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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 2. Aazh, Hashir
    et al.
    Knipper, Marlies
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Cavanna, Andrea E.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schecklmann, Martin
    Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment2018In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 95, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. 

    Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis.

    Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis.

    Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

  • 3.
    Abdi, Aram
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dogan, Rabia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    UPPLEVELSER AV ARBETSMILJÖN VID HEMARBETE UNDER COVID-192022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka hur en grupp anställda inomen statlig myndighet har upplevt sin arbetsmiljö vid hemarbete underpandemin. För att svara på syftet har vi utgått från tre frågeställningar 1) Hur har de upplevt sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö, 2) Hur har de upplevt sin fysiskaarbetsmiljö, 3) Hur har de upplevt sin organisatoriska arbetsmiljö. Vi har valt att arbeta utifrån kvalitativ metod och intervjuat respondenter utifrån en semistrukturerad intervjuguide. Resultatet av intervjuerna har analyseratsmed hjälp kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Material till bakgrunden har inhämtats från tidigare forskning, rapporter och kartläggningar. Resultatet visar på att växla från kontor till hemarbete har inneburit en stor omställning för alla arbetstagarna, erfarenheter innehåller både negativa och positiva aspekter av övergången till hemarbete. Negativa erfarenheterna har beskrivits i form av försämrat kollegialt och chefsstöd, avsaknaden av ergonomiska och tekniska förutsättningar, fysiska besvär samt känslan av ensamhet. Positiva erfarenheter har varit ökad fokus och därmed förbättrad produktion och ökad balans mellan arbetsliv och privatliv.

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  • 4.
    Abed Alaziz, Ashtar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Långsiktiga effekter av skilsmässor i barndomen: En kvalitativ studie om kulturen och samhällsstrukturens inverkan på självkänslan i vuxen ålder2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To deepen the understanding of how society affects our experience of various phenomena, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of culture and society in the experience of divorce in childhood at a later age. The study uses the Middle East's culture and social structure as a starting point to investigate the perceived impact of the experienced divorce on self-esteem at a later age, and how the participants experience affects their love relationships. To meet the aim of the study, six participants between the ages of 20 and 30, with a background from the Middle East, who experienced divorce during childhood were recruited. Participants answered questions in an in-depth interview conducted via Zoom due to the current situation with Covid-19. Their answers were narratively analyzed by keeping interviews intact while re-creating stories to facilitate analysis. The focus was on the basic plot, the direction of the story and identified turning-points. Stories were then compared. The results indicated that the social structure of the Middle East plays an important role in the experience of divorce. The participants experienced low self-esteem, which seems to depend on the role that society played in the experience of divorce. Furthermore, the results indicated that the low self-esteem, based on society's role in the divorce experience, seems to affect their success in love relationships.

  • 5.
    Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen
    et al.
    Department of Organization, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark; The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Special issue editorial: new perspectives on workplace interventions2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current special issue is to promote and foster development, debate, and knowledge of workplace Interventions. It is fitting that SJWOP, being a Scandinavian journal, has taken on the task of foregrounding intervention research. Scandinavian work and organizational psychologists have since the late 1990’s been at the forefront of the development of research into organizational interventions, for example by promoting a focus on not only effect, but also on process evaluation. This tradition has been kept alive by new generations of Scandinavian researcher who share the ideals of increasing our knowledge about the working mechanisms of interventions. But organizational interventions have proven to be much broader than just participatory interventions, and the current special issue contains a range of intervention approaches and methodological approaches. The papers in the special issue each present different areas and approaches in advancing our knowledge about interventions. We are pleased to publish both conceptual papers on evaluation and new forms of intervention as well as evaluations of interventions expanding our methodological toolbox.

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  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lifbom, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ordförståelse hos äldre vuxna: En valideringsstudie av två test för ordförståelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure vocabulary is important both in research and clinical settings. This paper has three purposes. The first is to study the psychometric properties of two newly developed parallel tests of vocabulary in a group of old adults. The second purpose of this paper is to investigate age differences in vocabulary. The third purpose is to examine whether the correlations between cognitive abilities grow as a function of increasing age. The present study has used data from a total of 440 participants, of whom 222 have completed Ordprovet A and 218 have completed Ordprovet B. The results of the study have shown that Ordprovet A and B have satisfactory psychometric properties with respect to internal consistency as well as construct and criterion validity. However, the tests seem to suffer from a ceiling effect within this older sample. The results have shown no evidence of age differences in vocabulary or increasing correlations between cognitive abilities as a function of age. This study states that Ordprovet A and B are promising instruments for measuring vocabulary. However, some minor changes could improve the tests further.

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  • 7.
    Ackebo, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och engagemang hos innebandytränare: - Ur ett Self-determination Theory-perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Self-determination Theory, people perform better when they experience inner motivation, rather than motivation sprung from external factors. This study aims to examine motivation in floorball coaches. Especially, reasons for starting to work as a coach are examined, as well as relationships between those reasons and the coaches experienced type of motivation. A web-survey was sent to 1059 floorball coaches in Sweden, wich were answered by 355 coaches. The results show 12 reasons why the coaches chose to commit themselves: Their own children, Sports interest, Contribute, Lack of coaches, Enjoyment, Their own development, A general interest, Leadership interest, Social connections, Asked to, Possessed expertise and A good cause. The results also showed that the coaches experienced inner motivation to the largest extent. Several relationships were shown between eight of the categories and the different types of motivation. Of those, the most distinct was the relationship between Contribute and self-determined motivation. This may be due to that the will to contribute can be related to the psychological need for relatedness. The study contributes to the knowledge of factors that may affect inner motivation in athletic coaches.

