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  • 1. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 2. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 3.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundberg, Per
    Nutrient addition extends flowering display, which gets tracked by seed predators, but not by their parasitoids2008In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 117, p. 473-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although phenological matching between two and three trophic interactions has received some attention, it has largely been disregarded in explaining the lack of strong cascade dynamics in terrestrial systems. We studied the response of the specialist seed predator, Paroxyna plantaginis (Tephritidae) and associated generalist parasitoids (Chalcidoidea) to controlled fertilisation of individuals of naturally growing Tripolium vulgare (Asteraceae) on four island populations (Skeppsvik Archipelago, Sweden). We consistently found evidence of nutrient limitation: fertilised plants increased their biomass, produced more capitula (the oviposition units for tephritid flies), were more at risk of attack by the tephritids, and puparia were heavier in fertilised plants. During some parts of the season tephritids became more heavily parasitized, supporting the presence of cascade dynamics, however net parasitism over season decreased in response to nutrient addition. We found no evidence that capitulum size complicated parasitoid access to the tephritids, however the extended bud production prolonged the flowering season. Thus, tephritids utilized the surplus production of capitula throughout the entire season, while parasitoids did not expand their oviposition time window accordingly. Implications for top down regulation and cascade dynamics in the system are discussed.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hughes, Alice C.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jernelöv, Arne
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Fish, Wildlife and Environmental Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    McNeely, Jeffrey A.
    Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section, Petchburi, Thailand.
    Mohr, Claudia
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Tero
    Snowchange Cooperative, Lehtoi, Finland.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Centre for Sustainable Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Rusch, Graciela M.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England at Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thomas, David N.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wulff, Angela
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Söderström, Bo
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ambio fit for the 2020s2022In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, p. 1091-1093Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5. Baskaran, Preetisri
    et al.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Soucémarianadin, Laure N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. CNRS, Laboratoire de Géologie de l’ENS, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lindahl, Björn D.
    Nitrogen dynamics of decomposing Scots pine needle litter depends on colonizing fungal species2019In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 95, no 6, article id fiz059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal ecosystems plant production is often limited by low availability of nitrogen. Nitrogen retention in below-ground organic pools plays an important role in restricting recirculation to plants and thereby hampers forest production. Saprotrophic fungi are commonly assigned to different decomposer strategies, but how these relate to nitrogen cycling remains to be understood. Decomposition of Scots pine needle litter was studied in axenic microcosms with the ligninolytic litter decomposing basidiomycete Gymnopus androsaceus or the stress tolerant ascomycete Chalara longipes. Changes in chemical composition were followed by C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy and nitrogen dynamics was assessed by the addition of a N-15 tracer. Decomposition by C. longipes resulted in nitrogen retention in non-hydrolysable organic matter, enriched in aromatic and alkylic compounds, whereas the ligninolytic G. androsaceus was able to access this pool, counteracting nitrogen retention. Our observations suggest that differences in decomposing strategies between fungal species play an important role in regulating nitrogen retention and release during litter decomposition, implying that fungal community composition may impact nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem level.

  • 6.
    Beffa, Giorgia
    et al.
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Gobet, Erika
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Hächler, Luc
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Isola, Ilaria
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy.
    Morlock, Marina A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Sadori, Laura
    Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Schläfli, Patrick
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rey, Fabian
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    van Vugt, Lieveke
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Zander, Paul D
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland; Climate Geochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany.
    Zanchetta, Giovanni
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, University of Pisa, Italy.
    Grosjean, Martin
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Tinner, Willy
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    A novel, continuous high-resolution palaeoecological record from central Italy suggests comparable land-use dynamics in Southern and Central Europe during the Neolithic2024In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although rare, temporally and taxonomically highly-resolved palaeoecological studies with high chronological precision are essential to perform detailed comparisons with precisely dated independent evidence such as archaeological findings, historical events, or palaeoclimatic data. Using a new highly-resolved and chronologically precise sedimentary record from Lago di Mezzano (central Italy), we reconstruct decadal-scale vegetation, species diversity, and fire dynamics, aiming to better understand the linkages between climate, land use, fire, and plant communities from the Neolithic to the Copper Age (c. 5100–3100 cal. BC). Closed, mixed beech-oak forests, including evergreen Quercus ilex, dominated the landscape around Lago di Mezzano during the Neolithic and were disturbed by repeated opening phases, with important implications for lake biogeochemistry and mixing regimes. This was in conjunction with increasing fire activity to promote agro-pastoral practices, as inferred from increasing charcoal, Cerealia type, Triticum type, Hordeum type, Plantago lanceolata type, and Urtica pollen. Fires, on their turn, augmented species diversity (richness and evenness). The comparison of the Mediterranean record from Lago di Mezzano with available continuous and high-precision submediterranean and cool-temperate palynological sequences suggests comparable land use pulses across Southern and Central European regions, most likely in connection with climate change. The outcomes of this study are not only of palaeoecological and archaeological interest; they may also help to improve projections of ecosystem dynamics under future global change.

  • 7. Berg, Anna
    et al.
    Östlund, Lars
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A century of logging and forestry in a reindeer herding area in northern Sweden2008In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 256, p. 1009-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forest ecosystems are generally highly sensitive to logging and other forestry activities. Thus, commercial forestry has had major effects on the forests and landscape structure in northern Sweden since the middle of the 19th Century, when it rapidly extended across the region. Lichens (which constitute up to 80% of reindeer forage in winter and early spring) have often been amongst the most severely affected ecosystem components. The overall aim of the present study was to analyze how forestry has influenced the potential supply of ground-growing lichens as winter forage for the reindeer in this region over the past ca. 100 years. For this purpose, we analysed changes in forest and stand structure in Scots pine-dominated (Pinus sylvestris L.) reindeer wintering areas in the southern part of the county Norrbotten (covering ca. 58,000 ha) using detailed historical forest inventories and management plans. We found that the amount of the forest types considered potentially good pasture (mainly middleaged and old pine forests) decreased during the first part of the 20th Century. However, the quality of grazing grounds was improved by forestry during this time mainly because selective logging made the forests more open which benefits lichen growth. During the last part of the 20th century forestry impaired the quality of grazing grounds in several ways, e.g. by clear-cutting and intensified use of various silviculturalmeasures. We conclude that ca. 30–50% of the winter grazing grounds have been lost in the study area because of intensive forest management during the last century. The spatially precise historical information about the affects of forestry on lichen pasture provided in this study can be used to direct forest management which will facilitate and promote reindeer herding in the future.

  • 8.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 9.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bridging the gap between ancient metal pollution and contemporary biogeochemistry2008In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 755-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleolimnology provides long-term data that are often essential for understanding the current state of the environment. Even though there is great potential, paleolimnology is rarely used together with process-related studies to solve issues regarding cycling of elements in the environment. Clearly, this is a drawback because the cycling of many elements, which cause great concern in the present-day environment, was altered long before the advent of monitoring programs. The pioneering work of C.C. Patterson and his colleagues emphasized the importance of a long-term perspective for understanding the current cycling of metals, with a focus on lead, and in particular for estimating background concentrations and human-related impacts in the environment. In Sweden the first traces of atmospheric lead pollution are found in lake sediments dated to about 3500 years ago. The long-term changes in the pollution lead record in lake sediments led us to consider how lead biogeochemistry has changed over time in response to this historical deposition‹where has this lead gone, and how much does this lead contribute to the present-day biogeochemical cycling of lead? How was lead distributed in Œpre-industrial¹ soils or more properly in natural soils not impacted by atmospheric pollution? There are many studies that have examined the effects of increased metal concentrations on soil biota, but what are the appropriate background conditions for comparison? Using lake sediments as our foundation we have analyzed lead, including its stable isotopes, in other environmental compartments, including peat, soil, and a range of boreal forest plant species, to develop a better understanding of the fate of lead derived from long-term pollution. Three important conclusions from our studies in Sweden are: (1) atmospheric lead deposition rates during the 20th century were 100 to as much as 1000 times higher than natural deposition rates a few thousand years ago. Even with stricter emission standards during the past three decades and the resultant reductions in deposition, lead deposition rates today are still 10­100 times greater than natural rates. This increase in deposition rates modeled from sediment and peat records is of a similar scale to estimated changes in body burdens of lead in modern versus ancient humans. (2) In Europe about half of the cumulative burden of atmospherically deposited lead was deposited before industrialization. In southern Sweden the cumulative burden of pollution lead during the past 3500 years is 2­5 g Pb m-2 and in the Œpristine¹ northern parts of the country there is about 1 g Pb m-2. (3) Predicted recovery rates for soils are slow; in the cold climate of Scandinavia, we find that the soil surface (O horizon), where most soil biota reside, retains lead deposited over the past 150­500 years. Therefore, although lead deposition rates in Europe, as well as N. America, are only 10% of those a few decades ago, it will take several decades or longer for lead concentrations in soils to respond appreciably. The slow turnover rates for lead in the environment and gradual immobilization of lead in deeper soil mineral horizons also inhibits a loss of lead to surface waters in areas removed from point sources.

