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  • 1. Adolf, Carole
    et al.
    Wunderle, Stefan
    Colombaroli, Daniele
    Weber, Helga
    Gobet, Erika
    Heiri, Oliver
    van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Connor, Simon E.
    Galka, Mariusz
    La Mantia, Tommaso
    Makhortykh, Sergey
    Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena
    Vanniere, Boris
    Tinner, Willy
    The sedimentary and remote-sensing reflection of biomass burning in Europe2018Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 199-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We provide the first European-scale geospatial training set relating the charcoal signal in surface lake sediments to fire parameters (number, intensity and area) recorded by satellite moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Our calibration is intended for quantitative reconstructions of key fire-regime parameters by using sediment sequences of microscopic (MIC from pollen slides, particles 10-500 mu m) and macroscopic charcoal (MAC from sieves, particles > 100 mu m). Location: North-south and east-west transects across Europe, covering the mediterranean, temperate, alpine, boreal and steppe biomes. Time period: Lake sediments and MODIS active fire and burned area products were collected for the years 2012-2015. Methods: Cylinder sediment traps were installed in lakes to annually collect charcoal particles in sediments. We quantitatively assessed the relationships between MIC and MAC influx (particles/cm(2)/year) and the MODIS-derived products to identify source areas of charcoal and the extent to which lake-sediment charcoal is linked to fire parameters across the continent. Results: Source area of sedimentary charcoal was estimated to a 40-km radius around sites for both MIC and MAC particles. Fires occurred in grasslands and in forests, with grass morphotypes of MAC accurately reflecting the burned fuel-type. Despite the lack of local fires around the sites, MAC influx levels reached those reported for local fires. Both MIC and MAC showed strong and highly significant relationships with the MODIS-derived fire parameters, as well as with climatic variation along a latitudinal temperature gradient. Main conclusions: MIC and MAC are suited to quantitatively reconstructing fire number and fire intensity on a regional scale. However, burned area may only be estimated using MAC. Local fires may be identified by using several lines of evidence, e.g. analysis of large particles (> 600 mu m), magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data. Our results offer new insights and applications to quantitatively reconstruct fires and to interpret available sedimentary charcoal records.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Canadell, Josep G.
    Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, ACT, Canberra, Australia.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Widespread Unquantified Conversion of Old Boreal Forests to Plantations2022Ingår i: Earth's Future, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e2022EF003221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the boreal biome, clear-cutting of old, previously non clear-cut forests with high naturalness followed by tree planting or seeding is a major land use change. However, how much previously uncut forest has been converted to plantations remains unquantified. We combine Swedish national databases on clear-cuts and forest inventories to show that at least 19% of all clear-cuts since 2003 have occurred in old forests that were most likely not previously cut and planted or seeded. Old forests have been cut and lost at a steady rate of ∼1.4% per year for the same period, and at this rate they will disappear by the 2070s. There is further evidence that this type of unreported forest conversion is occurring across much of the world's boreal forest.

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  • 3. Akhter, Shirin
    et al.
    Kretzschmar, Warren W.
    Nordal, Veronika
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nilsson, Ove
    Emanuelsson, Olof
    Sundström, Jens F.
    Integrative analysis of three RNA sequencing methods identifies mutually exclusive exons of MADS-box isoforms during early bud development in Picea abies2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 1625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent efforts to sequence the genomes and transcriptomes of several gymnosperm species have revealed an increased complexity in certain gene families in gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. One example of this is the gymnosperm sister Glade to angiosperm TM3-like MADS-box genes, which at least in the conifer lineage has expanded in number of genes. We have previously identified a member of this subclade, the conifer gene DEFICIENS AGAMOUS LIKE 19 (DAL19), as being specifically upregulated in cone-setting shoots. Here, we show through Sanger sequencing of mRNA-derived cDNA and mapping to assembled conifer genomic sequences that DAL19 produces six mature mRNA splice variants in Picea abies. These splice variants use alternate first and last exons, while their four central exons constitute a core region present in all six transcripts. Thus, they are likely to be transcript isoforms. Quantitative Real-Time PCR revealed that two mutually exclusive first DAL19 exons are differentially expressed across meristems that will form either male or female cones, or vegetative shoots. Furthermore, mRNA in situ hybridization revealed that two mutually exclusive last DAL19 exons were expressed in a cell-specific pattern within bud meristems. Based on these findings in DAL19, we developed a sensitive approach to transcript isoform assembly from short-read sequencing of mRNA. We applied this method to 42 putative MADS-box core regions in P abies, from which we assembled 1084 putative transcripts. We manually curated these transcripts to arrive at 933 assembled transcript isoforms of 38 putative MADS-box genes. 152 of these isoforms, which we assign to 28 putative MADS-box genes, were differentially expressed across eight female, male, and vegetative buds. We further provide evidence of the expression of 16 out of the 38 putative MADS-box genes by mapping PacBio Iso-Seq circular consensus reads derived from pooled sample sequencing to assembled transcripts. In summary, our analyses reveal the use of mutually exclusive exons of MADS-box gene isoforms during early bud development in P. abies, and we find that the large number of identified MADS-box transcripts in P. abies results not only from expansion of the gene family through gene duplication events but also from the generation of numerous splice variants.

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  • 4.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Witzell, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Disentangling functions of fungal endophytes in forest trees2012Ingår i: Fungi: types, environmental impact and role in disease / [ed] Adolfo Paz-Silva; María Sol Arias Vázquez, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, s. 235-246Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Endophytic fungi are known to be abundant colonizers of the internal tissues of forest trees, but their ecological functions are still largely unknown. Recent studies indicate that endophytes may associate with tree's resistance and tolerance properties, and they are thus potential bio-agents that could be utilized in sustainable forest protection and management. To gain a better understanding of the endophytes' potential role in shaping forest health we need more evidence in the form of ecological studies of endophyte communities, in various tissues, across space, and time. The recent advances in molecular methods have given us new and effective tools to obtain such data. Studies of endophyte functions are further facilitated with the development of new high through-put screening methods for substrate use and competitive ability. Fungi are known as chemical factories of natural compounds with biological properties. Beside their potential as antagonists against pests and diseases, the tree-associated endophytic fungi therefore also appear as an emerging source of novel biomolecules for industrial or clinical applications outside forestry. This chapter presents some of the current methodological approaches that are likely to be valuable in studies on endophyte diversity in forest trees, and discusses the goals and impacts of the studies that aim at disentangling the beneficial potential of fungal endophytes in trees. A new concept, bioactive symbiosis, is suggested as a general framework for these studies.

  • 5. Aldea, Jorge
    et al.
    Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo
    del Rio, Miren
    Pretzsch, Hans
    Heym, Michael
    Brazaitis, Gediminas
    Jansons, Aris
    Metslaid, Marek
    Barbeito, Ignacio
    Bielak, Kamil
    Granhus, Aksel
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nothdurft, Arne
    Sitko, Roman
    Lof, Magnus
    Species stratification and weather conditions drive tree growth in Scots pine and Norway spruce mixed stands along Europe2021Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 481, artikel-id 118697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed forests are suggested as a strategic adaptation of forest management to climate change. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) are tree species of high economic and ecological value for European forestry. Both species coexist naturally in a large part of their distributions but there is a lack of knowledge on the ecological functioning of mixtures of these species and how to manage such stands. This paper analyses these species' intra- and inter-specific competition, including size-symmetric vs. size-asymmetric competition, and explore the effect of weather conditions on tree growth and competition. We studied basal area growth at tree level for Scots pine and Norway spruce in mixed versus pure stands in 22 triplets of fully-stocked plots along a broad range of ecological conditions across Europe. Stand inventory and increment cores provided insights into how species mixing modifies tree growth compared with neighbouring pure stands. Five different competition indices, weather variables and their interactions were included and checked in basal area growth models using a linear mixed model approach. Interspecific size-asymmetric competition strongly influenced growth for both tree species, and was modulated by weather conditions. However, species height stratification in mixed stands resulted in a greater tree basal area growth of Scots pine (10.5 em(2) year(-1)) than in pure stands (9.3 em(2) year(-1)), as this species occupies the upper canopy layer. Scots pine growth depended on temperature and drought, whereas Norway spruce growth was influenced only by drought. Interspecific site-asymmetric competition increased in cold winters for Scots pine, and decreased after a drought year for Norway spruce. Although mixtures of these species may reduce tree size for Norway spruce, our results suggest that this could be offset by faster growth in Scots pine. How inter-specific competition and weather conditions alter tree growth may have strong implications for the management of Scots pine-Norway spruce mixtures along the rotation period into the ongoing climate change scenario.