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  • 8.
    Adner, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy i arbetet med barn och ungdomar: Behandlares erfarenheter och upplevelser av att anpassa och utöva metoden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined therapists’ adjustments of ACT with children and adolescents and experiences of practicing the method with said group. Interviews were conducted with seven psychologists and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed general child-therapeutic adjustments, combining ACT with tCBT and modifications of the ACT principles. Challenges were working with a context with a different agenda, to be flexible and daring to be active and weird. Another challenge was working with a method that isn’t implemented in the workplace and has an uncertain future. Possibilities included using ACT for oneself, working towards positive goals and having fun. Additionally, a view of ACT as a philosophy of life was presented. Dilemmas concerning the use of a method lacking evidence were also presented. Future research can examine the impact of the different ACT principles on psychological flexibility in youths and how challenges in treatment can be overcome.

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    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy i arbetet med barn och ungdomar
  • 9. af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meta-Analytic Analysis of Invariance Across Samples: Introducing a Method That Does Not Require Raw Data2021In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 68-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invariance of surveys across different groups means that the respondents interpret the items in the same way, as reflected in similar factor loadings, for example. Invariance can be assessed using various statistical procedures, such as Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis. However, these analyses require access to raw data. Here, we introduce a meta-analytic method that requires only the factor correlation matrices of samples as input. It compares the structures of intercorrelations of factors by correlating these values across two samples, yielding a value of overall similarity for how the factors intercorrelate in different samples. This method was tested in three different ways. We conclude that the method yields useful results and can assess invariance when raw data are not available.

  • 10.
    Agak, John Odwar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading literacy in relation to patterns of academic achievement in Kenya1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How is reading literacy related to academic achievement among 14 year old students in Kenya? This was the main issue in focus for the present study.

    The TEA Reading Literacy Test was used for measuring reading literacy and the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) was used for measuring academic achievement. It was hypothesized that there are degrees of variation in correlation between reading literacy and each subject areas a student opts for at KCPE. It was also hypothesized that there is a variation in performance on reading literacy due to influences caused by background factors (literacy interaction) and voluntary reading processes.

    Reading literacy was assumed to be decomposable into latent variables including: a general reading ability factor, a document reading factor and specific passage factors. However, such a measurement model was not successful. The selected measurement model constituted only two latent variables: a general reading ability factor which covers most of the items with very few exceptions and a documentary factor which entails those items related to identification, location and association of information in brief documents. There was also a clear evidence that the postulated components of academic achievement, namely: general reasoning and verbal abilities were present in this study. General reasoning ability proved to be the main factor across most of the subjects at KCPE while verbal ability was connected to the subjects loaded mainly with connected texts to be comprehended.

    When voluntary reading was explored, a good measurement model was obtained. The measurement model for voluntary reading encompassed seven different types of voluntary reading topical readings from books, magazines and newspapers. Significant relationships between voluntary reading and both reading literacy and academic achievement were observed. An examination of the background factors in the study indicated that they have an impact on students’ performance on reading literacy and academic achievement. A strong relationship between reading literacy and academic achievement was noted especially when latent variables were used. This relationship remained even when the background factors were controlled. The measurement model for reading literacy and academic achievementturned out to be the same. However, there were some differences in terms of performance on reading literacy and academic achievement location wise.

  • 11.
    Agartz, Paul
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Evars, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    LOCUS OF CONTROL OCH FÖLJSAMHET TILL FHM UNDER PANDEMIN2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 12.
    Aggelid, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Testeffekten som medel för att förbättra läsförståelse?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish school children exhibit deteriorating knowledge results in terms of reading comprehension. Previous research shows that a method to increase the level of knowledge is the use of evidence-based learning techniques. Test based learning generates what is commonly referred to as a test effect, which proved to strengthen the relationship between learning and memory, as well as being applicable to various test formats. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether test based learning, in terms of learning english words leads to increased performance in a reading comprehension test, more specifically a cloze test. The study was based on a within-group design and was conducted three times over four weeks. The participants (n = 26) were pupils in fifth grade in the age of 10-11 years. The results showed significant main effects of both Learning Method and Time, however, in favor of non test based learning. Overall, the results indicated that forgetfulness over time occurred among participants, regardless Learning Method. Learning seems therefore to be dependent on the time interval between learning and retrieval of information.

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    Testeffekten som medel
  • 13.
    Agnemo, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skogen i våra hjärtan: Erfarenheter, emotionella band, värderingar och attityder till skog, natur och allemansrätten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish landscape is dominated by highly valued forests and stakeholders argue different uses. The aim of this study was to investigate peoples experience, emotional bonds and values of forests and nature, their attitudes towards human utilization of nature and right of public access (allemansrätt), including relationships them in between. All in all 663 university students among who 254 were women and 401 were men, with the mean age of 24, answered a survey. The results from correlations show relationships between all variables. An attitude saying that the right of public access is important was predicted by stronger emotional bonds and spending more time in the forest. An attitude saying that the right of public access should be restricted was predicted by higher valuing of forest production and was more common among forest owners. The results implicate that emotions, which are strong incentives for action and created by experience, should be considered to better accomplish environmental goals. Environments necessary for experiencing nature should be provided, which is today made possible by right of public access to nature. 

