinis is capable of assimilating settled phytoplankton with no, or only a few days' time delay. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science BN: All rights reserved.

  • 29. Allan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Le Roux, Gael
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Piotrowska, Natalia
    Sikorski, Jaroslaw
    Fagel, Nathalie
    High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 178, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years.

    (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Allegrini, Elisa
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Boldrin, Alessio
    Tech Univ Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundtorp, Kasper
    Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fruergaard Astrup, Thomas
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 270, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. 

  • 31. Alonso, Carlos
    et al.
    Roman, Alfonso
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Garcia de Jalon, Diego
    Carolli, Mauro
    A graphical approach to characterize sub-daily flow regimes and evaluate its alterations due to hydropeaking2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, p. 532-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most flow regime characterizations focus on long time scale flow patterns, which are not precise enough to capture key components of short-term flow fluctuations. Recent proposed methods describing sub-daily flow fluctuations are focused on limited components of the flow regime being unable to fully represent it, or on the identification of peaking events based on subjectively defined thresholds, being unsuitable for evaluations of short-term flow regime alterations through comparisons between regulated and free-flowing rivers. This study aims to launch an innovative approach based on the visual display of quantitative information to address the challenge of the short-term hydrologic characterization and evaluation of alteration resulting from hydropeaking. We propose a graphical method to represent a discrete set of ecologically relevant indices that characterize and evaluate the alteration of sub-daily flow regimes. The frequency of occurrence of classified values of a descriptive hydrological variable is represented in a map-like graph where longitude, latitude and altitude represent the Julian day, the value of the variable and the frequency of occurrence, respectively. Subsequently, we tested the method on several rivers, both free-flowing and subjected to hydropower production. The advantages of our approach compared to other analytical methods are: (i) it displays a great amount of information without oversimplification; (ii) it takes into account changes in the intensity, timing and frequency of the sub-daily flows, without needing a priori defined thresholds to identify hydropeaking events; and (iii) it supports the Water Framework Directive goal. Specifically, results from applications of our graphical method agree with Sauterleute and Charmasson (2014) analytical method.

  • 32.
    Alsafran, Mohammed H.S.A.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box: 2713, Doha, Qatar.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box: 2713, Doha, Qatar.
    Variation in plant litter decomposition rates across extreme dry environments in Qatar2017In: Arab World Geographer, ISSN 1480-6800, Vol. 20, no 2-3, p. 252-261Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is a key process for transfer of carbon and nutrients in ecosystems. Carbon contained in decaying biomass is released to the atmosphere as respired CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. To our knowledge, there have been no studies on litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems in the Arabian peninsula. Here we used commercial teabags (green tea, rooibos tea) as standard substrates to study decomposition rates across contrasting ecosystems in Qatar. Teabags were buried under and beside Acacia tortilis trees, in depressions with abundant grass vegetation, in saltmarsh without and with vegetation, under Zygophyllum qatarense in drylands, in natural mangrove and in planted mangrove. There were significant site effects across ecosystems on decomposition rate (k), litter stabilisation factor (S), final weight of green tea and final weight of rooibos tea. Mangrove and depressions with grassland had the smallest amounts of remaining green and rooibos tea after the incubation period (69-82 days), while teabags buried under A. tortilis and in saltmarsh without vegetation had the largest amounts. Thus decomposition rates differ among ecosystems in the desert environment. Further multi-year and site studies are needed to identify factors that influence decomposition rates across sites in extreme environments.