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  • 6.
    Aldea, Jorge
    et al.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lomma, Sweden.
    Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo
    Forest Research Center, INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; iuFOR, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Valladolid, Spain.
    del Río, Miren
    Forest Research Center, INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain; iuFOR, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA, Valladolid, Spain.
    Pretzsch, Hans
    Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Heym, Michael
    Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Brazaitis, Gediminas
    Department of Forest Science, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Jansons, Aris
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Metslaid, Marek
    Chair of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Barbeito, Ignacio
    Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada.
    Bielak, Kamil
    Department of Silviculture, Institute of Forest Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Hylen, Gro
    NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nothdurft, Arne
    Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Growth, BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Sitko, Roman
    Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resource Planning and Informatics, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Löf, Magnus
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lomma, Sweden.
    Timing and duration of drought modulate tree growth response in pure and mixed stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce2022Ingår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 2673-2683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Climate change is increasing the severity and frequency of droughts around the globe, leading to tree mortality that reduces production and provision of other ecosystem services. Recent studies show that growth of mixed stands may be more resilient to drought than pure stands. The two most economically important and widely distributed tree species in Europe are Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), but little is known about their susceptibility to drought when coexist.
    2. This paper analyses the resilience (resistance, recovery rate and recovery time) at individual-tree level using a network of tree-ring collections from 22 sites along a climatic gradient from central Europe to Scandinavia. We aimed to identify differences in growth following drought between the two species and between mixed and pure stands, and how environmental variables (climate, topography and site location) and tree characteristics influence them.
    3. We found that both the timing and duration of drought drive the different responses between species and compositions. Norway spruce showed higher vulnerability to summer drought, with both lower resistance and a longer recovery time than Scots pine. Mixtures provided higher drought resistance for both species compared to pure stands, but the benefit decreases with the duration of the drought. Especially climate sensitive and old trees in climatically marginal sites were more affected by drought stress.
    4. Synthesis. Promoting Scots pine and mixed forests is a promising strategy for adapting European forests to climate change. However, if future droughts become longer, the advantage of mixed stands could disappear which would be especially negative for Norway spruce.
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  • 7.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The role of market measures in forest governance: the example of forest certification in boreal forests2017Ingår i: CABI Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, E-ISSN 1749-8848, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Reed, Maureen G.
    Introducing a framework for good and adaptive governance: an application to fire management planning in Canada's boreal forest2013Ingår i: Forestry Chronicle, ISSN 0015-7546, Vol. 89, nr 5, s. 664-674Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for and managing disturbances in protected areas requires governance arrangements that are both adaptive to changing conditions and effective in dealing with multiple challenges. This paper presents a framework composed of principles and criteria of good and adaptive governance that pays attention to inclusiveness, responsibility, fairness, strategic vision, performance orientation, and adaptiveness. The framework was empirically tested on fire management planning in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, Canada, involving interactions between Parks Canada and Saskatchewan Environment. Our results suggest that while the principle of performance orientation was upheld, principles such as inclusiveness and adaptiveness were only partially supported. Additional testing beyond fire management planning can help determine the utility of the framework for other environmental management situations.

  • 9. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, s. 76-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry in the structural shifts of forest ownership: challenging the "old" and shaping the "new"2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 508-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the most forested countries in Europe, and it has one of the highest shares of productive forest. Production in forestry is largely reliant on the private non-industrial forest owners, who own half of the forest land. As in many countries, however, forest ownership is changing towards a higher extent of urban, female or non-forestry-background owners. This poses a challenge for the forestry services sector, mainly forest owners' associations and companies, but also broadly the sector at large. By exploring the sales and marketing processes, this paper analyses the service logics and strategies of Swedish forestry under changing forest ownership, drawing on an interview study covering all the large actors in the Swedish forestry sector. The study illustrates an increased focus of forestry organizations on services from a strategic and managerial perspective, in customer-oriented relationship development and in value creation and sales processes, specifically in order to manage "new" forest owners and the demand of forest industries. The results highlight the domination of service logics associated with timber production and the challenges for the service market and the provision of diversified services to forest owners.

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  • 11. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    In the eye of the storm: adaptation logics of forest owners in management and planning in Swedish areas2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 800-808Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With a changing climate, storm and wind throw is becoming an increasing risk to forest. However, Swedish forest management practices have so far involved relatively little consideration of adaptation to climate change. This study examined resistance and alternatives to business as usual forest management, drawing upon material obtained in interviews with individual forest owners who spontaneously identified and discussed storm and wind throw as a risk to their forest. They thereby expressed a logic differing from that of the forest industry in Sweden, which has largely normalised storm risk rather than considering it in climate change adaptation work. The present analysis illustrates the broad and largely concerned position of individual forest owners, in contrast with a more established industry position on storm as an accepted and existing risk. Overall, the study highlights the diversity, agency and power relations within Swedish forestry and the forested landscape - aspects that are vital to better understanding processes relevant to forest and climate change adaptation.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikel-id 493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Managing place and distance: Restructuring sales and work relations to meet urbanisation-related challenges in Swedish forestry2020Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 118, artikel-id 102267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon interviews with representatives of all the major forestry organisations in Sweden, this paper explores how, in their sales and services, they work to overcome the growing distance between forest owners and forests. The results indicate that increasing distance to forest owners in terms of sales and services work is largely dealt with by reorganisation of the sales process. Through trust-building activities such as modifying office structure and local work processes, and use of new technologies such as personalised forest websites/apps, previously local trust-building processes are being deliberately digitized and implemented through new technology and, in some cases, offices in cities. However, the results also suggest that these processes potentially affect the way in which forest as a resource and a place is constructed and interacted with. For example, it can be treated as an object of desire that is produced and marketed; as a place of knowledge and expertise that produces specific social and sales relations; and as a place of production to legitimize modern industrial forestry. Through this, forest management is constructed as an economic or technical issue that can be managed at a distance from the property.

  • 14.
    Androsiuk, P.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. University of Warmia & Mazury, Poland.
    Shimono, A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Westin, J.
    Lindgren, D.
    Fries, A.
    Wang, X. -R
    Genetic status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) breeding populations for northern Sweden2013Ingår i: Silvae Genetica, ISSN 0037-5349, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 127-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient use of any breeding resources requires a good understanding of the genetic value of the founder breeding materials for predicting the gain and diversity in future generations. This study evaluates the distribution of genetic variation and level of relatedness among and within nine breeding populations of Norway spruce for Northern Sweden using nuclear microsatellite markers. A sample set of 456 individuals selected from 140 stands were genotyped with, 15 SSR loci. Over all loci each individual was identified with unique multilocus genotype. High genetic diversity (average H-e=0.820) and low population differentiation (F-ST = 0.0087) characterized this material. Although low in F-ST, the two northernmost populations were clustered as a distinct group diverged from the central populations. The population differentiation pattern corresponds well with the post glacial migration history of Norway spruce and the current gene flow and human activity in the region. The average inbreeding coefficient was 0.084 after removal loci with high frequency of null alleles. The estimated relatedness of the trees gathered in the breeding populations was very low (average kinship coefficient 0.0077) and not structured. The high genetic variation and low and not structured relatedness between individuals found in the breeding populations confirm that the Norway spruce breeding stock for northern Sweden represent valuable genetic resources for both long-term breeding and conservation programs.

  • 15.
    André, Domenique
    et al.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marcon, Alice
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lee, Keh Chien
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Goretti, Daniela
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zhang, Bo
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nilsson, Ove
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    FLOWERING LOCUS T paralogs control the annual growth cycle in Populus trees2022Ingår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 32, nr 13, s. 2988-2996.e4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In temperate and boreal regions, perennials adapt their annual growth cycle to the change of seasons. These adaptations ensure survival in harsh environmental conditions, allowing growth at different latitudes and altitudes, and are therefore tightly regulated. Populus tree species cease growth and form terminal buds in autumn when photoperiod falls below a certain threshold.1 This is followed by establishment of dormancy and cold hardiness over the winter. At the center of the photoperiodic pathway in Populus is the gene FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), which is expressed during summer and harbors significant SNPs in its locus associated with timing of bud set.1–4 The paralogous gene FT1, on the other hand, is hyper-induced in chilling buds during winter.3,5 Even though its function is so far unknown, it has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of flowering and the release of winter dormancy.3,5 In this study, we employ CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing to individually study the function of the FT-like genes in Populus trees. We show that while FT2 is required for vegetative growth during spring and summer and regulates the entry into dormancy, expression of FT1 is absolutely required for bud flush in spring. Gene expression profiling suggests that this function of FT1 is linked to the release of winter dormancy rather than to the regulation of bud flush per se. These data show how FT duplication and sub-functionalization have allowed Populus trees to regulate two completely different and major developmental control points during the yearly growth cycle.