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  • 14.
    Agrell, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reducing risk for cardiovascular disease - the impact of anxiety and depression on health behavior2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate whether anxiety and depression can predict changes in lifestyle factors (low physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy diet) and biomedical and lifestyle-factor combined algorithms for risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). These factors are widely considered to increase risk of CVD and a change in lifestyle can prevent this deadly disease. Longitudinal data of the Visualization of Asymptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease study were used, as part of the Västerbotten Intervention program. Biomedical, mental health and lifestyle data gathered from clinical examinations and questionnaires from participants (n=2093), aged 40-60 years with mild to moderate risk of CVD, were examined at baseline and at three-year follow-up. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used as the basis for analyzing the effect of anxiety and depression separately on lifestyle factors over three years’ time. Multiple regression analyses showed significant effects of both anxiety and depression on change in all studied risk factors, except the effect of anxiety on Smoking. The interaction effects of sex and education were also included in the analyses showing varied results and different effects. The possible deterioration of lifestyle factors in patients also suffering from anxiety and depression was in this study confirmed. Sex and education showed varied and interesting results giving important information useful for medical professionals working with the prevention of CVD. Further research should examine the effect of anxiety and depression on human behavior to deepen our understanding of how to prevent life threatening diseases.

  • 15.
    Agritellis, Ioannis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world has been transformed through the internet into a "global village",and social media platforms have possibly transformed the world into a larger neighborhood covering many regions of the world. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter came into people’s lives through the Internet, growing daily at a large rate, and it has been proven that they are very popular. This study examines links between different phenomena through social media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, blogs, etc.). It is discusses cohesiveness, desire to belong, sense of community, beliefs and opinions about different forms of these phenomena in popular virtual platforms in correlation with trust in social media, criticism of information that is spread by these virtual platforms, and if people are influenced in consumer decision making. A questionnaire has been distributed to a convenient sample of 159 international and Swedish students in Sweden in October-November 2012 in both English and Swedish versions. According to the peoples’ answers, tendencies were observed such as to not trust the platforms, and also the information received, beliefs such that social media are "controlled", negative critique, but also an expression for a need for ‘membership’.

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    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood
  • 16.
    Ahlberg, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hallgren, Marie
    Träning av exekutiva funktioner jos vuxna: En 19 månaders uppföljning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera studier visar att exekutiva funktioner kan förbättras genom träning. Trots detta är det oklart hur stabila träningseffekter är över tid. Denna studie undersöker om ett träningsprogram som adresser tre exekutiva funktioner ger stabila tränings‐ och transfereffekter hos friska unga individer. Syftet med studien var att följa upp ett träingsprogram som tränade uppdatering, skiftning och inhibering och undersöka om de effekterna som uppmättes vid posttestning fortfarande bestod efter 19 månader. I studien deltog 11 personer från träingsgruppen och åtta från kontrollgruppen. Resultaten visade på tendenser till bestånde effekter i den tränade uppgiften Bokstaven. 

    Analyserna visade på en liknande trend, tendenser till bestånde nära transfer, för en otränad uppgift som mäter uppdateringsfömåga. Vad gäller avlägsen transfer kunde inga bestånde effekter redovisas. Arbetsminnesträing är ett forskningsfält med måga obesvarade fråor och motsägelsefulla resultat. För att föstå vilka faktorer som driver transfereffekter och ger kvarstånde resultat behövs fler studier som undersöer vilken typ av träing som ger generaliserade föbättringar som håller i sig över tid.

  • 17.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 18.
    Ahlin, Klas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Konradsson-Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    SAMBAND MELLAN KBT-TERAPEUTERS KOMPETENS OCH ANVÄNDNING AV MINDFULNESS I TERAPI: - olika typer av kompetens och deras betydelse2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The science about competence in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, MBI is still scarceand unclear. It has for example so far not been able to show that MBI-competence effects treatment outcome. Other correlations have also not yet been found. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between Swedish cognitive behavioural therapists’ level of competence in MBI, and their proneness of using MBI in therapy. The study grouped competence as self-assessed competence, formal competence (level of MBI education), and informal competence (level of own practise). The study was designed as a cross-sectional, web survey-based study. 71 therapists, with an average age of 55, responded. The study found that there was a statistically significant correlationbetween MBI competence and use of MBI in individual therapy, and that informal competence best predicted MBI use. Most therapists (74 %) said that formal MBI competence was rather or very important, while 86 % found informal MBI competence rather or very important. The conclusion was that the higher level of MBI competence, the more therapists used MBI in the individual therapy they offered. And it was informal competence that best explained the therapist's proneness to use MBI. To increase the availability of MBI, informal competence should thus be encouraged.

  • 19.
    Ahlner, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Avdic, Kenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commiment Therapy: Enbent existentiell efterapning eller härlig humanistisk hybrid?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker ACT och ställer frågan om terapiformen kan betraktas som en existentiell beteendeterapi. Ett material bestående av 53 vetenskapliga artiklar undersöktes med en tematisk innehållsanalys för att få en bred och aktuell bild av ACT i avseende på teori, praxis och människosyn. Resultatet sattes in i en psykologihistorisk kontext i allmänhet och en beteendepsykologiskt kontext i synnerhet. Det som talar emot ACT som en existentiell beteendeterapi är främst bristen på oppositionella inslag och kritik av den vetenskapliga normen. I andra vågskålen placerar resultatet det holistiska perspektivet samt synen på människan som ickedeterminerad. Även synen på den mänskliga ångesten som oundviklig samt tyngdvikten på värdestyrt beteende pekar i riktning mot att ACT kan betraktas som en existentiell beteendeterapi. Författarna diskuterar slutligen om detta kan säga något om dagens syn på olika psykologiska ideologier.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Ahlsved, Nicolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Saadio, Antonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nöjet i att minnas lätt, säkert och rätt: Ett samspel mellan instrumentellt värde och belönande funktioner2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Can recollection from long-term memory in itself be rewarding, regardless of its usefulness? Internal motivation and metacognitive judgements have previously been explored in relation to recognition and recollection of memories. This study aimed to explore whether recollection of information studied closer in time can lead to higher ratings of confidence and satisfaction. Previous research was complemented by further investigating the effects of cognitive effort on satisfaction and confidence. Relationships between pupil dilation and recollection were also explored. Eleven people (M = 29 years) studied 100 words in swahili distributed over five sessions during one week. Recollection of the words was tested following the last study session. Pupil size was registered during the test. The results showed that higher confidence and lower cognitive effort could predict higher satisfaction at correct recollection. Average performance was a better predictor of satisfaction than time since a word was studied. Higher performance could predict higher satisfaction at correct recollection. The results indicated an appreciation of confidence in memories as well as easy and correct recollection. This may suggest an interplay between instrumental and rewarding functions during recollection. No significant relations were found between pupil dilation and satisfaction, confidence or cognitive effort. Pupil changes resulted in weak correlations with the aforementioned but were not predicted by any of them. 

