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  • 1.
    Aas, Marit
    et al.
    Oslo universitet.
    Törnsén, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Examining Norwegian and Swedish Leadership training programs in light of international research2016In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and compares principal training programs in Sweden and Norway, the two Nordic countries with national leadership programs for already active school leaders. To investigate the knowledge base and design of the programs we draw on two research-derived tools about successful professional learning programs for school leaders. Based on the examinations, we suggest that the programs reflect international research both in terms of content and process factors. In addition, we identify topics and issues, such as balancing democratic participation with managerial decision-making, which can be characterized as making up a Nordic profile.

  • 2.
    Aas, Marit
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education, School Research, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Törnsén, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Nordic studies in education - Special issue: Educational leadership in nordic countries2016In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 81-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lange, Bettina
    Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford, UK.
    Deflecting European Union Influence on National Education Policy-Making: The Case of the United Kingdom2013In: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how education policies developed in the European Union (EU) through the open method of co-ordination (OMC) are received at the member state level of the United Kingdom (UK). We argue that the UK’s response to the education OMC can be understood mainly in terms of deflecting EU influence on the process and in particular content of national education policy-making. We focus on three manifestations of deflecting EU influence on national education policies. On a level of institutional structures, first, few organizational resources are made available for responding to the education OMC. Second, there is limited communication between domestic policy teams and UK civil servants involved in international work. Third, on a level of discourse UK education policy makers have retained a commitment to the continued sovereignty of the UK over education policy and its role as a potential leader of education policy agendas in the EU. Deflecting the education OMC involves here constructing images of ‘fit’ between UK and EU OMC education policies.

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  • 4.
    Alnebratt, Kerstin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Feminism som byråkrati: jämställdhetsintegrering som strategi2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Feminism som byråkrati beskriver utvecklingen av svensk jämställdhetspolitik. Främst behandlas idén om jämställdhetsintegrering. En historieskrivning, men också en analys. Från början av 1990-talet fram till idag. Vilka frågor och krav har kunnat ställas inom ramen för denna politik? Och inte minst, vad har gjorts omöjligt?

  • 5.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Corruption in Sweden: Exploring Danger Zones and Change.2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation I study corruption in the public sector in Sweden, a country which the literature regards as having few corruption problems. Sweden is therefore classified as a “least corrupt” case, and such countries are seldom studied in corruption research. My work is thus an effort to fill a gap in the literature. This research is also motivated by a conviction that such a case provides a fertile ground for studying danger zones for corruption. For example, this work allows me to explore how institutional and contextual changes impact on corruption and danger zones.

    Though the main focus of this work is on Sweden, I also have comparative ambitions. First, I locate Sweden in a cross-national context. I then study corruption in Sweden using a comparative methodology and with an eye to international comparisons. I apply a combined theoretical approach and a multi-method investigation based on several empirical sources and both quantitative and qualitative techniques. This research strategy enables me to capture a phenomenon (corruption) that is more difficult to identify in countries with relatively few obvious corruption scandals than it is in countries in which the phenomenon has traditionally been studied.

    Regarding danger zones for corruption, the results show that some of the zones identified in the international literature, such as public procurement, are also important in Sweden. For the Swedish case, my empirical research also identifies the types of corruption that occur, perceptions of danger zones and corruption, how corruption changes over time, and how corruption is fought. With regard to the latter, one conclusion is that ingrained (male) sub-cultures can be problematic and may need to be opened up using a combination of measures like promoting a more heterogeneous group of politicians, creating more transparent proceedings in decision groups and conducting more effective audits. The research also highlights the importance of adapting control measures to existing structures of delegation. For example, if delegation arrangements are changed to improve efficiency and cut costs, new accountability measures may be necessary. In general, delegation and control structures should be structured in such a way as to make the cost of shirking quite high.

    Finally, based on the results of this multi-method investigation, I conclude that one avenue for further corruption research is to connect our knowledge of danger zones to what we know about mechanisms effecting corrupt behaviour, and then to apply this to discussions of new models of the politics of management in multi-level governance.