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  • 16. Anugwom, Ikenna
    et al.
    Maki-Arvela, Paivi
    Virtanen, Pasi
    Willfor, Stefan
    Damlin, Pia
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Treating birch wood with a switchable 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene-glycerol carbonate ionic liquid2012Ingår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 66, nr 7, s. 809-815Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The suitability of a new switchable ionic liquid (SIL) has been investigated as a solvent for fractionation of lignocellulosic materials. SIL was prepared from inexpensive chemicals, e. g., glycerol, CO2, and 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU). Fresh Nordic birch wood (B. pendula) was treated with the SIL for a time period of 1-5 days at 100 degrees C and under atmospheric pressure. Upon SIL treatment, at best, 57 % of the hemicelluloses were dissolved and 50 % of lignins were dissolved from the native birch. The slightly fibrillated SIL treated chips contained about 55 % cellulose. Up to 76 % of the recovered species removed from the spent SIL liquor was originating from hemicelluloses, mainly from xylan. The spent SILs were reused for fresh wood dissolution in four consecutive cycles and each time the wood dissolution efficiency was similar. SILs could offer affordable (easy-to-synthesize) solvent systems for partial elimination of hemicelluloses and lignin from wood. SILs can also be prepared in-situ and on-site.

  • 17.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    et al.
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergström, Dan
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lindroos, Ola
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordfjell, Tomas
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ringdahl, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Path tracking for autonomous forwarders in forest terrain2010Ingår i: Precision Forestry Symposium: developments in Precision Forestry since 2006 / [ed] Ackerman P A, Ham H, & Lu C, 2010, s. 42-43Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 18. Ausin, Israel
    et al.
    Feng, Suhua
    Yu, Chaowei
    Liu, Wanlu
    Kuo, Hsuan Yu
    Jacobsen, Elise L.
    Zhai, Jixian
    Gallego-Bartolome, Javier
    Wang, Lin
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Jacobsen, Steven E.
    Wang, Haifeng
    DNA methylome of the 20-gigabase Norway spruce genome2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, nr 50, s. E8106-E8113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA methylation plays important roles in many biological processes, such as silencing of transposable elements, imprinting, and regulating gene expression. Many studies of DNA methylation have shown its essential roles in angiosperms (flowering plants). However, few studies have examined the roles and patterns of DNA methylation in gymnosperms. Here, we present genome-wide high coverage single-base resolution methylation maps of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from both needles and somatic embryogenesis culture cells via whole genome bisulfite sequencing. On average, DNA methylation levels of CG and CHG of Norway spruce were higher than most other plants studied. CHH methylation was found at a relatively low level; however, at least one copy of most of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway genes was found in Norway spruce, and CHH methylation was correlated with levels of siRNAs. In comparison with needles, somatic embryogenesis culture cells that are used for clonally propagating spruce trees showed lower levels of CG and CHG methylation but higher level of CHH methylation, suggesting that like in other species, these culture cells show abnormal methylation patterns.

  • 19.
    Aye, Tin Nwe
    et al.
    Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University, Box 883, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden; Department of Mathematics, Kyaukse University, Kyaukse 05151, Myanmar.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Advancing Systems Analysis Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Carlsson, Linus
    Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University, Box 883, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden.
    Prediction of tree sapwood and heartwood profiles using pipe model and branch thinning theory2022Ingår i: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 2174-2185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of tree heartwood and sapwood profiles are important in the pulp industry and for dynamic vegetation models, in which they determine tree biomechanical stability and hydraulic conductivity. Several phenomenological models of stem profiles have been developed for this purpose, based on assumptions on how tree crown and foliage distributions change over time. Here, we derive estimates of tree profiles by synthesizing a simple pipe model theory of plant form with a recently developed theory of branch thinning that from simple assumptions quantifies discarded branches and leaves. This allows us to develop a new trunk model of tree profiles from breast height up to the top of the tree. We postulate that leaves that are currently on the tree are connected by sapwood pipes, while pipes that previously connected discarded leaves or branches form the heartwood. By assuming that a fixed fraction of all pipes remain on the trunk after a branching event, as the trunk is traversed from the root system to the tips, this allows us to quantify trunk heartwood and sapwood profiles. We test the trunk model performance on empirical data from five tree species across three continents. We find that the trunk model accurately describes heartwood and sapwood profiles of all tested tree species (calibration; R2: 84-99%). Furthermore, once calibrated to a tree species, the trunk model predicts heartwood and sapwood profiles of conspecific trees in similar growing environments based only on the age and height of a tree (cross-validation/prediction; R2: 68-98%). The fewer and often contrasting parameters needed for the trunk model make it a potentially useful complementary tool for biologists and foresters.

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  • 20.
    Bandau, Franziska
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Importance of tannins for responses of aspen to anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boreala skogar är ofta mycket kväve (N) begränsade. Men mänskliga aktiviteter leder till ökad N tillförsel i dessa ekosystem, både genom depostition av N från atmosfären och skogsgödsling. N-tillförsel i boreala skogar kan främja netto primärproduktionen men även leda till ökade skador från naturliga fiender (herbivorer och patogener) samt skiftningar i växtartsammansättning. Genetisk mångfald har föreslagits som en viktig mekanism för att främja en växtarts stabilitet inom samhällen som upplever miljöförändringar. Inom varje växtpopulation kan specifika egenskaper (t.ex. tillväxt och försvar) varierar kraftigt mellan individer och en större variation i egenskaper kan öka chanserna för att åtminstone några individer från en population överlever ifall miljöförhållandena förändras. En aspekt av växtkemi som i hög grad kan variera mellan olika genotyper (GT) är bladens kondenserade tanniner (KT). Dessa sekundära metaboliter har föreslagits påverka växtens prestationsförmåga på många sätt, t.ex. genom att påverka tillväxt, interaktioner mellan växter och herbivorer eller patogener och genom att påverka förna nedbrytning, och följaktligen återbördandet av näringsämnen till kretsloppet. För att undersöka hur genotypiska variation i KT produktion kan påverka de effekter som antopogent N kan ha på växtens prestationsförmåga och förna nedbrytning, utförde jag en serie experiment. Jag studerade olika asp (Populus tremula) GT med olika förmåga att producera KT (låg- och hög-tannin producenter). Växterna odlades i tre olika N förhållanden, som representerade ambient N nivå (+0 kg ha-1), atmosfärisk N deposition = låg nivå (+15 kg ha-1), och skogsgödsling = hög nivå (150 kg ha‑1). Dessa GT etablerades i en fält-liknande miljö där naturliga fiender uteslutits och i ett fält där naturliga fiender var närvarande. I mina första två studierna undersökte jag vävnadskemi och växternas prestationsförmåga i de båda miljöerna. Jag observerade att KT nivåerna sjönk till följd av N‑tillsats i den fiende-fria miljön (studie I), men ökade med N-tillsats ifall fiender var närvarande (studie II). Dessa motsatta reaktioner på N-tillsats kan förklaras av skillnader i N-tillgång mellan de två odlingsplatserna eller genom ökad KT produktion som respons på angrepp. Skador orsakade av herbivorer och patogener ökade generellt till följd av N‑tillsats och var högre i låg-tannin än i hög‑tannin producerande GT oavsett N‑förhållande. Tillväxten hos växter från högtannin GT begränsades i ambient- och låg N-tillsats förhållanden, troligen på grund av att avvägning mellan tillväxt och försvar förskjutits emot försvar. Den begränsade tillväxten i hög-tannin växter minskade om stora mängder N tillsattes (studie I och II) och om antalet fiender var tillräckligt högt så att nyttan av försvaret kunde uppväga kostnaderna för försvarsproduktionen (studie II). Trots dessa generella respons hos låg- och hög-tannin GT till följd av N‑tillsats observerade jag även ett antal individuella respons hos GT som i vissa fall var orelaterade till växters förmåga att producera KT. I studie III undersöktes genuttrycksnivåer och fenolinnehåll i blad från växter som odladats i en miljö där naturliga fiender exkluderats. Denna studie visade att fenylpropanoidsyntesvägen (FPV) regleras genom kontroll av många av de undersökta FPV-generna. Dessutom var FPV genuttryck högre i hög-tannin GT än i låg-tannin GT, särskilt vid ambient N. Vid låg N-tillsats minskade genuttrycket av FPV-gener i både låg- och hög-tannin producenter, medan hög N-tillgång ledde till att gener i början och slutet av FPV uppreglerades och till att skillnaderna mellan tannin grupperna försvann. Dessutom visade studien att de separata fenol-poolerna ofta var okorrelerade med varandra och att fenol-poolerna bara till viss del var korrelerade med KT produktion och FPV-genutryck. I studie IV undersökte jag nedbrytningshastigheten för förnan från fältodlade aspar. Jag upptäckte att N-tillsats generellt minskade viktförlusten men att det fanns en betydande genetisk variation mellan GT och att dessa även var olika mottagliga för tillsatt N. Studie IV visade vidare att KT endast hade en svag effekt på nedbrytning och att andra egenskaper såsom specifik bladyta och lignin:N ratio kunde bättre förklara den genotypiska skillnaden i viktförlust. Dessutom orsakade N‑tillsats en förskjutning av vilka egenskaper som mest påverkade förnans nedbrytningshastighet. Sammanfattningsvis visar mina studier på vikten av genetisk mångfald för att främja växtartens stabilitet i miljöer som upplever antropogena förändringar.