  • 10.
    Bittencourt, Paulo Roberto de Lima
    et al.
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Bartholomew, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Banin, Lindsay F.
    UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Penicuik, Midlothian, United Kingdom.
    Bin Suis, Mohamed Aminur Faiz
    Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research Centre, PO Box 1407, Sabah, Sandakan, Malaysia.
    Nilus, Reuben
    Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research Centre, PO Box 1407, Sabah, Sandakan, Malaysia.
    Burslem, David F. R. P.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Rowland, Lucy
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Divergence of hydraulic traits among tropical forest trees across topographic and vertical environment gradients in Borneo2022In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 235, no 6, p. 2183-2198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-scale topographic–edaphic gradients are common in tropical forests and drive species spatial turnover and marked changes in forest structure and function. We evaluate how hydraulic traits of tropical tree species relate to vertical and horizontal spatial niche specialization along such a gradient. Along a topographic–edaphic gradient with uniform climate in Borneo, we measured six key hydraulic traits in 156 individuals of differing heights in 13 species of Dipterocarpaceae. We investigated how hydraulic traits relate to habitat, tree height and their interaction on this gradient. Embolism resistance increased in trees on sandy soils but did not vary with tree height. By contrast, water transport capacity increased on sandier soils and with increasing tree height. Habitat and height only interact for hydraulic efficiency, with slope for height changing from positive to negative from the clay-rich to the sandier soil. Habitat type influenced trait–trait relationships for all traits except wood density. Our data reveal that variation in the hydraulic traits of dipterocarps is driven by a combination of topographic–edaphic conditions, tree height and taxonomic identity. Our work indicates that hydraulic traits play a significant role in shaping forest structure across topographic–edaphic and vertical gradients and may contribute to niche specialization among dipterocarp species.

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  • 11. Björkvald, Louise
    et al.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden .
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Hydrogeochemistry of Fe and Mn in small boreal streams: The role of seasonality, landscape type and scale2008In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 72, no 12, p. 2789-2804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream water from a stream network of 15 small boreal catchments (0.03-67 km(2)) in northern Sweden was analyzed for unfiltered (total) and filtered (< 0.4 mu m) concentrations of iron (Fe-tot and Fe-< 0.4) and manganese (Mn-tot and Mn < 0.4). The purpose was to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of Fe, Mn and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as influenced by snow melt driven spring floods and landscape properties, in particular the proportion of wetland area. During spring flood, concentrations of Fetot, Fe-< 0.4, Mn-tot, Mn-< 0.4 and DOC increased in streams with forested catchments (< 2% wetland area). In catchments with high coverage of wetlands (> 30% wetland area) the opposite behavior was observed. The hydrogeochemistry of Fe was highly dependent on wetlands as shown by the strong positive correlation of the Fe-tot/Al-tot ratio with wetland coverage (r(2) = 0.89,p < 0.001). Furthermore, PCA analysis showed that at base flow Fe-tot and Fe-< 0.4 were positively associated with wetlands and DOC, whereas they were not associated during peak flow at spring flood. The temporal variation of Fe was likely related to varying hydrological pathways. At peak discharge Fetot was associated with variables like silt coverage, which highlights the importance of particulates during high discharge events. For Mn there was no significant correlation with wetlands, instead, PCA analysis showed that during spring flood Mn was apparently more dependent on the supply of minerogenic particulates from silt deposits on the stream banks of some of the streams. The influence of minerogenic particulates on the concentration of, in particular, Mn was greatest in the larger, lower gradient streams, characterized by silt deposits in the near-stream zone. In the small forested streams underlain by till, DOC was of greater importance for the observed concentrations, as indicated by the positive correlation of both Fe-tot and Fe-< 0.4 with DOC (r(2) = 0.77 and r(2) = 0.76, p < 0.001) at the smallest headwater forest site. In conclusion, wetland area and DOC were important for Fe concentrations in this boreal stream network, whereas silt deposits strongly influenced Mn concentrations. This study highlights the importance of studying stream water chemistry from a landscape perspective in order to address future environmental issues concerning mobility of Fe, Mn and associated trace metals. 

  • 12.
    Björnberg, Lova
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Laitila, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Köttproducenter och processen för miljöcertifiering: En kvalitativ studie om miljömärkningar ur köttproducentens perspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with meat producers' own opinions and thoughts regarding eco-labels and organic production. Previous studies have mainly dealt with the consumer and their attitude towards certifications and the producers have been put in the background as silent spectators. Now the producers can step out of the periphery and share their thoughts and opinions about why they choose, or choose not to, label their meat. The study is qualitative and the interviews are semi-structured. The producers are all located in northern Sweden and produce lamb, beef or pork.

    The purpose of the study was to find out how small meat producers experience the certification process and how this process is assessed in relation to having a certified production and further how producers communicate their sustainability commitments in a CSR context if they do not use eco-labels.

    It turned out that the majority of producers had a generally negative attitude towards the certification process, it was considered too cumbersome and costly; in some cases it was not even possible to certify their production due to the geographical distance. Many producers did not see any potential added value in having a certified production as a CSR tool, but rather communicated their sustainability commitments with the customer directly. The majority of producers had a high sustainability commitment, but did not necessarily communicate this to the outside world, and not with the help of eco-labels. The decision regarding whether or not to certify the production had a great deal to do with the geographical area and the limitations this could entail as well as cost and the general mistrust in possible added value due to the eco-labels. The subject is complex and there are many possible conclusions, but in general it seems that smaller producers do not consider it necessary to label their meat as the consumer to a large extent knows what values and sustainability commitments the farm in question has. They mainly use direct communication to convey their commitments and therefore sees no need for an external branding in the form of certification. The potential benefits do not outweigh the complexity of the process.

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    Köttproducenter och processen för miljöcertifiering
  • 13. Blanchet, Guillaume
    et al.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Sinaj, Sokrat
    Responses of soil properties and crop yields to different inorganic and organic amendments in a Swiss conventional farming system2016In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 230, p. 116-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In agro-ecosystems, fertilization practices are crucial for sustaining crop productivity. Here, based on a 50-year long-term experiment, we studied the influence of fertilization practices (inorganic and/or organic) and nitrogen (N) application rates on (i) soil physicochemical properties, (ii) microbial and earthworm communities and (iii) crop production. Our results showed that soil organic carbon content was increased by incorporation of crop residues (+2.45%) and farmyard manure application (+6.40%) in comparison to the use of mineral fertilizer alone. In contrast, soil carbon stock was not significantly affected by these fertilization practices. Overall, only farmyard manure application improved soil physicochemical properties compared to mineral fertilization alone. Soil microbial population was enhanced by the application of organic amendments as indicated by microbial biomass and phospholipid-derived fatty acids contents. The fertilization practices and the N application rates affected significantly both the biomass and composition of earthworm populations, especially the epigeic and endogeic species. Finally, farmyard manure application significantly increased crop yield (+3.5%) in comparison to mineral fertilization alone. Crop residue incorporation rendered variable but similar crop yields over the 50-year period. The results of this long-term experiment indicate that the use of organic amendments not only reduces the need for higher amount of mineral N fertilizer but also improves the soil biological properties with direct effects on crop yield.