  • 33.
    Alshwairikh, Yara A.
    et al.
    School of the Environment, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Kroeze, Shayla L.
    Department of Biology, Western University, ON, London, Canada.
    Olsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Stephens-Cardenas, Steve A.
    Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Latina de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.
    Swain, William L.
    Wildlife Genomics and Disease Laboratory, Program in Ecology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, WY, Laramie, United States.
    Waits, Lisette P.
    Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, University of Idaho, ID, Moscow, United States.
    Horn, Rebekah L.
    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, ID, Hagerman, United States.
    Narum, Shawn R.
    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, ID, Hagerman, United States.
    Seaborn, Travis
    Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, University of Idaho, ID, Moscow, United States.
    Influence of environmental conditions at spawning sites and migration routes on adaptive variation and population connectivity in Chinook salmon2021In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, no 23, p. 16890-16908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many species that undergo long breeding migrations, such as anadromous fishes, face highly heterogeneous environments along their migration corridors and at their spawning sites. These environmental challenges encountered at different life stages may act as strong selective pressures and drive local adaptation. However, the relative influence of environmental conditions along the migration corridor compared with the conditions at spawning sites on driving selection is still unknown. In this study, we performed genome–environment associations (GEA) to understand the relationship between landscape and environmental conditions driving selection in seven populations of the anadromous Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)—a species of important economic, social, cultural, and ecological value—in the Columbia River basin. We extracted environmental variables for the shared migration corridors and at distinct spawning sites for each population, and used a Pool-seq approach to perform whole genome resequencing. Bayesian and univariate GEA tests with migration-specific and spawning site-specific environmental variables indicated many more candidate SNPs associated with environmental conditions at the migration corridor compared with spawning sites. Specifically, temperature, precipitation, terrain roughness, and elevation variables of the migration corridor were the most significant drivers of environmental selection. Additional analyses of neutral loci revealed two distinct clusters representing populations from different geographic regions of the drainage that also exhibit differences in adult migration timing (summer vs. fall). Tests for genomic regions under selection revealed a strong peak on chromosome 28, corresponding to the GREB1L/ROCK1 region that has been identified previously in salmonids as a region associated with adult migration timing. Our results show that environmental variation experienced throughout migration corridors imposed a greater selective pressure on Chinook salmon than environmental conditions at spawning sites.

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  • 34. Altewischer, Andrea
    et al.
    Buschewski, Ulrike
    Ehrke, Christian
    Froehlich, Johannes
    Gaertner, Antje
    Giese, Peter
    Guenter, Franziska
    Heitmann, Nadja
    Hestermann, Maren
    Hoffmann, Hannes
    Kleinschmidt, Friederike
    Kniepkamp, Bjoern
    Linke, Wilhelm
    Mayland-Quellhorst, Tore
    Pape, Jonas
    Peterson, Tom
    Schendel, Vanessa
    Schwieger, Sarah
    Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Wadenstorfer, Andrea
    Fischer, Klaus
    Habitat preferences of male Corn Buntings Emberiza calandra in north-eastern Germany2015In: Acta Ornithologica, ISSN 0001-6454, E-ISSN 1734-8471, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural ecosystems have faced dramatic changes during past decades, resulting in a dramatic loss of farmland biodiversity. The Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra is considered a suitable indicator for the conservation value of farmland habitats, and has recently suffered strong declines throughout much of its European range. As a basis for targeted conservation measures, we investigated the habitat preferences of this species in north-eastern Germany by comparing the composition of male territories with randomly chosen control sites. A territory was defined as the area within a radius of 150 meters around the assumed centre of the territory, as the majority of nests is found within this radius. To assess food availability for nestlings, arthropod abundance within the most abundant land use types i.e. crop fields, fallows, grassland as well as within unploughed strips was investigated. In total we found 102 male Corn Bunting territories, which were mainly composed of crop fields (50%), grassland (28%), and fallows (12%). Territories compared with control sites were characterized by a lower proportion of crop fields, a higher proportion of fallows, more diverse land use types, more abundant field boundaries, unploughed strips, and tracks, and a higher availability of song posts. However, neither the number of larger (≥ 1 cm), smaller (< 1 cm) or all arthropods differed significantly among analysed land use types i.e. crop fields, fallows, grassland, unploughed strips. Our study confirms the significance of habitat heterogeneity and especially of sites with sparse vegetation (fallows > 10%) and song posts (> 70 m ‘linear song posts’ or > 1 solitary post per ha) for the habitat selection of male Corn Buntings. We conclude that measures to halt population declines of Corn Buntings seem to be relatively easy to implement, provided that farmers are granted a fair compensation.