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  • 21.
    Barthelemy, Hélène
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Defoliation of a grass is mediated by the positive effect of dung deposition, moss removal and enhanced soil nutrient contents: results from a reindeer grazing simulation experiment2019Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 128, nr 10, s. 1515-1524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivory is one of the key drivers shaping plant community dynamics. Herbivores can strongly influence plant productivity directly through defoliation and the return of nutrients in the form of dung and urine, but also indirectly by reducing the abundance of neighbouring plants and inducing changes in soil processes. However, the relative importance of these processes is poorly understood. We, therefore, established a common garden experiment to study plant responses to defoliation, dung addition, moss cover, and the soil legacy of reindeer grazing. We used an arctic tundra grazed by reindeer as our study system, and Festuca ovina, a common grazing-tolerant grass species as the model species. The soil legacy of reindeer grazing had the strongest effect on plants, and resulted in higher growth in soils originating from previously heavily-grazed sites. Defoliation also had a strong effect and reduced shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake. Plants did not fully compensate for the tissue lost due to defoliation, even when nutrient availability was high. In contrast, defoliation enhanced plant nitrogen concentrations. Dung addition increased plant production, nitrogen concentrations and nutrient uptake, although the effect was fairly small. Mosses also had a positive effect on aboveground plant production as long as the plants were not defoliated. The presence of a thick moss layer reduced plant growth following defoliation. This study demonstrates that grasses, even though they suffer from defoliation, can tolerate high densities of herbivores when all aspects of herbivores on ecosystems are taken into account. Our results further show that the positive effect of herbivores on plant growth via changes in soil properties is essential for plants to cope with a high grazing pressure. The strong effect of the soil legacy of reindeer grazing reveals that herbivores can have long-lasting effects on plant productivity and ecosystem functioning after grazing has ceased.

  • 22.
    Bartholomew, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. School of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, United Kingdom.
    Hayward, Robin
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Burslem, David F. R. P.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.
    School of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Chapman, Daniel
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Bin Suis, Mohd. Aminur Faiz
    Forest Research Centre Sepilok, Sandakan, Malaysia.
    Nilus, Reuben
    Forest Research Centre Sepilok, Sandakan, Malaysia.
    O'Brien, Michael J.
    Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Almería, Spain.
    Reynolds, Glen
    SE Asia Rainforest Research Partnership, Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    Rowland, Lucy
    School of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Banin, Lindsay F.
    UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Dent, Daisy
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama; Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bornean tropical forests recovering from logging at risk of regeneration failure2024Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 30, nr 3, artikel-id e17209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Active restoration through silvicultural treatments (enrichment planting, cutting climbers and liberation thinning) is considered an important intervention in logged forests. However, its ability to enhance regeneration is key for long-term recovery of logged forests, which remains poorly understood, particularly for the production and survival of seedlings in subsequent generations. To understand the long-term impacts of logging and restoration we tracked the diversity, survival and traits of seedlings that germinated immediately after a mast fruiting in North Borneo in unlogged and logged forests 30–35 years after logging. We monitored 5119 seedlings from germination for ~1.5 years across a mixed landscape of unlogged forests (ULs), naturally regenerating logged forests (NR) and actively restored logged forests via rehabilitative silvicultural treatments (AR), 15–27 years after restoration. We measured 14 leaf, root and biomass allocation traits on 399 seedlings from 15 species. Soon after fruiting, UL and AR forests had higher seedling densities than NR forest, but survival was the lowest in AR forests in the first 6 months. Community composition differed among forest types; AR and NR forests had lower species richness and lower evenness than UL forests by 5–6 months post-mast but did not differ between them. Differences in community composition altered community-weighted mean trait values across forest types, with higher root biomass allocation in NR relative to UL forest. Traits influenced mortality ~3 months post-mast, with more acquisitive traits and relative aboveground investment favoured in AR forests relative to UL forests. Our findings of reduced seedling survival and diversity suggest long time lags in post-logging recruitment, particularly for some taxa. Active restoration of logged forests recovers initial seedling production, but elevated mortality in AR forests lowers the efficacy of active restoration to enhance recruitment or diversity of seedling communities. This suggests current active restoration practices may fail to overcome barriers to regeneration in logged forests, which may drive long-term changes in future forest plant communities.

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  • 23.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 44-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    "The Swedish forestry model" refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

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  • 24. Berg, Anna
    et al.
    Östlund, Lars
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    A century of logging and forestry in a reindeer herding area in northern Sweden2008Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 256, s. 1009-1020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forest ecosystems are generally highly sensitive to logging and other forestry activities. Thus, commercial forestry has had major effects on the forests and landscape structure in northern Sweden since the middle of the 19th Century, when it rapidly extended across the region. Lichens (which constitute up to 80% of reindeer forage in winter and early spring) have often been amongst the most severely affected ecosystem components. The overall aim of the present study was to analyze how forestry has influenced the potential supply of ground-growing lichens as winter forage for the reindeer in this region over the past ca. 100 years. For this purpose, we analysed changes in forest and stand structure in Scots pine-dominated (Pinus sylvestris L.) reindeer wintering areas in the southern part of the county Norrbotten (covering ca. 58,000 ha) using detailed historical forest inventories and management plans. We found that the amount of the forest types considered potentially good pasture (mainly middleaged and old pine forests) decreased during the first part of the 20th Century. However, the quality of grazing grounds was improved by forestry during this time mainly because selective logging made the forests more open which benefits lichen growth. During the last part of the 20th century forestry impaired the quality of grazing grounds in several ways, e.g. by clear-cutting and intensified use of various silviculturalmeasures. We conclude that ca. 30–50% of the winter grazing grounds have been lost in the study area because of intensive forest management during the last century. The spatially precise historical information about the affects of forestry on lichen pasture provided in this study can be used to direct forest management which will facilitate and promote reindeer herding in the future.

  • 25. Berg, B.
    et al.
    Kjonaas, O. J.
    Johansson, M. -B
    Erhagen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Åkerblom, S.
    Late stage pine litter decomposition: Relationship to litter N, Mn, and acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentrations and climatic factors2015Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 358, s. 41-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate relationships between decomposition rates of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) needle litter in the late stage of decomposition (>30% accumulated mass loss), and the progressively changing concentrations of manganese (Mn), nitrogen (N), and acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), as well as mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). Using available long-term decomposition studies on pine needle litter in a climate gradient in Sweden, we calculated annual mass loss and related to concentrations of Mn, N, and AUR at the start of each one-year period as well as to MAT and MAP. We investigated these relationships for (i) all data on annual mass loss combined and (ii) annual mass loss for five different decomposition categories as defined by accumulated mass loss. We found highly significant, negative, and dominant relationships between annual mass loss and N (R-2 = 0.39) and AUR (R-2 = 0.39), a slight but significant positive relationship to Mn (R-2 = 0.08) and a significant negative relationship to MAT (R-2 = 0.06). The relationships were dynamic, and changed with accumulated mass loss. The rate-dampening effect of N decreased to be a rate-enhancing effect at c. 60-80% accumulated mass loss. A similar trend was found for AUR, becoming rate-enhancing at 70-80% accumulated mass loss. For Scots pine needle litter the effect of MAT on mass loss decreased with increasing accumulated mass loss and changed to a rate-dampening effect at c. 50-70% accumulated mass loss. Mn showed a stimulating effect on mass loss rate in all categories whereas MAP showed no effect in this mainly boreal climatic gradient. The current approach indicates a method for detailed studies of rate-regulating factors for litter decomposition.