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  • 14.
    Bostian, Moriah B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Valuing Ecosystem Services for Agricultural TFP: A Review of Best Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 3035Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a brief overview of methods to incorporate ecosystem service values into measures of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP), both in theory and in practice. This includes a review of the academic literature, a summary of related economic index theory, and a comparison of agency guidelines. We consider areas of consensus between the agencies and the research literature, as well as open debates surrounding the implementation of a standardized ecosystem accounting framework to integrate with existing TFP measures. This helps to bridge the gap between theoretical approaches to measurement and valuation in the research literature and their implementation in practice by national accounting agencies. Better connecting theory to practice also serves to highlight common challenges in the field, including questions of definition, scope, and scale for ecosystem services, as well as data collection and dissemination. We end with a summary of recommendations for moving forward.

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  • 15.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Predator related oviposition site selection of aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) and effects on offspring life-history2006In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1277-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theory predicts that natural selection should favour females that are able to correctly assess the risk of predation and then use that information to avoid high-risk oviposition sites to reduce the risk of offspring predation. Despite the potential significance of such behaviour on individual fitness, population dynamics and community structure, relatively few studies of oviposition behaviour connected to the risk of predation have been carried out.

    2. However, some recent studies suggest that oviposition site selection in response to risk of predation may be a common phenomenon, at least among amphibians and mosquitoes. A vast majority of previous studies have, however, neglected to investigate how the offspring are affected, in terms of fitness related parameters, by the maternal oviposition site choice.

    3. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment we tested the oviposition site selection of female aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) in relation to the presence or absence of a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we monitored how the oviposition site selection affected the behaviour, growth and food resource of the progeny.

    4. We show that free-flying females of the aquatic beetles Hydroporus incognitus and H. nigrita prefer to oviposit in waters without fish compared with waters with fish. Larval activity of Hydroporus spp. was unaffected by fish presence. Our results indicate that beetle larvae from females that do lay eggs in waters with fish show increased growth compared with larvae in waters without fish. We explain this difference in growth by a higher per-capita food supply in the presence of a fish predator. This finding may have important implications for our understanding of how the variance of oviposition site selection in a population is sustained.

  • 16. Buckland, Paul
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Prosser, Tim
    Edlington Wood: using Lidar to put ancient fields and old excavations into their contemporary landscape2020In: Transactions of the Hunter Archaeological Society, ISSN 0966-2251, Vol. 29, p. 84-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Roman sites in Edlington Wood, three miles west-south-west of Doncaster, South Yorkshire, first came to wider notice as a result of finds by the woodman in the 1930s and the material was of sufficient interest for Philip Corder to use it as the basis for a paper in a festschrift to O. G. S. Crawford. Most of these finds and later material were deposited in Doncaster Museum, although others went to the owners and local metal detectorists. In 1970 a threat of quarrying led to a detailed survey of the site by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments and limited excavation on one site. Two large areas within the Wood were cleared but remain as improved grassland. The recent availability of Lidar imagery allows the occupation sites and fragments of field system located by ground survey to be placed in a broader context of small rectangular fields and some attempt at a landscape chronology to be made. The cultivation of the fields in a system of cord rig is discussed.

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  • 17. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Hughes, Damian
    Palaeoecological evidence for the Vera hypothesis?2005In: Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems, English Nature , 2005, p. 62-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report stems from work commissioned by English Nature into the role of largeherbivores in the post-glacial landscape of Britain and the potential for using free-ranginggrazing animals to create and maintain diverse landscape mosaics in modern conditions.Some aspects may be disputed or considered controversial; it is an active field of research.Therefore we stress that the views expressed are those of the authors at the current time.Subsequent research may confirm our views or lead us to modify them.We hope they will be useful in future discussions, both within English Nature and inconservation land-management circles more generally.

  • 18.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lessons from extinctions2017In: Wood Wise, p. 22-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many beetles are very good at colonising new areas when changes in the landscape open up new possibilities. Equally, they are highly susceptible to local extinction in the face of landscape scale changes in their environment.

  • 19.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    When a Waterhole is Full of Dung: An Illustration of the Importance of Environmental Evidence for Refining Archaeological Interpretation of Excavated Features2019In: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 977-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehistoric field systems sometimes encompass excavated, pit-like features which are difficult to classify due to the complex stratigraphies resulting from reuse, infilling and collapse. They are frequently classified as wells and watering holes, but other potential uses for excavated depressions are rarely cited. We argue the need for environmental archaeology in the interpretation of features of this nature, and present a case study from a Bronze Age site at Pode Hole, near Peterborough (UK), where fossil insect material clearly contradicts the archaeological interpretation. We present empirical evidence for a sealed context filled with dung which cannot be interpreted as a water source. This evidence strongly contrasts with other superficially similar features at the site.

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  • 20. Burdon, J.J.
    et al.
    Ericson, Lars E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Thrall, P.H.
    Emerging plant diseases2014In: Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems: volume 3 / [ed] Neal K. Van Alfen, San Diego: Academic Press, 2014, 2, p. 59-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21. Carr, Joel A.
    et al.
    D'Odorico, Paolo
    Suweis, Samir
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    What commodities and countries impact inequality in the global food system?2016In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 095013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global distribution of food production is unequal relative to the distribution of human populations. International trade can increase or decrease inequality in food availability, but little is known about how specific countries and commodities contribute to this redistribution. We present a method based on the Gini coefficient for evaluating the contributions of country and commodity specific trade to inequality in the global food system. We applied the method to global food production and trade data for the years 1986-2011 to identify the specific countries and commodities that contribute to increasing and decreasing inequality in global food availability relative to food production. Overall, international trade reduced inequality in food availability by 25%-33% relative to the distribution of food production, depending on the year. Across all years, about 58% of the total trade links acted to reduce inequality with similar to 4% of the links providing 95% of the reduction in inequality. Exports from United States of America, Malaysia, Argentina, and Canada are particularly important in decreasing inequality. Specific commodities that reduce inequality when traded include cereals and vegetables. Some trade connections contribute to increasing inequality, but this effect is mostly concentrated within a small number of commodities including fruits, stimulants, and nuts. In terms of specific countries, exports from Slovenia, Oman, Singapore, and Germany act to increase overall inequality. Collectively, our analysis and results represent an opportunity for building an enhanced understanding of global-scale patterns in food availability.

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  • 22. Clair, T.A.,
    et al.
    Dennis, I.F.
    Vet, R.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Long-term trends in catchment organic carbon and nitrogen exports from three acidified catchments in Nova Scotia, Canada2008In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Biogeochemistry, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 83-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We sampled two streams in southwestern Nova Scotia from 1983 to 2004 and one stream from 1992 to 2004 for total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TN) in order to investigate if changes in catchment exports could be determined over the sampling periods, and if so what were the controlling factors. We first show that early TOC measurements underestimated concentrations due to analytical shortcomings and then produce a correction to adjust values to more accurate levels. Our trend results showed that TOC concentrations decreased in the two streams with the longest record, from 1980 to 1992 when acid deposition to the area decreased most rapidly, and have remained constant since then. TOC exports only decreased at one site over the total sampling period. As expected, we also measured seasonal changes in exports, with the autumn period showing TOC and TN exports as high as during spring snowmelt. We found that only 24% of deposition N is exported from the larger catchments, most of it in organic form, while the smallest catchment exported 16%. We also show a constant increase in TN from 1994 to the present at all three sites sampled. Our results do not support the hypothesis that reductions in sulfur acidification lead to increases in catchment organic carbon mobilization to streams.

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  • 23. De Long, Jonathan R.
    et al.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kardol, Paul
    Nematode community resistant to deep soil frost in boreal forest soils2016In: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 59, no 5-6, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As global climate change advances, shifts in winter precipitation are becoming more common in high latitude ecosystems, resulting in less insulating snow cover and deeper soil frost. Long-term alterations to soil frost can impact on ecosystem processes such as decomposition, microbial activity and vegetation dynamics. In this study we utilized the longest running, well-characterized soil frost manipulation experiment in a boreal forest. We measured nematode family composition and feeding group abundances at four different soil layer depths from plots that had been subjected to deep soil frost for one and 11 years. The overall abundance of nematodes and the different feeding groups were unaffected by deep soil frost. However, a higher Maturity Index was weakly associated with deep soil frost (indicative of lower nutrient enrichment and more persister nematode (i.e., K-strategist) families), likely due to the loss of nutrients and reduced inputs from inhibited decomposition. Multivariate and regression analyses showed that most nematode families were weakly associated with dominant understory plant species and strongly associated with soil organic matter (SOM). This is probably the result of higher resource availability in the control plots, which is favorable to the nematode community. These results indicate that the nematode community was more strongly driven by the long-term indirect effects of deep soil frost on SOM as opposed to the direct effects. Our findings highlight that the indirect effects of altered winter precipitation and soil frost patterns may be more important than direct winter climate effects. Further, such indirect effects on SOM and the plant community that may affect the nematode community can only be seen in long-term experiments. Finally, given the critical role nematodes play in soil food webs and carbon and nutrient cycling, our results demonstrate the necessity of considering the response of nematodes to global climate change in boreal forest soils. 