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    Ahlsved och Saadio PP 30hp
  • 21.
    Ahmad, Zubair
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mumtaz, Jasim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Implementation of Activity Theory in Umeå University Library2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology is playing a vital role in our every field of life. The most common use of information is in the field of education. Use of information technology in libraries is very important. People from differents works of life extract information from these libraries. In this paper, we have tried to identify how can we facilitate the Umeå university library users for better interaction with the information? We have used different methods for collection of data to identify the Umeå university libray problems and then we analysed the whole library system with the help of Engeström Activity theory, to find out which factors are effeting the interaction between users and library and creating main problems. In the end we have given some suggestions for the improvement of interaction between users and Umeå library to facilitate them for accessing information.

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    Implementation of Activity Theory in Umeå University Library
  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Soma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Operational manager’s perceptions and interventions for work-related stress concerning nurse assistants who work in elderly home care2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related stress can be recognized as a widespread phenomenon that influences individuals, organizations, and society. Stress and work-related stress are complex issues that involve and are influenced by different factors at different levels. This exploratory study aimed to get a deeper understanding of operational managers' perceived assumptions regarding work-related stress for nurse assistants who work in elderly home care in different municipalities. Additionally, this thesis attempted to identify the municipalities’ organizational and individual interventions and investigate how they evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Applying the qualitative method with deductive reasoning and using semi-structured interviews (N=5) resulted in two core categories “multiple dimensions of stress and stress interventions” and “lack of effective tools”. The operational managers expressed that there is continuous a challenge to getting more budget from government to implement more effective interventions, however, they claimed that individuals' lifestyles and situations can not be ignored. Moreover, analyzing respondents’ interviews indicated that there is a lack of effective tools to evaluate organizational effectiveness. Finally, according to all respondents, municipalities do not have regular leadership training for unit managers or healthy workshops for nurse assistants to promote healthy working conditions. This study highlighted the importance of interdisciplinary approaches in investigating work-related studies including political power relations and economic contexts.

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Ahnér Thollander, Joel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ADHD och borderlineproblematik som riskfaktorer vid upprepade suicidförsök: En kohortstudie av förekomst, samband och skillnader mellan två psykiatriska tillstånd för prediktionen av förnyade suicidförsök2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Borderline personality disorder (BPS) is a risk factor for suicide attempt and self-injury. At a behavioral level the diagnosis resembles ADHD, a neuropsychiatric disorder, common in psychiatric settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of BPS and ADHD, and how those conditions interact in the prediction of reattempted suicide within 12 months from a previous attempt, in a sample of patients with suicidal behavior. The participants (n = 671) consisted of patients submitted to a psychiatric emergency clinic following a suicide attempt or self-injury. The participants took part in a structured interview. In conjunction with the interview severity of borderline personality symptoms was measured with the questionnaire KABOSS-S. Information was extracted from medical records. Repeated suicide was observed amongst 28% (n = 148) of the patients. Statistical analysis for group comparisons were conducted in addition to simple and multiple logistical regression analysis. The results showed that both self-reported symptoms of BPS and a clinical diagnosis of BPS, can predict repeated suicide attempt. ADHD could not predict repeated suicide attempt. The results also indicate that the men in this study might be underdiagnosed in regard to BPS. The results are of clinical value when conducting assessments in conjunction with care following a suicide attempt and proposes the use of instruments in order to intercept those with suicidal behavior who may be at risk for BPS.

  • 24.
    Aittamaa, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ek, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Det är väl mest jag själv som är problemet"Berättelser om nedstämdhet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskare har påpekat vikten av att förstå erfarenheter av att vara deprimerad eller nedstämd. I linje med detta syftade denna studie till att undersöka och belysa upplevelser av och reflektioner kring vardagen som nedstämd. Vidare var syftet att visa på kulturella resurser (diskurser) som finns tillgängliga för att berätta om en vardag som nedstämd. Vi genomförde halvstrukturerade intervjuer med personer som sökt till ett behandlingsprogram för depression, och som därmed definierat sig själva som nedstämda. Vi analyserade 28 intervjuer med hjälp av tematisk analys och diskursanalytiska metoder. Vi fann att informanterna använde sig av åtminstone fem olika typer av förklaringar som kretsade kring tidiga erfarenheter, personlighet, livskris, eget ansvar och biologi. Vidare fann vi att berättelserna kring nedstämdheten på flera sätt kunde beröra hur levnadssituationen hos informanterna såg ut. Ofta var dock levnadssituationen på samma gång helt frånvarande när det kom till att förklara nedstämdheten. Vårt resultat visade att individfokuserade diskurser var dominerande för att berätta om nedstämdhet, medan diskurser med fokus på yttre omständigheter, exempelvis livssituation, var marginaliserade.