  • 35.
    Andersen, Emil Alexander Sherman
    et al.
    Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus
    Hollesen, Jørgen
    Ambus, Per Lennart
    Elberling, Bo
    Nitrogen isotopes reveal high N retention in plants and soil of old Norse and Inuit deposits along a wet-dry arctic fjord transect in Greenland2020In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 455, no 1-2, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Plant growth in the Arctic is often nutrient limited due to temperature constraints on decomposition and low atmospheric input of nitrogen (N). Local hotspots of nutrient enrichment found in up to 4000-year-old archaeological deposits can be used to explore the recycling and long-term retention of nutrients in arctic ecosystems.

    Methods: We investigated old Inuit and Norse deposits (known as middens) and adjacent tundra ecosystems along a wet-dry fjord gradient in western Greenland to explore the isotopic fingerprinting of plant and soil carbon and nitrogen (C-13/C-12 and(15)N/N-14) derived from human presence.

    Results: At all locations we observed a significant isotopic fingerprint in soil and plant N related to human deposits. This demonstrates a century-long legacy of past human habitation on plant and soil characteristics and indicates a surprisingly high N retention in these ecosystems. This is consistent with the significantly higher plant biomass in areas with archaeological deposits.

    Conclusion: Vegetation composition and N in plants and soils displayed marked differences along the wet-dry fjord gradient. Furthermore, the profound nutrient enrichment and organic matter accumulation in archaeological deposits compared to surrounding tundra demonstrates a century-long legacy of past habitation on plant and soil characteristics as well as efficient N cycling with surprisingly limited N loss.

  • 36.
    Andersen, K. H.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Berge, T.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Goncalves, R. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Argentina ; Estn Fotobiol Playa Union, Argentina.
    Hartvig, M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Univ Göttingen, Germany.
    Heuschele, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jacobsen, N. S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Lindemann, C.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Martens, E. A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Neuheimer, A. B.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Hawaii Manoa, USA.
    Olsson, K.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Palacz, A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Prowe, A. E. F.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Sainmont, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Traving, S. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark ; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Visser, A. W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wadhwa, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Kiorboe, T.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Characteristic Sizes of Life in the Oceans, from Bacteria to Whales2016In: Annual Review of Marine Science, ISSN 1941-1405, E-ISSN 1941-0611, Vol. 8, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of an individual organism is a key trait to characterize its physiology and feeding ecology. Size-based scaling laws may have a limited size range of validity or undergo a transition from one scaling exponent to another at some characteristic size. We collate and review data on size-based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size-based rules and identify unanswered questions.

  • 37. Anderson, K. E.
    et al.
    Nisbet, R. M.
    Diehl, S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Spatial scaling of consumer-resource interactions in advection-dominated systems2006In: American Naturalist, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecologists studying consumer-resource interactions in advection-dominated systems such as streams and rivers frequently seek to link the results of small-scale experiments with larger-scale patterns of distribution and abundance. Accomplishing this goal requires determining the characteristic scale, termed the response length, at which there is a shift from local dynamics dominated by advective dispersal to larger-scale dynamics dominated by births and deaths. Here, we model the dynamics of consumer-resource systems in a spatially variable, advective environment and show how consumer-resource interactions alter the response length relative to its single-species value. For one case involving a grazer that emigrates in response to high predator density, we quantify the changes using published data from small-scale experiments on aquatic invertebrates. Using Fourier analysis, we describe the responses of advection-dominated consumer-resource systems to spatially extended environmental variability in a way that involves explicit consideration of the response length. The patterns we derive for different consumer-resource systems exhibit important similarities in how component populations respond to spatial environmental variability affecting dispersal as opposed to demographic parameters.