  • 24.
    del Río, Miren
    et al.
    Instituto de Ciencias Forestales (ICIFOR), INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Pretzsch, Hans
    School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo
    Instituto de Ciencias Forestales (ICIFOR), INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Jactel, Hervé
    INRAE, University of Bordeaux, Biogeco, Cestas, France.
    Coll, Lluís
    EAGROF, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain; Joint Research Unit CTFC-AGROTECNIO-CERCA, Solsona, Spain.
    Löf, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research, Lomma, Sweden.
    Aldea, Jorge
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research, Lomma, Sweden.
    Ammer, Christian
    Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Avdagić, Admir
    Faculty of Forestry, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Barbeito, Ignacio
    Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada.
    Bielak, Kamil
    Institute of Forest Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Bravo, Felipe
    Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute (iuFOR), University of Valladolid, Palencia, Spain; Unidad Asociada I+D+i al CSIC Gestión Forestal Sostenible, Palencia, Spain.
    Brazaitis, Gediminas
    Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Forest Science, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Cerný, Jakub
    Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Czech Republic.
    Collet, Catherine
    Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRAE, UMR Silva, Nancy, France.
    Condés, Sonia
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Drössler, Lars
    School of Natural Science and Engineering, Ilia State, University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Fabrika, Marek
    Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Heym, Michael
    School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hylen, Gro
    NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway.
    Jansons, Aris
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, Salaspils, Latvia.
    Kurylyak, Viktor
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, L'viv, Ukraine.
    Lombardi, Fabio
    AGRARIA, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Matović, Bratislav
    University of Novi Sad, Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Novi Sad, Serbia; Faculty of Agriculture, University of East Sarajevo, East Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Metslaid, Marek
    Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Motta, Renzo
    DISAFA, University of Turin, Grugliasco, Italy.
    Nord-Larsen, Thomas
    IGN, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Nothdurft, Arne
    Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Growth, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    den Ouden, Jan
    Forest Ecology and Forest Management, Wageningen University of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Pach, Maciej
    Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Kraków, Poland.
    Pardos, Marta
    Instituto de Ciencias Forestales (ICIFOR), INIA, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Poeydebat, Charlotte
    Bordeaux Sciences Agro, University of Bordeaux, Gradignan, France.
    Ponette, Quentin
    UCLouvain, Earth & Life Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Pérot, Tomas
    INRAE – UR EFNO - Centre de Recherche Val de Loire, Nogent-Sur-Vernisson, France.
    Reventlow, Ditlev Otto Juel
    IGN, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sitko, Roman
    Technical University in Zvolen, Faculty of Forestry, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Sramek, Vit
    Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Czech Republic.
    Steckel, Mathias
    Forst Baden-Württemberg (AöR), Ulm-Wiblingen, Germany.
    Svoboda, Miroslav
    Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest & Nature Lab, Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Vospernik, Sonja
    Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Growth, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Wolff, Barbara
    Hochschule für Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (HNEE), FG Waldinventur und Planung, Eberswalde, Germany.
    Zlatanov, Tzvetan
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés
    Dpt. Biogeography and Global Change, MNCN – CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Emerging stability of forest productivity by mixing two species buffers temperature destabilizing effect2022In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 2730-2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing disturbances in monocultures around the world are testimony to their instability under global change. Many studies have claimed that temporal stability of productivity increases with species richness, although the ecological fundamentals have mainly been investigated through diversity experiments. To adequately manage forest ecosystems, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the effect of mixing species on the temporal stability of productivity and the way in which it is influenced by climate conditions across large geographical areas. Here, we used a unique dataset of 261 stands combining pure and two-species mixtures of four relevant tree species over a wide range of climate conditions in Europe to examine the effect of species mixing on the level and temporal stability of productivity. Structural equation modelling was employed to further explore the direct and indirect influence of climate, overyielding, species asynchrony and additive effect (i.e. temporal stability expected from the species growth in monospecific stands) on temporal stability in mixed forests. We showed that by adding only one tree species to monocultures, the level (overyielding: +6%) and stability (temporal stability: +12%) of stand growth increased significantly. We identified the key effect of temperature on destabilizing stand growth, which may be mitigated by mixing species. We further confirmed asynchrony as the main driver of temporal stability in mixed stands, through both the additive effect and species interactions, which modify between-species asynchrony in mixtures in comparison to monocultures. Synthesis and applications. This study highlights the emergent properties associated with mixing two species, which result in resource efficient and temporally stable production systems. We reveal the negative impact of mean temperature on temporal stability of forest productivity and how the stabilizing effect of mixing two species can counterbalance this impact. The overyielding and temporal stability of growth addressed in this paper are essential for ecosystem services closely linked with the level and rhythm of forest growth. Our results underline that mixing two species can be a realistic and effective nature-based climate solution, which could contribute towards meeting EU climate target policies.

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  • 25.
    Dressel, Sabrina
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    A meta-analysis of studies on attitudes toward bears and wolves across Europe 1976–20122015In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 565-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ranges of wolves (Canis lupus) and bears (Ursus arctos) across Europe have expanded recently, and it is important to assess public attitudes toward this expansion because responses toward these species vary widely. General attitudes toward an object are good predictors of broad behavioral patterns; thus, attitudes toward wolves and bears can be used as indicators to assess the social foundation for future conservation efforts. However, most attitude surveys toward bears and wolves are limited in scope, both temporally and spatially, and provide only a snapshot of attitudes. To extend the results of individual surveys over a much larger temporal and geographical range so as to identify transnational patterns and changes in attitudes toward bears and wolves over time, we conducted a meta-analysis. Our analysis included 105 quantitative surveys conducted in 24 countries from 1976 to 2012. Across Europe, people's attitudes were more positive toward bears than wolves. Attitudes toward bears became more positive over time, but attitudes toward wolves seemed to become less favorable the longer people coexisted with them. Younger and more educated people had more positive attitudes toward wolves and bears than people who had experienced damage from these species, and farmers and hunters had less positive attitudes toward wolves than the general public. For bears attitudes among social groups did not differ. To inform conservation of large carnivores, we recommend that standardized longitudinal surveys be established to monitor changes in attitudes over time relative to carnivore population development. Our results emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research in this field and more advanced explanatory models capable of capturing individual and societal responses to changes in large carnivore policy and management.

  • 26. Drott, Andreas
    et al.
    Lambertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Do Potential Methylation Rates Reflect Accumulated Methyl Mercury in Contaminated Sediments?2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships between the short-term mono-methyl mercury (MeHg) production, determined as the specific, potential methylation rate constant Km (day−1) after 48 h of incubation with isotope-enriched 201Hg(II) at 23 °C, and the long-term accumulation of ambient MeHg, were investigated in contaminated sediments. The sediments covered a range of environments from small freshwater lakes to large brackish water estuaries and differed with respect to source and concentration of Hg, salinity, primary productivity, quantity and quality of organic matter, and temperature climate. Significant (p < 0.001), positive relationships were observed between Km (day−1) and the concentration of MeHg normalized to total Hg (%MeHg) for surface sediments (0–10, 0–15, and in one case 0–20 cm) across all environments, and across subsets of organic and minerogenic freshwaters. This suggests that the methylation process (MeHg production) overruled demethylation and net transport processes in the surface sediments. The lack of a relationship between Km and %MeHg in two brackish water sediment depth profiles (0–100 cm) indicates that demethylation and the net effect of input−output are relatively more important at greater depths. Differences in the primary production and subsequent availability of easily degradable organic matter (serving as electron donor for methylating bacteria) was indicated to be the most important factor behind observed differences in %MeHg and Km among sites. In contrast, concentrations of sulfate were not correlated to Km, %MeHg, or absolute concentrations of MeHg. We conclude that total concentrations of Hg are of importance for the long-term accumulation of MeHg, and that %MeHg in surface sediments can be used as a proxy for the rate of methylation, across a range of sites from different environments.