  • 25.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 26.
    Aldrin, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kennedy, Maeve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hälsobesvär vid icke-toxisk kemisk exponering: Effekter av negativ affekt och luktvalens2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Hälsobesvär
  • 27.
    Alexandroff, Diana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elmquist, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    I skuggan eller ljuset av en skärm: Sex certifierade EFT-terapeuters upplevelse och erfarenhet av att arbeta via skärm under covid- 192021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Telehälsa är ett område som varit aktuellt i drygt 60 år. I och med Covid-19 ställdes nya krav på terapeuter att arbeta på distans.  EFT som parterapi är en upplevelse- och anknytningsbaserad metod. En kvalitativ intervjustudie genomfördes och materialet bearbetades med induktiv fenomenologisk ansats. Syftet var att undersöka sex certifierad EFT terapeuters erfarenhet och upplevelse av att bedriva EFT via skärm.  Studien visar att terapeuterna upplever att interventionerna i EFT fungerar lika bra via skärm.  Det terapeutiska rummet behöver teknik-anpassas och terapeuten modifiera sitt förhållningssätt något då det tredje rummet, som utgörs av skärmen, är ett annat rum än det fysiska rummet. Slutsatsen blev att terapeuten kan facilitera nya emotionella erfarenheter för paret via skärm om terapeuten känner sig trygg med sitt nya tredje rum- skärmen.

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    Elmquist Alexandroff
  • 28.
    Alfredsson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    INNOVATIVE TOOL-MODIFICATIONS AND TOOL SELECTIVITY IN NEW CALEDONIAN CROWS (CORVUS MONEDULOIDES)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tool-use and tool-manufacture are thought to require high cognitive skills and have been considered as an exclusive attribute to primates. Recent observations of New Caledonian crows (NCCs) challenge this assumption. In this study 13 NCCs were tested with two different tool production tasks. The NCC either had to straighten a hook or bend a stick to retrieve food from two different kinds of tree trunks. The result showed that 3/5 birds bent sticks and used them to retrieve food and 1/5 birds straightened hooks to retrieve food. The birds managed to solve both tasks but not the birds in the control group. This indicates that NCC's tool making is a flexible innovative act and not just an innate predisposition to bend flexible material. This finding is interesting given that recent studies on human children show that below 8 years of age children fail in similar innovative tool making tasks.

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    fulltext
  • 29.
    Ali, Dana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Grenholm, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    FYSISK AKTIVITET, SÖMN OCH KOGNITION:: En pilotstudie med fokus på dynamiska inomindividssamband2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    University students experience negative emotions due to their study situation, which adversely affects their academic performance. Previous between-group and between-individual studies have demonstrated that cognition, physical activity, and sleep serve as predictors of academic performance. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the potential relationship between physical activity, sleep, and cognition within days, as well as to explore whether physical activity and sleep have a bidirectional relationship within days. This observational study consisted of five N-of-1 studies involving university students aged 22-29. Physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers, while cognition was assessed using the memory span test within the m-Path app. Sleep quality and duration were self-assessed through the ecological momentary assessment approach within the m-Path app. The study did not yield statistically significant findings. It is important to note that the study's methodological choices may have hindered the detection of potentially significant associations and effects. Future studies should employ more objective measurement methods, increase the number of measurement occasions, and include a more diverse sample group in order to further investigate these relationships.

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  • 30. Ali, Tazeen S
    et al.
    Mogren, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Intimate partner violence and mental health effects: a population-based study among married women in Karachi, Pakistan2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized all over the world for its association with mental health problems in women. In Pakistan, such violence occurs commonly, but detailed information on mental health effects is scarce. The purpose of this study is to focused on married couples in urban Karachi to investigate mental health effects associated with physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated by husbands towards wives. Disclosure rates and health care-seeking behaviour were also investigated. METHOD: This cross-sectional study involved 759 women between the ages of 25 and 60 years, selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. The women were interviewed by trained community midwives using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In the total population of women, mental symptoms were prevalent. Women subjected to any form of violence reported, however, considerably poorer mental health than unexposed women. A statistically significant difference for almost all of the studied health parameters persisted even after controlling for socio-demographic factors. The strongest associations were found for suicidal thoughts and physical violence (OR 4.41; 3.18-6.12), sexual abuse (OR 4.39; 3.17-6.07) and psychological abuse (OR 5.17; 3.28-8.15). The interviews revealed that only 27% of the women subjected to violence had disclosed this to anyone, in most cases to their parents. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study highlight that the violence women have to face contributes to the development of multiple forms of psychological stress and serious mental health problems. Women's restrictive life circumstances seriously hamper women's empowerment. Reliable health surveillance system and health care services are needed to serve abused women. Policy initiatives focused on IPV and gender inequality in Pakistan should be initiated.

  • 31.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 859-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 32.
    Allbrink, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    INDIVIDUELLA IDROTTARES FÖRUTSÄTTNINGAR FÖR SJÄLVREGLERAT LÄRANDE2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) has proven to be a useful strategy for athletes' learning and development. What conditions are given to athletes from their surrounding environment can both promote and inhibit these processes of learning and development. However, few studies have examined this relationship in a sports context. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate Self-Regulated Learning in individual sports based on self-efficacy, gender and environmental conditions. The environmental conditions were defined as leadership behaviors that promote motivation, according to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), and Self-Regulated Learning. The sample consisted of individual athletes, ranging from 16-60 years, with a coach (N = 251). The athletes competed in 28 different individual sports and identified themselves as women (n = 144), men (n = 106) and other (n = 1). The participants answered the self-report questionnaires Self-Regulated Learning in Sport Practice (SRL-SP), Self-Regulated Environment (SRE) and Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale - Coach (ISS-C). Using multiple and hierarchical regression analyses, this study provided support that self-efficacy positively influenced the outcome measures planning, monitoring, and reflection, but not effort. Gender did not appear to moderate this relationship. The environmental conditions associated with SRL was mainly the coaches' ability to create opportunities for SRL. Additionally, athletes' SRL were negatively influenced by how often the coach was present. The conclusion is that athletes, to beneficially engage in their own development, need to have a belief in their own ability and also be in an environment that enhances opportunities for SRL. However, this relationship is influenced by the coach's presence at practice. Future studies can further examine the relationship between the environmental conditions and SRL, and if the results may differ depending on sport.