  • 38. Anderson, K. E.
    et al.
    Nisbet, R. M.
    Diehl, S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Cooper, S. D.
    Scaling population responses to spatial environmental variability in advection-dominated systems2005In: Ecology Letters, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 933-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model the spatial dynamics of an open population of organisms that disperse solely through advection in order to understand responses to multiscale environmental variability. We show that the distance over which a population responds to a localized perturbation, called the response length, can be characterized as an organisms average lifetime dispersal distance, unless there is strong density-dependence in demographic or dispersal rates. Continuous spatial fluctuations in demographic rates at scales smaller than the response length will be largely averaged in the population distribution, whereas those in per capita emigration rates will be strongly tracked. We illustrate these results using a parameterized example to show how responses to environmental variability may differ in streams with different average current velocities. Our model suggests an approach to linking local dynamics dominated by dispersal processes to larger-scale dynamics dominated by births and deaths.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Ahlinder, J.
    Mathisen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hagglund, M.
    Backman, S.
    Nilsson, E.
    Sjodin, A.
    Thelaus, J.
    Predators and nutrient availability favor protozoa-resisting bacteria in aquatic systems2018In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 8415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long co-existence of bacteria and protozoa has led to the development of bacterial protozoa resistance strategies, which are suggested to serve as drivers for the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. However, the ecological mechanisms underpinning selection for protozoa-resistance in aquatic bacteria are poorly known. To assess the role of nutrient availability and predation-pressure on selection for protozoa-resisting bacteria (PRB), an enrichment-dilution experiment was designed using laboratory microcosms containing natural lake water. PRB was monitored by screening 16S rRNA amplicon sequence data for reads assigned to bacteria that previously has been shown to resist degradation by amoebae. To estimate the effects of the microbial food web dynamics (microscopy of; heterotrophic bacteria, phytoplankton, protozoa and rotifers) and physicochemical variables on the PRB abundance in the study system, a joint species distribution modelling approach was used. The predation-pressure (ratio between predator and bacterial biomass) had a positive effect on the abundance of the PRB genus Mycobacterium, while perturbation (enrichment and dilution) favored the PRB genus Pseudomonas that dominated the bacterial community in the disturbed systems. Our results show that PRB with different ecological strategies can be expected in water of high and intermediate nutrient levels and after major disturbances of an aquatic system.