  • 26. Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stendahl, Johan
    Trum, Florence
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Manganese in the litter fall-forest floor continuum of boreal and temperate pine and spruce forest ecosystems: A review2015Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 358, s. 248-260Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reviewed the literature on the role of manganese (Mn) in the litter fall-to-humus subsystem. Available data gives a focus on North European coniferous forests. Manganese concentrations in pine (Pinus spp.) foliar litter are highly variable both spatially and temporally within the same litter species and for the genus Pinus we found a range from 0.03 to 3.7 mg g(-1). Concentrations were related negatively to site mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) for pine species litter but not for that of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as a single species. Combined data for several species showed a highly significant relationship to MAT. Manganese peroxidase is an Mn-dependent enzyme, found in white-rot fungi, essential for the degradation of lignin and ligninlike compounds. The decomposition rates of lignified litter tissue (late phase) is positively related to the litter's Mn concentration. Further, the Mn concentration is positively related to the limit value for decomposition - the higher the Mn concentration the smaller the stable litter fraction. Manganese release from decomposing litter appears at least in part to be species related. Thus was release from pine needle litter significantly faster (p < 0.001) than that from the Mn-richer litter of Norway spruce. Over Northern Europe concentrations of total Mn in mor humus as well as extractable Mn in the mineral soil increase with decreasing MAT and over a climatic gradient the Mn concentrations in Norway spruce mor increase more with decreasing MAT than in a gradient with Scots pine. Higher Mn concentrations in humus appear to decrease its stability and result in a higher release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We conclude that this may explain (i) the lower amount of carbon (C) in mor layers under Norway spruce as compared to Scots pine as well as the higher amount of C in mineral soil under spruce. The increase in nitrogen (N) concentration in humus, following N fertilization resulted in a decrease in that of Mn. We have found four cases - empirical - with negative interaction between Mn and N; (i) in pine foliar litter fall concentrations of Mn decrease with site MAT whereas those of N increase, (ii) in decomposing late-stage litter with N retarding and Mn stimulating decomposition, (iii) for the stable phase, limit values are related negatively to N and positively to Mn, and (iv) Mn concentrations in humus decrease with MAT whereas those of N increase. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Tree taper models for Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Ethiopia2008Ingår i: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 193-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Berner, Logan T.
    et al.
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Orndahl, Kathleen M.
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Rose, Melissa
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Tamstorf, Mikkel
    Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Arndal, Marie F.
    Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    College of Forestry, Wildlife, and Environment, Auburn University, Auburn, United States.
    Humphreys, Elyn R.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
    Loranty, Michael M.
    Department of Geography, Colgate University, Hamilton, United States.
    Ludwig, Sarah M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, Palisades, United States.
    Nyman, Johanna
    Jeb E. Brooks School of Public Policy, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States.
    Juutinen, Sari
    Climate System Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Aurela, Mika
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Happonen, Konsta
    Finnish Youth Research Society, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mikola, Juha
    Bioeconomy and Environment Unit, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States.
    Vankoughnett, Mathew R.
    Applied Research, Nova Scotia Community College, Middleton, Canada.
    Iversen, Colleen M.
    Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Salmon, Verity G.
    Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States; Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Yang, Dedi
    Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Kumar, Jitendra
    Environmental Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, United States.
    Grogan, Paul
    Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Danby, Ryan K.
    Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Scott, Neal A.
    Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Siewert, Matthias B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Deschamps, Lucas
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Lévesque, Esther
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Maire, Vincent
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Morneault, Amélie
    Département des sciences de l’environnement, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Gauthier, Gilles
    Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Department of Biology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Gignac, Charles
    Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Department of Plant Science, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Boudreau, Stéphane
    Department of Biology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Gaspard, Anna
    Department of Biology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Kholodov, Alexander
    Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Greaves, Heather E.
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Walker, Donald
    Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, United States.
    Gregory, Fiona M.
    Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, København, Denmark.
    Kumpula, Timo
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Villoslada, Miguel
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland; Institute of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ylänne, Henni
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Luoto, Miska
    Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Ecosystems and Environment Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Hölzel, Norbert
    Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Epstein, Howard
    Department of Environmental Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, United States.
    Heim, Ramona J.
    Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bunn, Andrew
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Western Washington University, Bellingham, United States.
    Holmes, Robert M.
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Hung, Jacqueline K. Y.
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Virkkala, Anna-Maria
    Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, United States.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States; Bioeconomy and Environment Unit, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    The Arctic plant aboveground biomass synthesis dataset2024Ingår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant biomass is a fundamental ecosystem attribute that is sensitive to rapid climatic changes occurring in the Arctic. Nevertheless, measuring plant biomass in the Arctic is logistically challenging and resource intensive. Lack of accessible field data hinders efforts to understand the amount, composition, distribution, and changes in plant biomass in these northern ecosystems. Here, we present The Arctic plant aboveground biomass synthesis dataset, which includes field measurements of lichen, bryophyte, herb, shrub, and/or tree aboveground biomass (g m−2) on 2,327 sample plots from 636 field sites in seven countries. We created the synthesis dataset by assembling and harmonizing 32 individual datasets. Aboveground biomass was primarily quantified by harvesting sample plots during mid- to late-summer, though tree and often tall shrub biomass were quantified using surveys and allometric models. Each biomass measurement is associated with metadata including sample date, location, method, data source, and other information. This unique dataset can be leveraged to monitor, map, and model plant biomass across the rapidly warming Arctic.

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  • 29.
    Bizjak, Tinkara
    et al.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC), Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gratz, Regina
    Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC), Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC), Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Presence and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Scots pine needles in a boreal forest: a nitrogen-addition experiment2023Ingår i: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 1354-1364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria have been detected and isolated from the needles of conifer trees growing in North American boreal forests. Because boreal forests are nutrient-limited, these bacteria could provide an important source of nitrogen for tree species. This study aimed to determine their presence and activity in a Scandinavian boreal forest, using immunodetection of nitrogenase enzyme subunits and acetylene-reduction assays of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. The presence and rate of nitrogen fixation by endophytic bacteria were compared between control plots and fertilized plots in a nitrogen-addition experiment. In contrast to the expectation that nitrogen-fixation rates would decline in fertilized plots, as seen, for instance, with nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with bryophytes, there was no difference in the presence or activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria between the two treatments. The extrapolated calculated rate of nitrogen fixation relevant for the forest stand was 20 g N ha-1 year-1, which is rather low compared with Scots pine annual nitrogen use but could be important for the nitrogen-poor forest in the long term. In addition, of 13 colonies of potential nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from the needles on nitrogen-free media, 10 showed in vitro nitrogen fixation. In summary, 16S rRNA sequencing identified the species as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Variovorax, Novosphingobium, Sphingomonas, Microbacterium and Priestia, which was confirmed by Illumina whole-genome sequencing. Our results confirm the presence of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Scots pine needles and suggest that they could be important for the long-term nitrogen budget of the Scandinavian boreal forest.

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  • 30.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners2018Ingår i: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 125-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are considered crucial assets for sustainable rural development, and contemporary forestry is an industry where production, environmental and social goals can – and should – be handled simultaneously. Swedish family forest owners (FFOs) are expected to both manage and conserve their forests for the benefit of the whole country, but there are contradictions between development and conservation and between traditional and alternative forms of utilization, representing dilemmas in rural areas. Tensions between urban and rural areas, between demands on what to produce and protect, are often linked to the FFOs’ views on opportunities for forest management. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the extent to which FFOs perceive that social values have the ability to generate “new” goods and services as a supplement or alternative to traditional forestry, and to suggest how the forests might be managed to render high social values. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with FFOs (both resident and non-resident). The results indicate that regardless of where they reside, FFOs have a multifunctional view of their forests and forest management, that the social values attached to forests can play an important role in the development of local recreation- and forest-based tourism activities, and in this respect they can enhance sustainable rural development. It is, however, not obvious who might start and develop these businesses, since there seems to be a lack of interest among the FFOs themselves.

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  • 31. Blennow, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Erik
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Societal impacts of storm damage2013Ingår i: Living with storm damage to forests / [ed] Barry Gardiner, Andreas Schuck, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Christophe Orazio, Kristina Blennow, Bruce Nicoll, European Forest Institute , 2013, s. 70-77Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind damage to forests can be divided into (1) the direct damage done to the forest and (2) indirect effects. Indirect effects may be of different kinds and may affect the environment as well as society. For example, falling trees can lead to power and telecommunication failures or blocking of roads. The salvage harvest of fallen trees is another example and one that involves extremely dangerous work. In this overview we provide examples of different entities, services, and activities that may be affected by wind damage to forests. We illustrate how valuation of the damage depends on the perspective applied and how the affected entities, services, and activities may represent different types of values. Finally we suggest means for how to actively manage the risk in an ethically sustainable way. Many of our examples will be drawn from the experiences of the wind damage Gudrun in southern Sweden on 8-9 January 2005. The direct as well as indirect effects, which are described, are by no means unique to the Gudrun wind damage event and similar or even worse effects have been described after the wind damage events Martin and Lothar in 1999, and Klaus in 2009