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    Individuella idrottares förutsättningar för självreglerat lärande
  • 33. Allotey, P.
    et al.
    Reidpath, D. D.
    Verhoeff, A.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Data driven responses to the management of population based behaviour change: lessons, pitfalls and possibilities from across the GDP wealth divide2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, p. S43-S44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Allzèn-Melander, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Betydelsen av KASAM i relation till livsbalans och psykosocial arbetsmiljö för operativa chefer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Alm, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning of probabilistic inference tasks: effects of uncertainty and function form1982Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the problem of how people learn to use uncer­tain information for making judgments. The general framework for the thesis is Social Judgment Theory (SJT). First the S3T paradigm, and some research conducted within the paradigm, is briefly described, and a series of four empirical studies is summarized. The studies are concerned with two factors that have been found to have great effect on subjects achievement in cue probability learning (CPL) tasks: task predictability, and the form of the function relating cue and criterion. The effects of these two factors were studied in experiments employing cue-probability learning tasks. The studies concerned with task predictability addressed the following questions (a) Do subjects understand the probabilistic nature of CPL-tasks? (b) Are subjects able to detect that a random task is, in fact, random, a study undertaken to test an aspect of Seligmans "theory of helplessness". This was also an attempt to bring emotional factors more in foeus.(c) Do subjects use data from the task only to test hypotheses, or do they use data also to construct hypotheses?

    The results showed that (a) subjects do not seem to be able to cope with probabilistic tasks in an optimal statistical manner. Instead they seem to use a deterministic approach to the tasks, because they do not understand the probabilistic nature of the task, (b) Task predictability affecs subjects mood, but not in the way predicted by Seligman, (c) Subjects seem to use data frorn the task only to test their hypotheses. The results thus supported the hypo­theses sampling model for the learning of CPL-tasks.

    As for the factor of function form, the following questions were addressed, (a) What hypotheses about relations between variables do subjects have? (b) Is the difficulties subjects have in learning complex rules in CPL-tasks due to a low availability of hypotheses about complex rules? The results showed that, (a) the hypothesis hierarchy as revealed in the present experiments was in general agreement with earlier results. However, few nonlinear hypotheses were observed, and other rules than functional rules were observed, (b) The difficulties subjects have to learn complex rules in CPL-tasks do not seem to be caused by low availability of rules.

    Finally, some suggestions are given for how the SJT-paradigm should be deve­loped. Specifically, it is suggested that the effects of emotional factors should be given more attention, and that the paradigm should be turned into a more general hypothesis testing model

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    Learning of probabilistic inference tasks: effects of uncertainty and function form
  • 36.
    Al-Mahdawi, Abdullah Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Tabuk, College of Education and Arts, Department of Education and Psychology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
    Dutton, Edward
    Asbiro University, Poland.
    Osman, Habab Abdelhiy Mohammad
    University of Tabuk, College of Education and Arts, Department of Education and Psychology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah
    King Saud University, Department of Special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mohammad, Najmai Ali
    University of Tabuk, College of Education and Arts, Department of Education and Psychology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
    Khair, Sarah
    Clinical Psychologist, United Arab Emirates.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sex differences in malevolent creativity among Sudanese students2022In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 196, article id 111724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malevolent creativity refers to employing creative processes for one's own selfish gain, often combined with detrimental effects on others. Sex differences in malevolent or negative creativity are to be expected due to the established finding that males are higher in the Dark Triad traits. However, the only previous study of this issue, using a sample of Indian students, did not find a sex difference. Here, we administered the Malevolent Creativity Behaviour Scale (MCBS) to a sample of 1619 Sudanese students, and found a small sex difference in that females rated themselves higher. Reasons for the finding are explored, including possible problems with the MCBS instrument.

  • 37.
    Almlöv, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Källqvist, Karin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Paxling, Björn
    Linköping University, Sweden and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Sweden and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Therapist effects in guided internet-delivered CBT for Anxiety Disorders2011In: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 311-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders has received increasing empirical support, but little is known regarding the role of the therapist.

    Aims: This study addressed therapist factors in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Method: Data from three controlled trials with a total N of 119 were analyzed with attention to differences between eight therapists.

    Results: No significant mean level differences between therapists appeared in the dataset. However, one significant intraclass correlation between participants was found, suggesting that the outcome on the Beck Anxiety Inventory might have been influenced by the impact of the individual therapists.

    Conclusion: The therapist can possibly have some influence on the outcome of guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders, but studies with more statistical power are needed to establish whether therapist effects are present in this modality of psychological treatment. The present study was underpowered to detect minor therapist effects.