  • 27. Drott, Andreas
    et al.
    Lambertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Potential demethylation rate determinations in relation to concentrations of MeHg, Hg and pore water speciation of MeHg in contaminated sediments2008In: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 112, no 1-2, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific, potential demethylation rate constants (kd, day− 1) were determined in fresh and brackish water sediments from seven different sites in Sweden originally contaminated with either Hg0(l) or phenyl-Hg. Variations in kd among and within sites were related to ambient concentrations of Hg (1–1143 nmol g− 1) and MeHg (4.4–575pmol g− 1), and to pore water speciation of MeHg. Chemical speciation modeling revealed that MeHgSH(aq), MeHgS−(aq) and MeHg–thiol complexes [MeHgSR(aq)] associated to dissolved organic matter were the dominant MeHg species in the sediment pore water at all sites. Potential rates of MeHg demethylation were determined as the decomposition of isotopically enriched Me204HgCl during 48 h of incubation in darkness under N2(g) at 23 °C. There was a significant (p < 0.001) positive relationship between ambient MeHg concentrations in sediments and kd across all sites, but no significant relationship between ambient Hg and kd. At the three sites with the highest ambient Hg concentrations in sediments (average ± SD, 185 ± 249 nmol g− 1), kd was not significantly correlated with pore water MeHg speciation. At sites with lower concentrations of ambient Hg in sediments (average ± SD, 11 ± 8.4 nmol g− 1), there was a significant (p = 0.02) positive relationship between calculated concentrations of MeHgSH(aq), MeHgS−(aq), or the sum of these two species, and kd. If it is assumed that an oxidative demethylation process dominated at sites with lower concentrations of ambient Hg in sediments, the results suggest that it may be dependent on a passive uptake of inorganic MeHgSH molecules. It was shown that additions of different amounts of MeHg and Hg tracers, in relation to the ambient concentrations of MeHg and Hg, could result in dramatically different kd values within and between sites. At one brackish water site, both absolute demethylation rates and kds were significantly, inversely related to ambient concentrations of MeHg (and Hg). In contrast, at another brackish water site with generally less kds, samples with low ambient MeHg experienced toxic effects and demethylation was not detected. This implies that added (and possibly ambient) MeHg/Hg, depending on the environmental conditions, may have either stimulating or inhibitory effects on demethylation processes.

  • 28.
    Ehnvall, Betty
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ågren, Anneli M.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ratcliffe, Joshua L.
    Unit for Field-Based Forest Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln, Sweden.
    Noumonvi, Koffi Dodji
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Peichl, Matthias
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lidberg, William
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Svante Arrheniusväg 8, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öquist, Mats G.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Catchment characteristics control boreal mire nutrient regime and vegetation patterns over ~5000 years of landscape development2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 895, article id 165132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation holds the key to many properties that make natural mires unique, such as surface microtopography, high biodiversity values, effective carbon sequestration and regulation of water and nutrient fluxes across the landscape. Despite this, landscape controls behind mire vegetation patterns have previously been poorly described at large spatial scales, which limits the understanding of basic drivers underpinning mire ecosystem services. We studied catchment controls on mire nutrient regimes and vegetation patterns using a geographically constrained natural mire chronosequence along the isostatically rising coastline in Northern Sweden. By comparing mires of different ages, we can partition vegetation patterns caused by long-term mire succession (<5000 years) and present-day vegetation responses to catchment eco-hydrological settings. We used the remote sensing based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to describe mire vegetation and combined peat physicochemical measures with catchment properties to identify the most important factors that determine mire NDVI. We found strong evidence that mire NDVI depends on nutrient inputs from the catchment area or underlying mineral soil, especially concerning phosphorus and potassium concentrations. Steep mire and catchment slopes, dry conditions and large catchment areas relative to mire areas were associated with higher NDVI. We also found long-term successional patterns, with lower NDVI in older mires. Importantly, the NDVI should be used to describe mire vegetation patterns in open mires if the focus is on surface vegetation, since the canopy cover in tree-covered mires completely dominated the NDVI signal. With our study approach, we can quantitatively describe the connection between landscape properties and mire nutrient regime. Our results confirm that mire vegetation responds to the upslope catchment area, but importantly, also suggest that mire and catchment aging can override the role of catchment influence. This effect was clear across mires of all ages, but was strongest in younger mires.

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  • 29. Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buck, Moritz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden, Uppsala SE-75236, Sweden.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Osman, Omneya A.
    Kronberg, Rose-Marie
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Formation of mercury methylation hotspots as a consequence of forestry operations2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613-614, p. 1069-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that boreal forest logging can increase the concentration and export of methylmercury (MeHg) in stream runoff. Here we test whether forestry operations create soil environments of high MeHg net formation associated with distinct microbial communities. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that Hg methylation hotspots are more prone to form after stump harvest than stem-only harvest, because of more severe soil compaction and soil disturbance. Concentrations of MeHg, percent MeHg of total Hg (THg), and bacterial community composition were determined at 200 soil sampling positions distributed across eight catchments. Each catchment was either stem-only harvested (n = 3), stem-and stump-harvested (n = 2) or left undisturbed (n = 3). In support of our hypothesis, higher MeHg to THg ratios was observed in one of the stump-harvested catchments. While the effects of natural variation could not be ruled out, we noted that most of the highest % MeHg was observed in water-filled cavities created by stump removal or driving damage. This catchment also featured the highest bacterial diversity and highest relative abundance of bacterial families known to include Hg methylators. We propose that water-logged and disturbed soil environments associated with stump harvest can favor methylating microorganisms, which also enhance MeHg formation. 

  • 30.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Centre of Biostochastics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Quantifying spatial patterns of landscapes2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 573-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss information theoretical landscape indices based on data from digitized maps in grid format: measures based on Shannon's entropy, e.g. the measures of diversity and contagion; and measures based on conditional entropy, e.g. a new index which can be seen as an alternative to the measure of contagion that does not have the disadvantage of being highly correlated to the measure of diversity. We also introduce a measurement on how much information Is contained in a coarse-scale map about a fine-scale map.

  • 31.
    Englund, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Long-term variation of link strength in a simple benthic food web2008In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 77, no 5, p. 883-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The predatory isopod Saduria entomon (L.) and its amphipod prey Monoporeia affinis (Lindström) are key components of the food web in the northern Baltic Sea, together representing 80-90% of the macrobenthic biomass. We use 20 years of stomach content data for Saduria to investigate how diet dynamics affect the stability of the interaction between Saduria and Monoporeia.

    2. Consumption of the main prey, Monoporeia, fitted a type III functional response. Consumption rates of the most important alternative prey, mysids, were found to be unrelated to mysid densities but negatively related to the density of Monoporeia. The fit of consumption data to a model that assumes passive prey selection was poor. Thus we conclude that some form of active choice is involved.