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  • 6.
    Arvidsson, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    A model for strategic e-service implementation in the public sector: challenges for local governments in identifying potential candidates for e-service delivery2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more local governments begin to understand that the great promises of e-service delivery are harder than expected to realize, efficient use of ICT-resources have become increasingly important. Since simply providing more e-services is not the solution, the need to understand what constitutes a suitable e-service has arisen. Public services reach beyond the market domain; therefore, the complexities of public value must be dealt with when services are appraised. Furthermore, due to the heterogeneous nature of local government services it is impossible to evaluate all the options in depth; thus, there is a clear need for early-stage appraisal. However, existing methods of appraisal are burdened by intricacy, and associated with high costs. In response, this paper presents a model capable of reducing this intricacy. The model was developed through a participatory design process involving members on both operational and strategic level in the municipality of Skellefteå. The model implements state of the art into the workspace context while taking measures to reduce intricacy such as: incremental filtering, moving high intricacy elements to the end of the process, and exploitation of available data. As a result the organization is enabled to capture not only the low hanging fruit, but also the long tail of services. Furthermore, the improved understanding of e-service delivery has the potential to open up opportunities for new ways of business development and private-public partnerships. Finally, whereas the model presented is highly context-dependent, the implications outlined in this paper are not limited to this narrow scope.

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  • 7.
    Backlund, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Lärande organisation: Är systematiskt kvalitetsarbete i skolan grunden till en lärande organisation?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 8.
    Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Cardiff School of Social Sciences/Sustainable Places Institute, Cardiff University.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A policy analysis perspective on ecological restoration2013In: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 2, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

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  • 9.
    Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Cardiff University, Storbritannien.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Role of the State in the Governance of Sustainable Development: subnational practices in European states2014In: State and Environment: The Comparative Study of Environmental Governance / [ed] Andreas Duit, Cambridge MA /London: MIT Press, 2014, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the role of the state in the governance of sustainable development at the sub-national, regional and local levels in Europe, including 1) the scope of state involvement, 2) the function of the state in sustainable development policy making. The state is shown to be a key player in initiating and co-ordinating the sustainable development planning processes in the four key themes across European states: (1) multi-level governance; (2) networks and public / private partnerships; (3) participation and (4) the use of marked based instruments.

    The main function of the state in the analyzed policy areas is, on the one hand to act as coordinator between different interests, and on the other to act as stimulator for initiating new policy initiatives. The state both initiates and co-ordinates policy networks and retains a great deal of power over the nature and functioning of network forms of governance. Evidence also points out how the use of new environmental policy tools can strengthen the hand of the state by supporting hierarchical governance. Thus, far from being a simple one, the relationship between market and network governance and the state has been shown to be complex and dense.

  • 10.
    Baldersheim, Harald
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Ladner, Andreas
    University of Lausanne.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The anatomy and drivers of local autonomy in a European perspective2017In: Starke Kommunen - wirksame Verwaltung: Fortschritte und Fallstricke der internationalen Verwaltungs- und Kommunalforschung / [ed] Sabine Kuhlmann & Oliver Schwab, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2017, p. 85-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making democracy work is a continuous struggle (Putnam 1993). This also goes for local democracy (Wollmann 1999), including the maintenance of the autonomy of local government, which is the basis for local democracy. The autonomy of local government varies across countries but there is little understanding of why systems of local government develop in such different ways. The purpose of this article is to contribute to such an understanding. The variation in local autonomy as well as the lack of explanations for it is remarkable since local autonomy is a cherished ideal for local government in liberal-democratic societies. Indeed, local autonomy is one of the constituent features of local government, perhaps the most fundamental feature. Local government is of course established by the state and serves the state both literally and in a wider sense. Yet, without some measure of autonomy from the state local democracy is meaningless — there will be no policy space for decision-makers and no choice for citizens. Arguably, local autonomy is also a driver of efficiency in local government affairs through the adaptive opportunities to local circumstances made possible by autonomous decision-makers accountable to local citizens as tax payers and consumers.