  • 38.
    Almroth, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnliga fitness-atleters berättelser om hur de påverkats av en coach-styrd diet: Med specifikt fokus på tankar och känslor om kroppen samt förhållningssätt till mat2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the sport Fitness and Bodybuilding many athletes seeks help from a coach with the competition-diet. This study aimed to examine the perceived impact from the coach on female fitness athletes' approach to food and their thoughts and feelings about their body. This was examined by five semi-structured interviews that were interpreted by using thematic analysis, and resulted in four main themes: The coach's position of power, Relationship to food, Thoughts and feelings about the body and The need for the coach post-diet. The coaches were ascribed an authoritarian position where they could practice influence over the athletes. The athletes were affected differently; from a more healthy relationship to food, to an increased need for control of, and preoccupation about, food, as well as from a growing body satisfaction to increased body dissatisfaction. The coaches were not the only factor accountable for how the athletes were affected, but the their responsibility should be emphasized as the they seemed to be in a position where they could either prevent or worsen eating disorder-related symptoms. Thus, coaches within Fitness and Bodybuilding should consider the influence they have on their athletes.

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    Kvinnliga fitness-atleters berättelser om hur de påverkats av en coach-styrd diet
  • 39.
    Amorim, Filipe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lam, Mei Ka Geraldine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-Esteem and Anxiety among Asian and European students2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-esteem and Anxiety have been widely studied back-to-back on the premises of academic settings, since research has shown that they interact with eachother. The current study compares the score of self-esteem and anxiety of international students currently studying at Umeå University. Thirty students from Europe and Asia have been accessed respectively through usage of a questionnaire designed for its purpose. Overall, Europeans has higher self-esteem than Asians, however, there is no significant difference between Europeans and Asians regarding to anxiety. When taking the lowest ten subjects and the highest ten subjects’ self-esteem scores and compared them within the two cultural groups, significant difference was shown in anxiety, especially in the high self-esteem group of Asians. Asian Top-10 students’ self-esteem tend to have extra worries than others. The implication of this study suggests whether high self-esteem will also exacerbate the level of anxiety among Asians and buffer the anxiety of Westerns due their higher self-esteem.

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    Thesis-SE&Anxiety-Umea
  • 40.
    Anderman, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ölund, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Patienters upplevelser av terapeutrotation i traumafokuserad intensivbehandling2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 41.
    Andersson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Military susceptibility to the certainty and framing effect2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making is central to military power, and military power for the security of a nation. Decision-making depends on analytical power and intuition. This cross-sectional study examines two common biases; the certainty and the framing effect among commissioned officers, non-commissioned (NCO) cadets and conscripts. The study uses a between-group design featured 12 two-alternative dilemmas framed as either a gain or a loss. The dilemmas were framed in either a civilian or a military context. A total of 49 conscripts from the Norrbotten regiment, 18 cadettes from the Air Combat Training School and 35 lieutenants from the Army Academy’s Captain course carried out the questionnaire within a time limit to force intuitive decision-making. Results shows a certainty and framing effect that differ significantly between groups. The commissioned officers showed a stronger framing effect in military dilemmas than civilian ones. Conscripts and NCO cadets showed a stronger framing effect in civilian dilemmas. A difference in risk preference was observed where both conscripts and officers showed a tendency to choose certain outcomes before probable ones whilst cadets showed no preference. The study is limited by a small sample size of NCO cadets, the use of military terminology and that the officers and cadettes have a heterogeneous military background.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Morawski, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "De är inga konstverk, men de visar ju vad man känner": En fallstudie av en tidsbegränsad psykodynamisk bildpsykoterapi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas outcome research has shown that art therapy can be effective, studies exploring the process of change in art therapy are scarce. In this single case study, the overall aim was to examine and gain a deeper understanding of the process of change in a time-limited psychodynamic art psychotherapy. Since working with emotions is considered an important factor in psychotherapeutic change, an in-depth exploration of the relationship between artwork and emotions was made. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse ten sessions of art psychotherapy and the overall theme in the process of change was changed view of oneself and others. In the exploration of artwork and emotions the themes found were experiencing emotions, expressing emotions and making emotions possible to express and transform. In conclusion, this study showed how the process in a case of art psychotherapy could present itself in changes in the client’s view of herself and others. The study also showed how artwork helped the client to work with her emotions.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Billie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosenblad, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samstämmighet av hudkonduktans i interaktion2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was, with the use of data from a previously performed experiment, where they didn’t find any significant differences, to investigate whether there was a possible significant difference in the degree of GSR-concordance between two individuals who are in different types of interaction with each other using statistical analyzes. The use of physiological measuring tools to measure emotional experiences is common in psychophysiology and has support in previous studies where relational processes have been studied. The results showed differences between some of the conditions, mainly a significant difference in GSR-concordance when resuming normal interaction after a relationally demanding process. This follows results that have emerged in other studies that have used the same measure of GSR. The results also support to some extent that GSR-concordance can predict the type of interaction that takes place, in line with the fact that psychophysiological concordance increases when individuals go through a demanding relational process and afterwards seek back to less emotionally demanding conversations. When the interaction has reached that point, it feels good for the individuals as there has been a mutual regulation of each other's emotional state. It also seems that the results point to the fact that GSR-concordance as a measure of synchronicity will have a limited ability to study psychophysiological relational situations related to psychological closeness. 

  • 44.
    Andersson Bsenko, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjerling, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kognitiv beteendeterapi och interpersonell terapi vid social fobi förmedlad via smarttelefon2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontrollerade studier har visat att internetförmedlad datorbaserad kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) är effektiv i behandling av social fobi. Denna randomiserade och kontrollerade studie undersökte effektiviteten av två smarttelefonförmedlade självhjälpsprogram för vuxna personer med social fobi. Totalt randomiserades 52 deltagare till antingen KBT (n = 27) eller Interpersonell terapi (IPT) (n = 25). Självhjälpsmaterial presenterades i en smarttelefonanpassad webbsida och användes i kombination med veckovis terapeutkontakt i ett slutet meddelandesystem. Det primära utfallsmåttet var Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale‐Self Rate (LSAS‐SR; Fresco et al., 2001). Variansanalys med upprepad mätning visade en signifikant huvudeffekt av tid och en interaktionstrend (p=0.051) grupp × tid som pekade på större föbättring i KBT‐gruppen. Ytterligare analyser med beroende t‐test visade en signifikant föbättring i KBT men inte IPT‐gruppens, skattningar på LSAS‐SR från för‐ till eftermäning.