  • 32.
    Blennow, Kristina
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Persson, Erik
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lindner, Marcus
    Pacheco Faias, Sònia
    Hanewinkel, Hanewinkel
    Forest owner motivations and attitudes towards supplying biomass for energy in Europe2014Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 67, s. 223-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission expects the use of biomass for energy in the EU to increasesignificantly between 2010 and 2020 to meet a legally binding target to cover at least 20%of EU’s total energy use from renewable sources in 2020. According to estimates made bythe member states of the EU, the direct supply of biomass from forests is expected toincrease by 45% on a volume basis between 2006 and 2020 in response to increasingdemand (Beurskens LWM, Hekkenberg M, Vethman P. Renewable energy projections aspublished in the national renewable energy action plans of the European Member states.ECN and EEA; 2011. http://https://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2010/e10069.pdf[accessed 25.04.2014]; Dees M, Yousef A, Ermert J. Analysis of the quantitative tables ofthe national renewable energy action plans prepared by the 27 European Union MemberStates in 2010. BEE working paper D7.2. Biomass Energy Europe project. FELIS e Departmentof Remote Sensing and landscape information Systems, University of Freiburg,Germany; 2011). Our aims were to test the hypotheses that European private forestowners’ attitudes towards supplying woody biomass for energy (1) can be explained bytheir responses to changes in prices and markets and (2) are positive so that the forestbiomass share of the EU 2020 renewable energy target can be met. Based on survey datacollected in 2010 from 800 private forest owners in Sweden, Germany and Portugal ourresults show that the respondents’ attitudes towards supplying woody biomass for energycannot be explained as direct responses to changes in prices and markets. Our results,furthermore, imply that European private forest owners cannot be expected tosupply the requested amounts of woody biomass for energy to meet the forest biomassshare of the EU 2020 renewable energy target, at least if stemwood is to play theimportant role as studies by Verkerk PJ, Anttila P, Eggers J, Lindner M, Asikainen A. Therealisable potential supply of woody biomass fromforests in the European Union. For EcolManag 2011;261: 2007e2015, UNECE and FAO. The European forest sector outlook study II 2010e2030. United Nations, New York and Geneva; 2011 [abbreviated to EFSOS II] andElbersen B, Staritsky I, Hengeveld G, Schelhaas MJ, Naeff H, Bo¨ ttcher H. Atlas of EUbiomass potentials; 2012. Available from: http://www.biomassfutures.eu [accessed14.10.2013] suggest.

  • 33.
    Bognounou, Fidele
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hulme, Philip E.
    Oksanen, Lauri
    Suominen, Otso
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Role of climate and herbivory on native and alien conifer seedling recruitment at and above the Fennoscandian tree line2018Ingår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 573-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: We investigated the importance of climate and herbivory on native and alien conifer colonization of the birch-dominated Fennoscandian tree line by addressing the following questions: (a) are tree line and tundra habitats similarly suitable for conifer seedling recruitment; (b) do ungulate and rodent herbivores differentially impact seedling recruitment; and (c) how does the role of habitat and herbivory on seedling recruitment vary across a marked climate gradient?

    Location: Northern Fennoscandia, Sweden (Vassijaure and Paddus), and Norway (Joatka and Seiland).

    Methods: We conducted an experiment to assess the emergence rate, survival probability and height development of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) seedlings. Three experimental plots (i.e., open control, reindeer exclosure and complete vertebrate exclosure) were established in both tree line and tundra habitats at each of the four locations. Seeds of the three conifer species were sown in each plot in June 1999 during three consecutive years. The surviving seedlings were counted in August to September 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2007. The height of all seedlings was measured in 2007.

    Results: Our study reveals that Norway spruce, Scots pine and Siberian larch can regenerate from seed at and above the current tree line in northern Fennoscandia. Their performance was generally higher above tree line in tundra than at tree line, but depended on species identity, climate aridity and mammal herbivory, particularly by rodents. These results suggest that the species composition and latitudinal limit of the tree line in the future might depend not only on direct effects of the future climate on the current tree line species, but also on the intensity of alien and native conifer introductions, as well as changes in herbivore populations.

    Conclusion: If sufficient seeds of Norway spruce, Scots pine and Siberian larch should reach the current tree line, their performances will increase with a warmer and wetter climate, and this effect will be markedly modulated by herbivores (particularly rodents). Further work is required to extend these results to determine the ability of these conifers to become tree line-forming species in the future.

  • 34.
    Bognounou, Fidele
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Université de Ouagadougou, Unité de Formation et Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, 03 B.P. 7021, Ouagadougou, 03, South Africa.
    Savadogo, Patrice
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Tropical Silviculture and Seed Laboratory, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences, PO Box 101 SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique, Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Département Productions Forestières, 03 BP 7047, Ouagadougou, 03, Burkina Faso.
    Thiombiano, Adjima
    Université de Ouagadougou, Unité de Formation et Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, 03 B.P. 7021, Ouagadougou, 03, South Africa.
    Boussim, Issaka Joseph
    Université de Ouagadougou, Unité de Formation et Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, 03 B.P. 7021, Ouagadougou, 03, South Africa.
    Oden, Per Christe
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Tropical Silviculture and Seed Laboratory, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences, PO Box 101 SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Guinko, Sita
    Université de Ouagadougou, Unité de Formation et Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, 03 B.P. 7021, Ouagadougou, 03, South Africa.
    Informants based ethnobotany and utility evaluation of five combretaceae species: differentiation by ethnicity and geographical location2011Ingår i: Forests, Trees and Livelyhoods, ISSN 1472-8028, E-ISSN 2164-3075, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 265-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Africa, local communities depend on forests and plants for their daily needs including goods and services. This paper describes ethnobotanical knowledge of five Combretaceae species in western Burkina Faso. Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews, direct observation and personal conversation with local experts and specialists in plant uses. Data were collected in four villages among four ethnic groups. A total of 150 specialist male and female respondents were involved and 400 users were interviewed. The data were analyzed with generalized linear models with binomial errors. The results show that there is a higher share of ethnobotanical knowledge within an ethnic/village group than between ethnic/village groups. The ethnobotanical information was classified in six main categories: food, fodder, construction materials, fuelwood, handicraft and pharmacopoeia, with the six categories except food representing important uses for all the study species. No significant difference was found for gender and age regarding the knowledge of plant species uses, which may be due to the daily life importance, and to the ecological abundance of the selected Combretaceae species.

  • 35.
    Borthakur, Dulal
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East-West Road, HI, Honolulu, United States.
    Busov, Victor
    College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, MI, Houghton, United States.
    Cao, Xuan Hieu
    Faculty for Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, Göttingen, Germany.
    Du, Qingzhang
    National Engineering Research Center of Tree Breeding and Ecological Restoration, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.
    Gailing, Oliver
    Faculty for Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, Göttingen, Germany.
    Isik, Fikret
    Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, North Carolina State University, NC, Raleigh, United States.
    Ko, Jae-Heung
    Department of Plant & Environmental New Resources, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Yongin, South Korea.
    Li, Chenghao
    State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.
    Li, Quanzi
    State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.
    Niu, Shihui
    National Engineering Research Center of Tree Breeding and Ecological Restoration, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.
    Qu, Guanzheng
    State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.
    Giang Vu, Thi Ha
    Faculty for Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, Göttingen, Germany.
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wei, Zhigang
    College of Life Sciences, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, China.
    Zhang, Lin
    Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees, Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Hunan Province, Changsha, China.
    Wei, Hairong
    College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, MI, Houghton, United States.
    Current status and trends in forest genomics2022Ingår i: Forestry Research, E-ISSN 2767-3812, Vol. 2, artikel-id 11Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are not only the most predominant of the Earth's terrestrial ecosystems, but are also the core supply for essential products for human use. However, global climate change and ongoing population explosion severely threatens the health of the forest ecosystem and aggravtes the deforestation and forest degradation. Forest genomics has great potential of increasing forest productivity and adaptation to the changing climate. In the last two decades, the field of forest genomics has advanced quickly owing to the advent of multiple high-throughput sequencing technologies, single cell RNA-seq, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated genome editing, and spatial transcriptomes, as well as bioinformatics analysis technologies, which have led to the generation of multidimensional, multilayered, and spatiotemporal gene expression data. These technologies, together with basic technologies routinely used in plant biotechnology, enable us to tackle many important or unique issues in forest biology, and provide a panoramic view and an integrative elucidation of molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes and variations. In this review, we recapitulated the advancement and current status of 12 research branches of forest genomics, and then provided future research directions and focuses for each area. Evidently, a shift from simple biotechnology-based research to advanced and integrative genomics research, and a setup for investigation and interpretation of many spatiotemporal development and differentiation issues in forest genomics have just begun to emerge.

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  • 36.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. European Forest Institute, North European Regional Office, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Mika
    LUKE, Finland.
    Gong, Peichen
    SLU.
    Increasing Forest Biomass Supply in Northern Europe – Countrywide Estimates and Economic Perspectives2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 314-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in Europe, and the expected increase in demand for wood for energy purposes was the stimulus for writing this paper. Opportunities to increase the supply of forest biomass in the short and long term are discussed, as well as environmental side effects of intensive forest management. Focusing on northern Europe, national estimates of potential annual fellings and the corresponding potential amounts, simulated by the European Forest Information Scenario model, are then presented, as well as reported fellings. For the region as a whole, there seems to be substantial unused biophysical potential, although recent data from some countries indicate underestimated annual felling rates. We argue that an economic perspective is lacking in the debate about wood production for energy purposes in Europe and harvest potentials, and we discuss the effects of biophysical capacity limits in forest yield from a partial equilibrium perspective. Using a larger proportion of the biophysical potential in northern Europe than at present will entail trade-offs with environmental and social values, which means that strategies are needed to protect and account for the benefits and costs of all forms of ecosystem services.