  • 11. Berglund-Snodgrass, Lina
    et al.
    Högström, Ebba
    Fjellfeldt, Maria
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Organizing cross-sectoral housing provision planning: settings, problems and knowledge2021In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 862-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the governance of housing provision, the public sector is considered unable efficiently to manage such problems through the traditional bureaucratic organizations and associated governing tools. Instead, municipalities are expected to engage in collaborative processes across sectors and with external stakeholders, with the overarching objective to deliver more efficient planning outcomes. As the processes are carried out across sectors, it opens up the opportunity to privilege certain sectors' perspectives and marginalize others. By drawing from Mouffe's agonistic political theories, this article makes an empirical account of the political in organizing cross-sectoral collaborative planning in Swedish municipalities, with the empirical example of developing municipal programmes for housing provision. The article concludes that social service is severely marginalized in what is generally a depoliticized housing provision planning process. Underpinning the collaboration is the conceptualizing of housing provision as primarily a general deficit in constructing housing. Primarily organizing objectivist knowledge, housing provision is constructed as a technical and procedural matter rather than ideological and political. Through such organizing principles, the overarching housing provision problem remains undealt with, e.g. how do we provide housing to 'all' our citizens?

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  • 12.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Does collaboration lead to sustainability?: A study of public–private partnerships in the Swedish mountains2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conflicts that are frequently manifested in the Swedish mountains often stem from the use and preservation of natural resources: resistance against protected area proposals, protests concerning the management of large carnivores, felling of old-growth forests, and disputes over who should be allowed to hunt or fish are commonplace. There are currently strong trends, both in national and international policy making, towards leaning on various forms of collaborative governance arrangements to deal with such policy failures. Consequently, various forms of partnerships have been initiated to promote more sustainable practices in mountain regions of Sweden. But to what extent does the creation of collaborative arrangements in natural resource management improve policy output and sustainability outcomes? To examine the issue, data was extracted from 47 semi-structured interviews with 39 project leaders and eight county officials, the sample being randomly selected from a database of 245 public-private collaborative projects in the Swedish mountains. The results indicate that partnerships do lead to improved sustainability – especially when it comes to social outcomes. There is, however, a need for more systematic follow-ups by practitioners, particularly on ecological outcomes where the country administrative boards should take a leading role and facilitate such evaluations in the future.

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  • 13.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nygaard, Vigdis
    Riseth, Jan Åge
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Institutionalisation of Sami Interest in Municipal Comprehensive Planning: A Comparison Between Norway and Sweden2020In: International Indigenous Policy Journal, ISSN 1916-5781, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sami are recognized as an Indigenous people and a national minority in both Norway and Sweden, and their involvement in any planning concerning their traditional territories is required. The aim of this article is to examine how Sami interests are secured and institutionalized in municipal comprehensive planning (MCP). We use two case study areas: Sortland municipality in Norway and Vilhelmina municipality in Sweden. Analysis of various qualitative materials indicates that, despite contextual and institutional differences, the planning processes in the case study areas have similar outcomes. We conclude that formal rights of the Sami are not always acknowledged by the politicians who make the final decision. Rather, the Sami depend on the politicians’ willingness to consider their needs.

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  • 14. Bonde, Ingrid
    et al.
    Kuylenstierna, Johan
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Löfgren, Åsa
    Kåberger, Tomas
    Rummukainen, Markku
    Sörlin, Sverker
    DN Debatt. ”Regeringens krispolitik måste rymmas i klimatramverket”2020In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatpolitiska rådet: Vi kommer att granska om återhämtningspolitiken är förenlig med Sveriges klimatmål.

    Idén med det av riksdagen beslutade klimatpolitiska ramverket är att klimatomställningen inte ska vara beroende av den ekonomiska eller politiska konjunkturen. 

  • 15.
    Brandén, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    In the name of safety: power, politics and the constitutive effects of local governing practices in Sweden2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time of uncertainty and risk, safety has become an increasingly significant concern. In Sweden, a powerful discourse around public safety has developed in recent years, moving it to the top of the political agenda. While safety is often regarded as a prerequisite for a democratic and gender-equal society in Sweden, previous research demonstrates that safety is increasingly linked in public politics to matters of national and individual security, crime, and immigration. Considering this discursive change in relation to the neoliberal transformation of the Swedish welfare state, the centrality of public safety as a political ideal in Sweden raises questions. Why is safety increasingly seen as a self-evident answer to a range of societal issues in Sweden? Why safety, rather than equality, democracy, or justice?