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  • 40.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Mathisen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Moa
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Thelaus, Johanna
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, SE-901 82 Umeå, Sweden.
    Aquatic ecosystems at risk for occurrence of pathogenic bacteriaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogenic bacteria occur naturally in aquatic systems. Co-existence of bacteria and protozoa has led to development of predation resistance strategies, which is suggested to serve as a driver for evolution of pathogenic bacteria. However, the ecological mechanisms for selection for different types of predation resistant and pathogenic bacteria are poorly known. To disentangle effects from nutrient availability and protozoan predation pressure on the occurrence of varying predation resistant bacterial genera, an enrichment-dilution experiment was performed where an aquatic bacterial community was exposed to protozoa. Operational taxonomical units, specific for three predation resistant bacterial genera were identified; Pseudomonas, Rickettsia and Mycobacterium. These genera are also known to harbor species that are potentially pathogenic to mammals. Rickettsia and Mycobacterium were promoted where protozoa were abundant and the predation pressure high, while Pseudomonas dominated the bacterial community at the highest nutrient level where the predation pressure on bacteria were low. Our study thus indicates that waters of all nutrient states can harbor pathogenic bacteria, but that bacteria with different ecological strategies occur depending on nutrient level and perturbation. The generative model approach presented here provide a possibility to integrate environmental data in prediction models of pathogens in complex environments.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Grinienė, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Marine Research Institute, Klaipėda University, Klaipėda, Lithuania.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Gallampois, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Microbial food web changes induced by terrestrial organic matter and elevated temperature in the coastal northern Baltic Sea2023In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 10, article id 1170054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has been projected to cause increased temperature and amplified inflows of terrestrial organic matter to coastal areas in northern Europe. Consequently, changes at the base of the food web favoring heterotrophic bacteria over phytoplankton are expected, affecting the food web structure. We tested this hypothesis using an outdoor shallow mesocosm system in the northern Baltic Sea in early summer, where the effects of increased temperature (+ 3°C) and terrestrial matter inputs were studied following the system dynamics and conducting grazing experiments. Juvenile perch constituted the highest trophic level in the system, which exerted strong predation on the zooplankton community. Perch subsequently released the microbial food web from heavy grazing by mesozooplankton. Addition of terrestrial matter had a stronger effect on the microbial food web than the temperature increase, because terrestrial organic matter and accompanying nutrients promoted both heterotrophic bacterial production and phytoplankton primary production. Moreover, due to the shallow water column in the experiment, terrestrial matter addition did not reduce the light below the photosynthesis saturation level, and in these conditions, the net-autotrophy was strengthened by terrestrial matter enrichment. In combination with elevated temperature, the terrestrial matter addition effects were intensified, further shifting the size distribution of the microbial food web base from picoplankton to microphytoplankton. These changes up the food web led to increase in the biomass and proportion of large-sized ciliates (>60 µm) and rotifers. Despite the shifts in the microbial food web size structure, grazing experiments suggested that the pathway from picoplankton to nano- and microzooplankton constituted the major energy flow in all treatments. The study implies that the microbial food web compartments in shallow coastal waters will adjust to climate induced increased inputs of terrestrial matter and elevated temperature, and that the major energy path will flow from picoplankton to large-sized ciliates during the summer period.

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  • 42.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Inst. f. Systemekologi, Stockholms universitet.
    Haecky, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Kuparinen, Jorma
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Succession and growth limitation of phytoplankton in the Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea)1996In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 126, no 4, p. 791-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one year field study of four stations in the Gulf of Bothnia during 1991 showed that the biomass was ca. two times, and primary productivity ca, four times, lower in the north (Bothnian Bay) than in the south (Bothnian Sea) during the summer. Nutrient addition experiments indicated phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton in the Bothnian Bay and the coastal areas in the northern Bothnian Sea, but nitrogen limitation in the open Bothnian Sea. A positive correlation between the phosphate concentration and the production/biomass ratio of phytoplankton was demonstrated, which partly explained the differences in the specific growth rate of the phytoplankton during the summer. Differences in photosynthetic active radiation between the stations also showed a covariation with the primary productivity. The relative importance of nutrient or light limitation for photosynthetic carbon fixation could not, however, be conclusively determined from this study. Marked differences in phytoplankton species composition from north to south were also observed. The number of dominating species was higher in the Bothnian Sea than in the Bothnian Bay. The distribution of some species could be explained as due to nutrient availability (e.g. Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon sp.), while salinity probably limits the distribution of some limnic as well as marine species. The potentially toxic phytoplankton N. spumigena, Dinophysis acuminata and Chrysochromulina spp. were common in the Bothnian Sea but not in the Bothnian Bay. The pico- and nanoplankton biomass during late summer was higher than previously reported due to a revised carbon/volume ratio.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Höglander, Helena
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Key role of phosphorus and nitrogen in regulating cyanobacterial community composition in the northern Baltic Sea2015In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 164, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite cyanobacteria being a key phytoplankton group in the Baltic Sea, the factors governing their community structure are still poorly understood. Here, we studied the occurrence of the orders Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales and Nostocales, and potentially explanatory variables at five locations in the northern Baltic Sea from June–September, 1998–2012. Cyanobacteria constituted 1–36% of the total phytoplankton biomass along the north–south gradient. In the Bothnian Bay, Chroococcales and Oscillatoriales dominated the cyanobacterial community, whereas in the Bothnian Sea and northern Baltic Proper, Nostocales was the dominant group. The dominance of Chroococcales was coupled to low salinity and low total phosphorus, whereas Oscillatoriales correlated with high total nitrogen and low salinity. Nostocales correlated to high total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus and salinity. Chroococcales showed an increase over time in the offshore Bothnian Bay, whereas Nostocales increased in the coastal Bothnian Sea and coastal Baltic Proper. The increase of Nostocales in the coastal Bothnian Sea was explained by a rise in total phosphorus and decrease in dissolved inorganic nitrogen compared to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal Baltic Proper. No significant trends were observed in the cyanobacterial community in the offshore Bothnian Sea and the offshore northern Baltic Proper. We concluded that Chroococcales may be a useful indicator for increased phosphorus levels in waters with low phosphorus concentrations, whereas Nostocales could be used as a quality indicator for increasing phosphorus concentrations in waters with low inorganic N/P ratios (&lt;20), such as in the coastal Bothnian Sea and Baltic Proper.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Joanna, Paczkowska
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kratzer, Susanne
    Stockholm University Institutionen för ekologi miljö och botanik 106 91 Stockholm.
    Marked impact of allochthonous dissolved organic matter on estuarine primary and bacterial productionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Jurgensone, Iveta
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Simonelli, Paolo
    Bignert, Anders
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e61293-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon ( humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 mu m algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 mu m. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