  • 37.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zabel, Astrid
    Ekvall, Hans
    Planning on a wider scale: Swedish forest owners' preferences for landscape policy attributes2019Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 104, s. 170-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tax-fund system has been proposed to advance Swedish forest conservation. We present a choice experiment with Swedish private forest owners on preferences for attributes of a tax-fund system. Focusing on three aspects: (i) freedom to choose set-asides, (ii) equity issues, and (iii) frequency of nature inventories, we find two groups of forest owners. The first is opposed to interventions that could curtail liberty and oppose frequent nature inventories, while a smaller group would derive positive utility from jointly deciding on the location of set-asides with society. Both groups have a preference for changing the current tax-base to soil productivity or timber volume. The tax-base chosen together with the modalities of re-distributing the funds will determine the program's efficiency. The paper concludes that a tax-fund system could indeed be a way forward but would need to be designed in a participatory manner to reconcile forest owners, forest industry representatives, and conservationists.

  • 38.
    Bowd, Elle J.
    et al.
    Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Egidi, Eleonora
    Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, NSW, Penrith, Australia; Global Centre for Land-Based Innovation, Western Sydney University, NSW, Penrith, Australia.
    Lindenmayer, David B.
    Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Wardle, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kardol, Paul
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Foster, Claire
    Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Temporal dynamics of soil fungi in a pyrodiverse dry-sclerophyll forest2023Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 32, nr 15, s. 4181-4198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is a major evolutionary and ecological driver that shapes biodiversity in forests. While above-ground community responses to fire have been well-documented, those below-ground are much less understood. However, below-ground communities, including fungi, play key roles in forests and facilitate the recovery of other organisms after fire. Here, we used internal transcribed spacer (ITS) meta-barcoding data from forests with three different times since fire [short (3 years), medium (13–19 years) and long (>26 years)] to characterize the temporal responses of soil fungal communities across functional groups, ectomycorrhizal exploration strategies and inter-guild associations. Our findings indicate that fire effects on fungal communities are strongest in the short to medium term, with clear distinctions between communities in forests with a short time (3 years) since fire, a medium time (13–19 years) and a long time (>26 years) since fire. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were disproportionately impacted by fire relative to saprotrophs, but the direction of the response varied depending on morphological structures and exploration strategies. For instance, short-distance ectomycorrhizal fungi increased with recent fire, while medium-distance (fringe) ectomycorrhizal fungi decreased. Further, we detected strong, negative inter-guild associations between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi but only at medium and long times since fire. Given the functional significance of fungi, the temporal changes in fungal composition, inter-guild associations and functional groups after fire demonstrated in our study may have functional implications that require adaptive management to curtail.

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  • 39.
    Brackin, Richard
    et al.
    Queensland, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Näsholm, Torgny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nicole
    School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Guillou, Stephane
    School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Vinall, Kerry
    School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Lakshmanan, Prakash
    Sugar Research Australia, 50 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, QLD 4068, Australia.
    Schmidt, Susanne
    School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Inselsbacher, Erich
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden; University of Vienna, Department of Geography and Regional Research, Vienna, AT-1090, Austria.
    Nitrogen fluxes at the root-soil interface show a mismatch of nitrogen fertilizer supply and sugarcane root uptake capacity2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikel-id 15727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally only approximate to 50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer is captured by crops, and the remainder can cause pollution via runoff and gaseous emissions. Synchronizing soil N supply and crop demand will address this problem, however current soil analysis methods provide little insight into delivery and acquisition of N forms by roots. We used microdialysis, a novel technique for in situ quantification of soil nutrient fluxes, to measure N fluxes in sugarcane cropping soils receiving different fertilizer regimes, and compare these with N uptake capacities of sugarcane roots. We show that in fertilized sugarcane soils, fluxes of inorganic N exceed the uptake capacities of sugarcane roots by several orders of magnitude. Contrary, fluxes of organic N closely matched roots' uptake capacity. These results indicate root uptake capacity constrains plant acquisition of inorganic N. This mismatch between soil N supply and root N uptake capacity is a likely key driver for low N efficiency in the studied crop system. Our results also suggest that (i) the relative contribution of inorganic N for plant nutrition may be overestimated when relying on soil extracts as indicators for root-available N, and (ii) organic N may contribute more to crop N supply than is currently assumed.

  • 40.
    Bradshaw, R.H.W.
    et al.
    Dept. of Quaternary Geology, Geol. Surv. of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen K, Denmark .
    Wolf, Annett
    Dept. of Quaternary Geology, Geol. Surv. of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen K, Denmark : Dept. Phys. Geogr. Ecosyst. Anal., Geobiosphere Science Centre, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden .
    Møller, P.F.
    Dept of QuaternaryGeology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Long-term succession in a Danish temperate deciduous forest2005Ingår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 157-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest successional trajectories covering the last 2000 yr from a mixed deciduous forest in Denmark show a gradual shift in dominance from Tilia cordata to Fagus sylvatica and a recent increase in total forest basal area since direct management ceased in 1948. The successions are reconstructed by combining a fifty-year record of direct tree observations with local pollen diagrams from Draved Forest, Denmark. Five of the seven successions record a heathland phase of Viking Age dating from 830 AD. The anthropogenic influence is considerable throughout the period of study even though Draved contains some of the most pristine forest stands in Denmark. Anthropogenic influence including felling masks the underlying natural dynamics, with the least disturbed sites showing the smallest compositional change. Some effects of former management, such as loss of Tilia cordata dominance, are irreversible. Artificial disturbance, particularly drainage, has accelerated and amplified the shift towards Fagus dominance that would have occurred on a smaller scale and at a slower rate in the absence of human intervention.

  • 41.
    Bruno, Karl
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Silvi-kulturella möten: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet och högre skoglig utbildning i Etiopien 1986–20092017Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 29-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Silvi-Cultural Encounters: The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Higher Forestry Education in Ethiopia, 1986–2009

    The article discusses the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences’ support to higher forestry education in Ethiopia, which took place between 1986 and 2009 in the context of Swedish-Ethiopian development cooperation. Against a growing historical interest in transnational encounters within the field of education, it analyses how Swedish forestry experts designed educational programs and taught in new environments. The concept of "silvi-culture" is introduced to signify that the tensions that arose within this aid effort related both to the technicalities of forestry education and to diverging academic and social cultures. The article is structured around three kinds of "silvi-cultural encounters" that describe the development of the project both chronologically and thematically. These encounters are used to demonstrate how the forest as a concrete, physical place was of central importance to the Swedish experts, as well as to show how they were guided by preconceptions developed within the framework of a Swedish silvi-culture that was only partially compatible with the conditions in Ethiopia.

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  • 42.
    Burrows, Ryan M.
    et al.
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Burnley Campus, Victoria, Richmond, Australia; Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fältström, Emma
    Environmental Technology and Management, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Sweden Water Research AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jannika
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Interactive effects of light and nutrients on stream algal growth modified by forest management in boreal landscapes2021Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 492, artikel-id 119212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests account for 30% of the world's total forest cover and in many places are subject to intensive forest management, which often involves complete removal of overstory vegetation by clear-cutting. However, we still do not fully understand how forest management affects aquatic ecosystems in these landscapes. Here we asked how forest management-induced changes in environmental conditions, such as incident light and nutrient availability, affect benthic algal growth and nutrient limitation in boreal headwater streams of northern Sweden. We answered this question using a combination of correlative and experimental approaches across a range of forested streams spanning a gradient of site (e.g. canopy openness and water chemistry) and catchment-level (e.g. age of forest regrowth) parameters, with variation among the study streams influenced by different forest management histories and underlying natural variation. We found that benthic algal growth in these forested streams was largely driven by local interactions between dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) availability and incident light reaching benthic surfaces. Greater water temperature and shallower depths were also associated with greater algal growth. Although high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations often play a role in reducing light availability to autotrophs in boreal aquatic systems, it was not an important predictor of algal growth in small forested streams despite a large DOC concentration gradient (5 – 32 mg/L). Results from experimental nutrient additions supported the role of N as a key limiting nutrient, but also revealed both spatial and seasonal factors that modulate the effects of altered nutrient availability. Overall, our results suggest that differences in how light regimes and nutrient loading respond to forest management generate small-scale variation in the controls over stream primary productivity, which likely shift in relative importance at the time scale of a forest rotation (60 to 100 years).