    3. The effect of consumption of mysids, the alternative prey, on the stability of this system was investigated using a ‘one predator-two prey' model with stochastic environmental variation. Analysis of the model suggests that feeding on mysids leads to a decreased extinction risk for the predator, Saduria, and reduced density oscillations for both Saduria and its main prey, Monoporeia

  • 32.
    Ericson, Göran
    et al.
    Institutionen för vilt, fiske och miljö. SLU.
    Dahl, Fredrik
    Institutionen för vilt, fiske och miljö. SLU.
    Sandström, Camilla
    institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö, SLU.
    Färre svenskar lämnar asfaltsdjungeln: En vanlig uppfattning är att svensken med sitt starka engagemang för naturen har stort intresse av att vara i skog och mark2009In: Miljötrender. Nyheter och resultat från SLU, ISSN 1403-4743, no 3, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år genomför SLU-forskare en brevundersökning till ett representativt urval av den svenska befolkningen i åldern 16 – 65 år för att se om vår inställning till djur, natur och val av friluftsaktiviteter har förändrats1. År 1980 sa 92 procent av den svenska befolkningen att de var mycket eller ganska intresserade av att vara i ”skog och mark”. Förra året sa 82 procent av svenskarna samma sak. Det är en nedgång med tio procent på knappt trettio år, men fortfarande är en stor majoritet av svenskarna mentalt nära skog och mark. Hela 86 procent av de tillfrågade tycker att skyddade naturområden är avstressande miljöer.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Ann
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Environmental Science and Bioscience, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Are birdwatchers willing to participate in local goose management?: A case study from Sweden2023In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 69, no 2, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholder involvement in wildlife management is important and requires knowledge about factors motivating such participation. With several goose populations increasing in Europe and goose management incorporating multiple objectives, involvement of stakeholder groups with diverse interests is needed. In this study, we examined how evaluations of geese (attitude and acceptance capacity), but also experiences of birdwatching and birdwatcher identity, were associated with willingness to participate in local goose management. A survey among members of Sweden's largest birdwatching organization was conducted (n = 5010). The majority of respondents, 64%, displayed a divided evaluation of geese, most frequently in terms of an overall positive attitude towards geese but a low acceptance for current goose population levels (i.e. acceptance capacity). Birdwatchers' willingness to participate in goose management was generally low. Whereas they were more willing to take part in goose counts (i.e. monitoring) than to participate in local goose management groups, they were least willing to contribute to mitigating crop damage through scaring geese. Results further revealed that birdwatchers with a divided evaluation of geese and an entirely positive evaluation displayed the highest willingness to participate in goose management. However, a stronger distinct birdwatcher identity as a result of more birdwatching experiences was even more strongly associated with higher willingness to take part in goose management. The results highlight a need to intensify efforts to engage stakeholder groups with an interest in conservation issues in the participatory goose management system in Europe.

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  • 34.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Månsson, Johan
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Liljebäck, Niklas
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Eklund, Ann
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Department of Environmental Science and Bioscience, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    The importance of structural, situational, and psychological factors for involving hunters in the adaptive flyway management of geese2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 7112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive flyway management of superabundant geese is emerging as a strategy to reduce damage to agricultural crops and other ecosystem disservices, while also ensuring sustainable use and conservation objectives. Given the calls for intensified hunting as part of flyway management in Europe, we need to increase the understanding of structural, situational, and psychological factors important for goose hunting among hunters. Our survey data, retrieved in southern Sweden, showed a higher potential to intensify hunting among goose hunters than other hunters. In response to hypothetical policy instruments (including regulations, collaborative, and others), hunters declared a minor increase in their intention to hunt geese, with the greatest expected increase among goose hunters should the hunting season be extended. Situational factors (e.g., access to hunting grounds) were associated with goose hunting (frequency, bag size, and intention to increase hunting). In addition, controlled motivation (derived from external pressures or to avoid guilt) and more importantly autonomous motivation (due to hunting being enjoyable or valuable) were along with goose hunter identity positively associated with goose hunting. Hunters’ involvement in flyway management may be encouraged by using policy instruments to remove situational barriers and facilitate their autonomous motivation.

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  • 35.
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Influence of canopy structure and light on the three-dimensional distribution of the iconic lichen Usnea longissima2023In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 529, article id 120667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest canopies modify microclimates and create habitats for nonvascular epiphytes, but we need to better understand the mechanisms regulating their vertical and horizontal distributions. Here we examine how canopy structure and light environment influence the 3D distribution of Usnea longissima, the world's longest lichen, and associated with old-growth forests. We quantified forest structure, vertical profile of light (PPFD transmittance fraction), and horizontal as well as vertical distribution of the lichen in a 1 ha plot dominated by Picea abies. The forest had a multi-layered canopy with mortality driven by small-scale gap dynamics. The population size of the lichen had an approximate log-normal distribution with host trees showing strong clustering. The lichen extended up to mid-canopy and had a rather sharp upper limit. Population size increased with DBH and upper limit but did not correlate with basal area. The vertical profile of light was steeper in dead than in live trees, with the lichen occurring in a zone with low-intermediate light. The horizontal distribution was linked to the vertical distribution through short-distance asexual dispersal. The lichen's 3D distribution was shaped by various interacting functional mechanisms. Its absence from the upper canopy was mainly explained by sensitivity to high light when desiccated and limited capacity for upward migration. The population dynamics was driven by source trees hosting large populations in mid-canopy. The lichen's strong association with humid, old-growth forests is explained by narrow niche preferences and dispersal limitation, and not by slow growth. Protection of multi-layered forests with long continuity of tree cover is needed to secure substrates and suitable microclimates for development of viable lichen populations. Our study highlights that the 3D distribution of lichens in forest canopies is driven by forest dynamics, canopy structure, microclimate, and lichen functional traits.

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  • 36.
    Gilichinsky, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Per
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Reese, Heather
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kivinen, Sonja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilson, Mats
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Application of national forest inventory for remote sensing classification of ground lichen in nothern Sweden2010In: ISPRS Archives: Core Spatial Databases - Updating, Maintenance and Services – from Theory to Practice / [ed] Ammatzia Peled, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing , 2010, Vol. 38, p. 146-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichen is a major forage resource for reindeer and may constitute up to 80% of a reindeer's winter diet. The reindeer grazing area in Sweden covers almost half of the country, with reindeer using mountainous areas in the summer and forested areas in the winter. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of ground lichens is important for both practical and sustainable decisionmaking purposes. Since the early 1980s, remote sensing research of lichen cover in northern environments has focused on reindeer grazing issues. The objective of the present study was to use lichen information from the Swedish Forest Inventory (NFI) for classification of satellite data into ground lichen classes. The classification procedure was focused on using of NFI plots as training sets for supervised classification of the ground lichen cover in purpose to classify areas with different lichen coverage. The present research has shown the advantage of use forest inventory plot data by assessment of three methods: mahalanobis distance (MD) classification, maximum likelihood (ML) classification and spectral mixture analysis (SMA). The results of this study demonstrate high classification accuracy of SPOT imagery in distinction between lichenabundant and lichen-poor areas by mahalanobis distance classifier (overall accuracy 84.3%, kappa=0.68). The highest classification accuracy for Landsat scene was achieved by maximumlikelihood classification (overall accuracy 76.8%, kappa=0.53). The continuation research on more detailed fragmentation of lichen cover into fractions is proposed.

  • 37. Gonzalez, Eduardo
    et al.
    Felipe-Lucia, Maria R.
    Bourgeois, Berenger
    Boz, Bruno
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Palmer, Grant
    Sher, Anna A.
    Integrative conservation of riparian zones2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 211, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian zones are the interface between aquatic and terrestrial systems along inland watercourses. They have a disproportionate ecological role in the landscape considering their narrow extent, which makes them a good example of small natural features (sensu Hunter, 2017-in this issue). Characteristically, riparian zones increase species richness in the landscape and provide key services to society, such as soil fertility, water purification, and recreation. Despite the recognized importance of riparian zones for ecological, economic and social reasons, and the vast amount of scientific literature exploring measures for their conservation, current management is still failing at enabling a proper ecological functioning of these areas. The best practices for conservation of riparian zones have mostly focused on manipulating biotic and physical components (e.g. renaturalizing flow regimes, improving channel mobility, and controlling invasions of exotic ecosystem engineer species). However, these strategies face important technical, socio-economic, and legal constraints that require a more integrative approach for effective conservation. In this paper we summarize the main problems affecting riparian zones and their current management challenges. Following Hunter et al. (2017-in this issue), we review novel approaches to conservation of riparian zones, complementary to manipulating processes that reflect contemporary management and policy. These include (1) investing in environmental education for both local people and technical staff, (2) guaranteeing qualitative and long term inventories and monitoring, (3) establishing legislation and solutions to protect riparian zones, (4) framing economic activities in riparian zones under sustainable management, and (5) planning restoration of riparian zones at multiple and hierarchical spatio-temporal scales.