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  • 46.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Höglander, Helena
    Stockholms universitet.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI.
    Pelagial biologi / växtplankton2010In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2010 / [ed] Kristina Viklund (huvudredaktör) Ulrika Brenner, Annika Tidlund, Marie Svärd, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2010, p. 32-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Höglander, Helena
    Mer fosfor ger mer cyanobakterier i norra Östersjön2013In: Havet, p. 51-54Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera områden i norra Östersjön har cyanobakterierna ökat under de senaste tio till femton åren. I Bottenhavets och Egentliga Östersjöns kustområden ökar de kvävefixerande cyanobakterierna. I Bottenvikens utsjö är det den småcelliga och kolonibildande gruppen Chroococcales som blir fler. Förändringarna beror i flera fall på ökande halter av fosfor.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI och Stockholms universitet.
    Hur påverkas Östersjön?2010In: Sverige i nytt klimat: våtvarm utmaning / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2010, p. 117-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49. Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Kristina
    Haecky, Pia
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Changes in the pelagic microbial food web due to artificial eutrophication2006In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 299-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on the structure and carbon flow in the pelagic microbial food web was studied in mesocosm experiments using seawater from the northern Baltic Sea. The experiments included food webs of at least four trophic levels; (1) phytoplankton-bacteria, (2) flagellates, (3) ciliates and (4) mesozooplankton. In the enriched treatments high autotrophic growth rates were observed, followed by increased heterotrophic production. The largest growth increase was due to heterotrophic bacteria, indicating that the heterotrophic microbial food web was promoted. This was further supported by increased growth of heterotrophic flagellates and ciliates in the high nutrient treatments. The phytoplankton peak in the middle of the experiments was mainly due to an autotrophic nanoflagellate, Pyramimonas sp. At the end of the experiment, the proportion of heterotrophic organisms was higher in the nutrient enriched than in the nutrient-poor treatment, indicating increased predation control of primary producers. The proportion of potentially mixotrophic plankton, prymnesiophyceans, chrysophyceans and dinophyceans, were significantly higher in the nutrient-poor treatment. Furthermore, the results indicated that the food web efficiency, defined as mesozooplankton production per basal production (primary production + bacterial production - sedimentation), decreased with increasing nutrient status, possibly due to increasing loss processes in the food web. This could be explained by promotion of the heterotrophic microbial food web, causing more trophic levels and respiration steps in the food web.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Klimatförändringar kan leda till mindre fisk i havet2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Göteborg: Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 25-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 2011
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