    Oberoende t‐test visade en signifikant lägre ångestnivå hos KBT relativt IPT‐gruppen mätt med LSAS‐SR vid den sista behandlingsveckan. Måttliga effektstorlekar i behandlingsutfall uppnåddes mellan grupperna (Cohens d = 0.56) och inom KBT‐gruppen (= 0.71). En liten effektstorlek sågs för IPT‐gruppen ( = 0.23). Sammantaget tenderade KBT ge bättre ångestlindring än IPT vid smarttelefon anpassad behandling av social fobi. Vidare studier behövs med störe gruppstorlekar och tillvaratagande av utväderingar från deltagare.

  • 45. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Beskrivning och symbolisk tolkning av de enskilda leksakerna i Ericamaterialet1986In: Att bygga sin värld: Handbok i Ericametoden / [ed] Allis Danielsson, Stockholm: Psykologiförlaget , 1986, p. 201-223Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ericametoden - En lekdiagnostisk metod: Bearbetning av material, protokoll och utvärderingsblankett, 1:a upplagan1982Report (Other academic)
  • 47. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symboler och lek1986In: Att bygga sin värld: handbok i Ericametoden, Stockholm: Psykologiförlaget , 1986, p. 224-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bugge-Asperheim, Even
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    I see you, you see me, but I don`t really see you: a baselinestudy of illusive mutual face gaze in social interaction2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social interaction is a complex field of research mesmerising researchers over the years. A prominent area within this field is mutual eye contact and its importance for interpersonal synchronisation, and creation of a “we”. To measure this in a naturalistic setting has proven difficult. This study investigated the physiological effect and subjective experience of covertly disrupting interpersonal synchronisation, non-verbal communication and mutual face gaze on different levels. An experimental design was employed where 36 neurotypical participants (16 male, 20 female) interacted in a casual conversation with a researcher through a newly developed equipment (NUNA) allowing for complete mutual eye-contact in computerised interactions. During three separate 3-5-minute conversations, the researcher viewed the participant normally, with eyes blocked out, or not at all. The researcher appeared identical to the participant on all conditions, and the NUNA upheld the illusion of mutual eye contact, leading the participant to believe there was mutual eye contact although it was one way only.The results show no differences in participants' skin conductance or subjective rating between the conditions. However, a third of the participants detected “something” in the No Face condition and rated it significantly lower on the subjective scale. It was concluded, as long as the participant perceives and believes there is mutual eye contact, then actual mutual eye contact is obsolete, whereas actual mutual face gaze is of some importance. Why some participants noticed a difference is conjectured to be due to unrecovered breakdowns of interpersonal synchronisation on various levels. Directions of future research are discussed.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between atherosclerotic plaque and self-efficacy, depression and anxiety in an asymptomatic general population aged 602017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are caused by atherosclerosis. Carotid plaques are associated with increased risk of CVD, independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Evidence of early disease is demonstrated before onset and can be assessed with ultrasound. Psychosocial stressors, together with raised lipids and smoking have been identified as the most important risk factors. Cognitive factors such as self-efficacy have been identified as important constructs for health behaviors, and emotional factors do also play a role in this context. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between general self-efficacy, health-specific self-efficacy, anxiety and depression, on the one hand, and atherosclerosis, on the other hand, in a sample of 2291 participants aged 60 year from a general asymptomatic population. Among 2291 participants, 1247 had plaque and 1044 did not have plaque. The results showed that depression (in men only) and anxiety (in participants with university education only) were associated with plaque, and health-specific self-efficacy (in men only) was associated with absence of plaque. However, when statistically controlled for snuff, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption, diabetes, myocardial infarction, hypertension, hypercholesterol and sex or education no group differences were found. Variables share biomedical factors and is therefore possible statistically over-controlled. From an epidemiological perspective, even small changes obtained in a large population have high impact. Therefore, the research question is important and needs to be adressed with interdiciplinary compentence.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive and emotional moderators of behavioural and biomedical health outcomes of pictorial-based risk communication on asymptomatic atherosclerosis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is facing major challenges regarding life style related chronic diseases. Improved ultrasound techniques enable assessment of risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by measurement of atherosclerosis while still asymptomatic. Evidence for the potential of pictorial-based health risk communication to motivate life style modifications is promising but weak. More research, especially longitudinal intervention studies, is requested. In the literature, relevant health psychological constructs such as risk perception and response efficacy are often neglected, even though they are known to mediate and moderate behavioural changes. VIPVIZA is a population-based randomized controlled trial that aims at optimizing CVD prevention by assessing the impact of visualization of silent atherosclerosis. 690 participants, the majority 60 years old, were included in this study. The primary purpose was to investigate whether cognitive and emotional factors moderate behavioural and biomedical health outcomes of pictorial-based health risk communication. Cognitive factors were risk perception, response efficacy, motivation and assessment of life style modification. Emotional factors included being positively surprised, relieved/calmed, insecure, afraid and shocked. Behavioural and biomedical health outcomes included fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, body weight, blood sugar, LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure. ANCOVA analyses showed a pattern of small but positive associations between assessments of cognitive factors and health outcomes, where participants had better health outcomes if the intervention had affected their risk perception, response efficacy, etc. Assessment of cognitive factors, in turn, were associated with emotional reactions, but not with ultrasound results.

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