  • 38.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Contrasting Responses among Aquatic Organism Groups to Changes in Geomorphic Complexity Along a Gradient of Stream Habitat Restoration: Implications for Restoration Planning and Assessment2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many stream restoration projects aim to increase geomorphic complexity, assuming that this increases habitat heterogeneity and, thus, biodiversity. However, empirical data supporting these linkages remain scant. Previous assessments of stream restoration suffer from incomplete quantification of habitat complexity, or a narrow focus on only one organism group and/or one restoration measure, limiting learning. Based on a comprehensive quantification of geomorphic complexity in 20 stream reaches in northern Sweden, ranging from streams channelized for timber floating to restored and reference reaches, we investigated responses of macroinvertebrates, diatoms, and macrophytes to multiple geomorphic metrics. Sediment size heterogeneity, which was generally improved in restored sites, favored macroinvertebrate and diatom diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. In contrast, macrophyte diversity responded to increased variation along the longitudinal stream profile (e.g., step-pools), which was not consistently improved by the restoration. Our analyses highlight the value of learning across multiple restoration projects, both in identifying which aspects of restoration have succeeded, and pinpointing other measures that might be targeted during adaptive management or future restoration. Given our results, a combination of restoration measures targeting not only sediment size heterogeneity, but also features such as step-pools and instream wood, is most likely to benefit benthic biota in streams.

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  • 39. Holt, Eva
    et al.
    Kocan, Anton
    Klanova, Jana
    Assefa, Anteneh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe2016In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 19, p. 19602-19612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (a(18)PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  • 40.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kumpula, Jouko
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Sandström, Per
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tømmervik, Hans
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Norway.
    Kivinen, Sonja
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Skarin, Anna
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sandström, Stefan
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pastures under pressure: Effects of other land users and the environment2022In: Reindeer Husbandry and Global Environmental Change: Pastoralism in Fennoscandia / [ed] Tim Horstkotte, Øystein Holand, Jouko Kumpula, Jon Moen, Routledge, 2022, p. 76-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer husbandry has a long history of sharing landscapes with a multitude of other forms of land use. By competing for space, industrial resource developments from the early 20th century onwards have affected where, when and how the landscape can be used for reindeer grazing. Extending from the local to the landscape level, these impacts can reduce pastures either directly or indirectly as a result of increasing landscape fragmentation or changing reindeer behaviour. Furthermore, environmental drivers influence the dynamics of forage availability or accessibility for reindeer. The observed trend of shrinking pastures in the three countries is caused by these cumulative impacts. As a consequence, grazing pressure on the remaining pastures increases, and it curtails reindeer herders’ options to respond to the challenges of climate change. Reversing the continuing decrease in pastures requires the restoration of grazing resources and increasing landscape connectivity to facilitate movement and grazing rotation. However, socio-political incentives are also required to sustain reindeer pastures in the future. This includes an increase in the influence of reindeer herders on land use decisions and the inclusion of their traditional ecological knowledge of pasture management to identify alternative approaches to natural resource management.

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  • 41. Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Wikström, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. CJEW Ecology and Environmental Consultancy, Åkervägen 30, SE-943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Time-lagged lichen extinction in retained buffer strips 16.5 years after clear-cutting2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 225, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree retention on clear-cuts is a relatively new measure in forestry aimed at lifeboating' forest species during young seral periods. However, the effectiveness of tree retention for maintaining biodiversity for more than a few years is still poorly known. We investigated lichen persistence in retained buffer strips along small streams after clear-cutting of the surrounding forest, and compared with clear-cuts and un-cut references. Specifically, we compared richness and frequency of red-listed/signal species, calicioids and pendulous species before clear cutting with 2.5 years and 16.5 years after clear-cutting, and also analysed their colonization-extinction dynamics over time. The results show that the richness of red-listed/signal species and calicioids in buffer strips had declined significantly after 16.5 years, but not after 2.5 years, while frequency displayed a significant difference already after 2.5 years. The richness of pendulous lichens remained relatively stable over time, but the frequency had declined significantly after 16.5 years. In clear-cuts all groups declined more than in buffer-strips (-2-3.5 times more) and the main decline had occurred already after 2.5 years. References remained stable over time. The colonization-extinctions dynamics reflected the richness declines, with high early extinction in clear cuts and lower but late extinction in buffer-strips, and low (re)colonization. We conclude that retained buffer strips cannot maintain lichen richness over time due to time-lagged extinction, but they are clearly more effective than clear-cuts. Wider buffer strips could potentially reduce tree mortality and decrease lichen extinction. The large amounts of standing dead wood makes buffer strips potential future colonization targets.

  • 42. Jönsson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    The shifting society syndrome: Values, baselines, and Swedish forest conservation in the 1930s and 2010s2021In: Conservation Science and Practice, E-ISSN 2578-4854, Vol. 3, no 10, article id e506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a response to shifting baseline syndrome (SBS), a syndrome implying that land managers' acceptance of environmental change declines gradually due to lack of historical knowledge. Some actions to counteract SBS are haunted by methodological problems associated with measuring natural states and ignoring societal effects on ideas of naturalness. To balance methodological discussions of SBS, this study analyzes the social contexts of baseline demarcations historically. It compares baselines in two Swedish forest conservation debates-about the Fiby forest in the 1930s and the Ojnare forest in the 2010s-focusing on scalable and unscalable values. To operationalize shifting societal criteria for baseline demarcations, we introduce the "shifting society syndrome" concept. The study identifies several societal shifts and shows that Fiby's baseline was shaped by the scalable value of age and the nonscalable values of uniqueness and Swedishness, and Ojnare's by the scalable value of biodiversity and the nonscalable values of uniqueness and wildness. We argue that values, scalability, and historical change are crucial variables in the practice of demarcating baselines and that intellectual history is a useful tool for methodological self-reflection in SBS research.

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  • 43.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pigs and pollards: medieval insights for UK wood pasture restoration2013In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English wood pastures have become a target for ecological restoration, including the restoration of pollarded trees and grazing animals, although pigs have not been frequently incorporated into wood pasture restoration schemes. Because wood pastures are cultural landscapes, created through the interaction of natural processes and human practices, a historical perspective on wood pasture management practices has the potential to provide insights for modern restoration projects. Using a wide range of both written and artistic sources form the Middle Ages, this article argues that pigs were fed in wood pastures both during the mast season when acorns were available and at other times as grazing fields. Pollarded pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) likely dominated these sustainable cultural landscapes during the medieval period.

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  • 44.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Modeling Copper(II) Complexation in a Peat Soil Based on Spectroscopic Structural Information2008In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, ISSN 0361-5995, E-ISSN 1435-0661, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 1286-1291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The speciation of Cu in soils and surface waters is largely influenced by complexation reactions with natural organic matter (NOM). In this study, ion selective electrode data for the binding of Cu2+ to a forest peat soil were collected as a function of equilibration time, pH (2.4–6.6), and total Cu(II) concentration (1–54g Cu kg–1 dry soil). As a first step, a one-site Langmuir isotherm was successfully fitted to the Cu adsorption data for the complete concentration range at pH 4.6. In a second step, structural information extracted from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, showing that Cu(II) forms five-membered rings with possible combinations of amine, carboxyl, and carbonyl functional groups in NOM, were used as input for chemical speciation calculations (using the chemical equilibrium model MINTEQA2). In agreement with the EXAFS results, a model consisting of one RNH2, forming monodentate complexes (Cu2+ + RNH2 RH2NCu2+; log stability constant KRH2NCu2+ = 9.2; –log acid dissociation constant [pKa] = 9.0 for RNH3+), and two adjacent RCOO– groups, forming bidentate complexes (Cu2+ + 2RCOO– Cu(OOCR)2; log stability constant β(RCOO)2Cu = 4.7; pKa = 4.5 for RCOOH), gave the best fit to the experimental data. Determined stability constants for Cu(II)–amine and Cu(II)–carboxyl complexes were in good agreement with well-defined Cu complexes with amino acids and carboxyls, respectively.