  • 43. Cairns, David M.
    et al.
    Lafon, Charles W.
    Mouton, Michelle F.
    Stuteville, Rachel L.
    Young, Amanda B.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Comparing two methods for ageing trees with suppressed, diffuse-porous rings (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii)2012Ingår i: Dendrochronologia, ISSN 1125-7865, E-ISSN 1612-0051, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 252-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual growth rings of diffuse porous species such as mountain birch are often difficult to distinguish when samples are collected from trees that grow at treeline or in other harsh environments. In this study we document the differences in seedling and sapling ring counts obtained from two methods of analysis: a traditional analysis based on reflected light and low-power microscopy and one based on transmitted light with higher power magnification that uses thin-sections of the samples. Rings are easier to resolve using the more labor-intensive transmitted light method. Small rings are often missed when using the reflected light method, resulting in an underestimation of tree age. The dates estimated by the standard method agreed with those determined using the thin-sectioning method in 9.6% of the cases. Most commonly, the standard method gave a younger age than did thin-sectioning (72.4% of the trees). In only 18.03% of the cases did the standard method result in a greater age than did thin-sectioning. The reflected light method produced age estimations that were on average 1.37 years younger than those determined using the transmitted light method. The difference between the two methods was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with mean ring-width. Age-class histograms based on the two methods show little difference at coarser aggregation levels (decades and pentads), but annualized age-class histograms have less agreement between the two methods. Therefore, we suggest using the more labor-intensive thin-sectioning method when annualized age counts are necessary in suppressed seedlings and saplings, for example, comparing tree establishment with annual climate conditions at treeline.

  • 44. Carlsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Ganeteg, Ulrika
    Svennerstam, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nitrogen utilization during germination of somatic embryos of Norway spruce: revealing the importance of supplied glutamine for nitrogen metabolism2019Ingår i: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 383-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key messageThis paper shows that germinating Norway spruce somatic embryos are dependent on the carbon and nitrogen supplied in the medium, and that supplied glutamine accounts for 50 % of assimilated nitrogen during germination.AbstractThe female megagametophyte, which provides the zygotic embryo with nitrogen (N), carbon (C) and energy during germination, is not present in Norway spruce (Picea abies) mature somatic embryos. Therefore, somatic embryos presumably rely on nutrients supplied in the germination medium in addition to their storage compounds accumulated during maturation. However, to what extent stored versus supplied compounds contribute to a somatic embryo germination is unclear. In this 24-day study, we addressed the above question by monitoring the biomass changes and the N and C budget during somatic embryo germination, under low-intensity red light. We found that the C and N storage reserves, accumulated during the maturation phase, were not sufficient to support the growth of the germinating somatic embryos, rather they were dependent on the medium components. In addition, in a previous study it has been found that glutamine (Gln) supplied in the medium was crucial for maintaining the primary amino acid (AA) metabolism and growth of the proliferating embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Carlsson et al., PLoS One 12(8):e0181785, 2017). Therefore, we hypothesised that Gln would be required as a significant source of N also during somatic embryo germination. By tracing the uptake of isotopically labelled N-sources from the medium and further into primary N assimilation, we found that Gln was the preferred source of N for the germinating somatic embryos, accounting for 50% of assimilated N. As the amounts of both arginine (Arg) and Gln were increased in the germinating somatic embryos, it also suggested that germination in low-intensity red light promoted N storage, similar to what has been observed in the zygotic embryo maturation in conifers (King, Gifford, Plant Physiol 113:1125-1135, 1997).

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  • 45. Carlsson, Julia
    et al.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Svensson, Johan
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Att planera för hela skogslandskapet: utmaningar och möjligheter2016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Skogens många värden behöver samplaneras och sättas i sitt sammanhang utifrån ett landskapsperspektiv. Vi intervjuade skogsägare och skogliga intressenter om hur de ser på skogens värden, äganderätten och skogspolitiska förutsättningar, samt synen på att samarbeta och ta hänsyn till varandras intressen. Vi utgår från behov identifierade i planeringsprocesser som inkluderar många deltagare och intressen, när det gäller att förbättrakommunikation, information och mötesplatser. Vi ser tre möjliga verktyg för att skapa förutsättningar för ett landskapsperspektiv i planeringen av skogens värden: en landskapslots, en samverkansarena, samt utformningen och användandet av skogsbruksplanen.

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  • 46.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Lindgren, Robert
    García-Lopez, Natxo
    Nyberg, Gert
    Boman, Christoffer
    Household Bioenergy Transitions with Alternative Biomass Feedstocks and Technologies: An Integrated System to Mitigate Environmental Risks in Western Kenya2018Ingår i: / [ed] École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, UNESCO, Lausanne, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kenya, over 50% of the total primary energy consumption is from traditional solid-fuel cooking, being this a major cause of deforestation and household air pollution (HAP). Western Kenya has an agricultural biofuel feedstock of over 1.9 million Mt, which could be processed to supply cookstoves with crop-residue pellets and improved wood fallows. The sociotechnical viability of two novel bioenergy value chains were analysed using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning system. Three scenarios of transition to efficient cookstoves and decentralized biofuel and electricity production systems were tested. In the “Optimal scenario”, the current feedstock in the Kisumu and Siaya counties could satisfy over 80% of the cooking energy demand by 2030. Here, the net greenhouse gas emissions from charcoal production and HAP could be reduced by 87% to 12.6 thousand Mt CO2e. Further work should integrate socioeconomic indicators reflecting additional local/regional stakeholders´ collaboration channels (cost-effective) to support the bioenergy transitions. 

  • 47.
    Castro, David
    et al.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Schneider, Andreas N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Holmlund, Mattias
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Näsholm, Torgny
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of early, small-scale nitrogen addition on germination and early growth of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings and on the recruitment of the root-associated fungal community2021Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikel-id 1589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most economically important species to the Swedish forest industry, and cost-efficient planting methods are needed to ensure successful reestab-lishment after harvesting forest stands. While the majority of clear-cuts are replanted with pre-grown seedlings, direct seeding can be a viable option on poorer sites. Organic fertilizer has been shown to improve planted seedling establishment, but the effect on direct seeding is less well known. Therefore, at a scarified (disc trencher harrowed) clear-cut site in northern Sweden, we evaluated the effect of early, small-scale nitrogen addition on establishment and early recruitment of fungi from the disturbed soil community by site-planted Scots pine seeds. Individual seeds were planted using a moisture retaining germination matrix containing 10 mg nitrogen in the form of either arginine phosphate or ammonium nitrate. After one growing season, we collected seedlings and assessed the fungal community of seedling roots and the surrounding soil. Our results demonstrate that early, small-scale N addition increases seedling survival and needle carbon content, that there is rapid recruitment of ectomycorrhizal fungi to the roots and rhizosphere of the young seedlings and that this rapid recruitment was modified but not prevented by N addition.

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  • 48. Chen, Dongmei
    et al.
    Zhang, Xianxian
    Kang, Hongzhang
    Sun, Xiao
    Yin, Shan
    Du, Hongmei
    Yamanaka, Norikazu
    Gapare, Washington
    Wu, Harry X.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Commonwealth Sci & Ind Res Org Plant Ind, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequence in East Asia: Multiple Glacial Refugia and Mainland-Migrated Island Populations2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. e47268-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (N-ST = 0.751 > G(ST) = 0.690, P < 0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu's F-S indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia.

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  • 49. Chen, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Huwei
    Hu, Xiange
    Meng, Jingxiang
    Zhou, Xianqing
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. National Engineering Laboratory for Forest Tree Breeding, Key Laboratory of Genetic and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Yue
    Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment2015Ingår i: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 777-783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were significant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  • 50.
    Christensen, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, Karin
    Persson, Staffan
    Jung, Joanna
    Michalak, Marek
    Widell, Susanne
    Sommarin, Marianne
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Biochemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Functional characterization of Arabidopsis calreticulin1a: a key alleviator of endoplasmic reticulum stress2008Ingår i: Plant and Cell Physiology, ISSN 0032-0781, E-ISSN 1471-9053, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 912-924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chaperone calreticulin plays important roles in a variety of processes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of animal cells, such as Ca2+ signaling and protein folding. Although the functions of calreticulin are well characterized in animals, only indirect evidence is available for plants. To increase our understanding of plant calreticulins we introduced one of the Arabidopsis isoforms, AtCRT1a, into calreticulin-deficient (crt–/–) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. As a result of calreticulin deficiency, the mouse crt–/– fibroblasts have decreased levels of Ca2+ in the ER and impaired protein folding abilities. Expression of the AtCRT1a in mouse crt–/– fibroblasts rescued these phenotypes, i.e. AtCRT1a restored the Ca2+-holding capacity and chaperone functions in the ER of the mouse crt–/– fibroblasts, demonstrating that the animal sorting machinery was also functional for a plant protein, and that basic calreticulin functions are conserved across the Kingdoms. Expression analyses using a β-glucuronidase (GUS)–AtCRT1a promoter construct revealed high expression of CRT1a in root tips, floral tissues and in association with vascular bundles. To assess the impact of AtCRT1a in planta, we generated Atcrt1a mutant plants. The Atcrt1a mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to the drug tunicamycin, an inducer of the unfolded protein response. We therefore conclude that AtCRT1a is an alleviator of the tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response, and propose that the use of the mouse crt–/– fibroblasts as a calreticulin expression system may prove useful to assess functionalities of calreticulins from different species.

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