  • 45.
    Kumar, Umesh
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, MNS Government College, Bhiwani, India.
    Raj, Subhisha
    Algal Biotechnology Lab, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Neelakudy, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Sreenikethanam, Arathi
    Algal Biotechnology Lab, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Neelakudy, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Maddheshiya, Rahul
    Department of Zoology, School of Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, India.
    Kumari, Seema
    Department of Zoology, Dronacharya Government College, Gurugram, India.
    Han, Sungsoo
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.
    Kapoor, Krishan K.
    Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India; Department of Bio & Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, India.
    Bhaskar, Rakesh
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.
    Bajhaiya, Amit K.
    Algal Biotechnology Lab, Department of Microbiology, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Neelakudy, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Kumar Gahlot, Dharmender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Multi-omics approaches in plant-microbe interactions hold enormous promise for sustainable agriculture2023In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 1804Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants do not grow in isolation; they interact with diverse microorganisms in their habitat.The development of techniques to identify and quantify the microbial diversity associated with plantscontributes to our understanding of the complexity of environmental influences to which plants areexposed. Identifying interactions which are beneficial to plants can enable us to promote healthygrowth with the minimal application of agrochemicals. Beneficial plant–microbial interactionsassist plants in acquiring inaccessible nutrients to promote plant growth and help them to copewith various stresses and pathogens. An increased knowledge of plant–microbial diversity can beapplied to meet the growing demand for biofertilizers for use in organic agriculture. This reviewhighlights the beneficial effects of soil–microbiota and biofertilizers on improving plant health andcrop yields. We propose that a multi–omics approach is appropriate to evaluate viability in thecontext of sustainable agriculture.

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  • 46. Köhler, S.J.
    et al.
    Buffam, I.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bishop, K.H.
    Climate's control of intra-annual and interannual variability of total organic carbon concentration and flux in two contrasting boreal landscape elements2008In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 113, no G3, article id G03012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [1] Large spatial and temporal variations in stream total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and export occurred during an 11-year observation period (1993-2003) in a boreal headwater catchment. TOC flux and concentration patterns from mire- and forest-dominated subcatchments differed ( mean annual flux 8.2 g m(-2)a(-1) versus 5.8 g m(-2) a(-1)). Temporal variations in stream TOC concentrations in both landscape types were primarily driven by variations in streamflow, with the mire stream generally diluting by half with increased runoff during spring flood and TOC from the forested landscape increasing during runoff peaks irrespective of season. Average TOC concentration in the mire stream in the snow-free season increased with increased seasonal precipitation from around 20 to 40 mg L-1 but then dropped to around 35 mg L-1 during very wet years. Average snow-free season TOC concentration at the forested site remained stable when summer precipitation was below average but then increased from 10 to around 25 mg L-1 during exceptionally wet years. For both the forested subcatchment and the whole catchment, TOC concentrations increased during the warm summer months during wet years, but no such increase occurred during dry years. Interannual variations in TOC flux were primarily driven by variations during the snow-free period. Wet years decreased the relative TOC export from the mire and favored the relative export of TOC from areas dominated by forest, an observation that also held true on a larger scale when similar landscape types were considered. Predicted climate change in rainfall and temperature patterns will affect the amount and character of TOC exported downstream from boreal landscapes with a mix of forest and mire.

  • 47. Laudon, Hjalmar
    et al.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin
    From legacy effects of acid deposition in boreal streams to future environmental threats2021In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 015007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few environmental issues have resulted in such a heated policy-science controversy in Sweden as the 1990s acidification debate in the north of the country. The belief that exceptionally high stream acidity levels during hydrological events was caused by anthropogenic deposition resulted in a governmentally funded, multi-million dollar surface-water liming program. This program was heavily criticized by a large part of the scientific community arguing that the acidity of northern streams was primarily caused by naturally occurring organic acids. Here, we revisit the acid deposition legacy in northern Sweden two decades after the culmination of the controversy by examining the long-term water chemistry trends in the Svartberget/Krycklan research catchment that became a nexus for the Swedish debate. In this reference stream, trends in acidic episodes do show a modest recovery that matches declines in acid deposition to pre-industrial levels, although stream acidity continues to be overwhelmingly driven by organic acidity. Yet there are legacies of acid deposition related to calcium losses from soils, which are more pronounced than anticipated. Finally, assessment of these trends are becoming increasingly complicated by new changes and threats to water resources that must be recognized to avoid unnecessary, expensive, and potentially counterproductive measures to adapt and mitigate human influences. Here we make the argument that while the acidification era is ending, climate change, land-use transitions, and long-range transport of other contaminants warrant close monitoring in the decades to come.

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  • 48.
    Lie, Marit H.
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, As, Norway.
    Josefsson, Torbjorn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Storaunet, Ken Olaf
    Norwegian Forest & Landscape Inst, As, Norway.
    Ohlson, Mikael
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, As, Norway.
    A refined view on the "Green lie'': Forest structure and composition succeeding early twentieth century selective logging in SE Norway2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 270-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Logging exceeded growth and timber trees were sparse in Norwegian forests in the early 1900s. Still, the forest canopy was lush green and characterised by large tree-crowns. This situation was referred to as the "Green lie'' and was advocated by foresters throughout Scandinavia as an argument in favour of forestry practices based on clear-felling. Here we examine effects of past selective loggings on forest structure and composition in a spruce forest landscape using dendroecology and historical records. Our results show that forests that were selectively logged up to the early 1900s could be structurally heterogeneous with multi-layered canopies, varying degree of openness and continuous presence of old trees across different spatial scales. Because the past forests were not clear-felled, a diverse forest structure in terms of tree species composition and age and diameter distribution was maintained over time, which could enable forest-dwelling species to persist during the early phase following the loggings in the past. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in most modern managed forest landscapes in Scandinavia. A better understanding of the link between loggings in the past- and present-day forest structure and diversity will contribute to rewarding discussions on forestry methods for the future.

  • 49.
    Lindberg, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sahlén, Kenneth
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances in boreal coniferous forest soils fertilized with hygienized municipal sewage sludge2016In: Sewage and landfill leachate: assessment and remediation of environmental hazards / [ed] Marco Ragazzi, Berghahn Books, 2016, p. 121-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish government in 2006, the growth of the Swedish forest should increase 20% the following ten years, by means of fertilization, in order to replace the use of fossil fuels [1]. A similar conclusion was made during the evaluation of the Forest Bill 2007 [2]. In addition, the usage of such fertilizers in forest land should increase. The most essential nutrient for growth is nitrogen, and forest fertilization with nitrogen based fertilizers has been done over a long period [3]. An increase in growth, in the range of 15–20 m3·ha−1, is possible with a nitrogen dose of 150 kg·ha−1. Today, approximately 60,000 ha is fertilized in Sweden each year. On withdrawal of whole trees and rejected tops and branches, a larger nutrient loss is expected via needles, in comparison to the traditional collection of timber and pulpwood. In addition, the losses in growth due to nitrogen deficiency may also follow thinning [4]. Today, wood ash is recommended in order to compensate for the nutrient output following collection of tops and branches [5]. However, the ash lacks nitrogen and may cause growth reductions in less fertile soils [6].

  • 50.
    Linderholm, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Macphail, Richard
    University College London, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Ørlandet Iron Age settlement pattern development: Geoarchaeology (geochemistry and soil micromorphology) and plant macrofossils2019In: Environment and Settlement: Ørland 600 BC–AD 1250 / [ed] Ingrid Ystgaard, Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing (NOASP) , 2019, p. 107-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrofossil and geoarchaeological data from a variety of contexts and periods at Vik can provide either in situ or proxyinformation on the human – environment interactions at the site through time. The aim of this paper is to discuss settlementactivity patterns through time and space, with special emphasis on agriculture and animal husbandry strategies. The calcareousshell bank deposits at the site led to a reduction of the amount of analysed citric soluble phosphate and are apparentlyalso linked to very poor macrofossil preservation. The analysis shows that farming in the pre-Roman Iron Age involvedanimal management and manuring of fields where naked and hulled barley were cultivated. Stock was kept in the long houses.There are also indications that animals grazed along the shore. In the Roman Iron Age there is no clear evidence of keepinglivestock indoors; byre residues were instead found in house-associated waste heaps, where chemical data indicate thatdung was left to ferment. Near-house Roman Iron Age waste deposits were also characterised by latrine and fish processingwaste, as well as by high temperature artisan residues – fuel ash and iron working materials. Analysis of soil chemical samplesindicates an increase and intensification of occupation over time during the pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age.Viking-medieval features were also a remarkable source for monitoring latrine, byre and industrial waste, including the secondaryuse of water holes and wells that supplied water to both people and animals.

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