    Drawing upon a governmentality framework, this thesis examines how, and with what effects, safety is being discursively produced as a political problem in Sweden and how it operates as a practice of governmentality. Three widespread practices of governing safety in Swedish municipalities are examined: community-based safety walks; the safety certification of city centers; and the contracting of private guards to patrol public spaces. The study applies a political ethnography approach and is based on policy materials, observations, and interviews. 

    The overall analysis of these case studies combines to demonstrate that a technical, calculable, and depoliticized representation of safety is produced. Thus, safety is largely reduced to a set of technical details to be measured, fitted into a protocol, ticked off a checklist, or fixed by making changes to the physical environment. This enables the commodification of safety, manifested in the branding of cities as safe and the outsourcing of responsibility for safety to the private security industry. In this context, safety largely becomes a matter of order and uniformity in public space, while those deviating from these normative ideals are marked as unsafety problems. The various societal issues being addressed as “unsafety problems” are in turn marked as individual or community failures. In effect, these issues are detached from their social and political circumstances and understood as problematic primarily due to causing unsafety to others. The analysis shows how the governing of safety in this manner produces a boundary between the familiar, “Swedish”, “us”—to be made safe in public space—and the estranged, “non-Swedish”, “others,” who are marked as problematic and out of place. However, these exclusions are concealed by the depoliticized representation of safety as a technical matter as well as a virtue.

    The thesis shows how these deeply political acts of deciding who is legitimate or illegitimate in our public spaces, and how altering dimensions of democratic accountability and the monopoly on using force, are enacted through the government of safety as a set of technicalities, largely without political contestation. While safety is often put forward as a democratic tool of inclusion and access to public space, the thesis claims that the government of safety operates through a de-democratizing dynamic of governmental precarization. This means that, despite the centrality of safety as a political ideal, the politics of safety neither challenges nor changes, but rather reproduces and reinforces, prevailing relations of power and the current political order of things. Shadowed by our own demands for safety, we fail to recognize that this order both (re)produces and relies upon a state of unsafety.  

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  • 16.
    Brandén, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Subjectification through the Government of Safety: Public-private Guards and Interpellative Practices of Patrolling, Reporting, and Caring.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Brandén, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The politics of patrolling 'safety guards' in Sweden: outsourcing, depoliticization, and immunization2023In: Critical Policy Studies, ISSN 1946-0171, E-ISSN 1946-018X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 619-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contracting of private guards to patrol public spaces has rapidly become a widespread approach to increase public safety and prevent crime in Swedish municipalities. Drawing on interviews and policy materials from three municipalities, this paper examines how private patrolling guards has become a solution to (un)safety in Sweden, and the political implications of this development. The governmentality analysis shows how the rendering of (un)safety as technical and governable depoliticizes safety by detaching it from its social and political connotations. At the same time, in the process of demarcating the space to be 'guarded,' safety is problematized as a matter of order and sameness in public space, which (re)produces racialized boundaries between those to be made safe and those considered threatening safety. The study further demonstrates how the outsourcing of responsibility for public safety to the security industry is bringing about a shift in democratic legitimacy, accountability, and the monopoly on the use of force, largely without political contestation in the studied municipalities. The paper concludes by discussing the underlying rationale of this practice of governing (un)safety as informed by a biopolitical logic of immunization: safeguarding and immunizing some, at the expense of those marked as risky 'others'.

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  • 18.
    Brandén, Jennie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Selling the Safe City? The Politics of Certification and the case of Purple Flag Sweden2019In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, bureaucratic and market-based tools such as certifications have become common tools for addressing complex, gendered and power-related issues such as discrimination, gender equality and, in this case, safety. Drawing on a discursive understanding of policy and politics, this paper examines how safety in public space is being addressed and given meaning in nine Swedish cities, working with a safetycertification entitled ‘the Purple Flag’. Our analysis shows that in the work with PurpleFlag, safety is represented as a technical problem, requiring a standardised method, and as a tool for growth, focusing on the commercial potential of safety for the city. These representations position the safety worker as mainly administrative and competitive, while the recipients of safety become visitors and consumers. Purple Flag also gears local safety measures towards urban business areas, rather than towards places with high levels of crime or unsafety, and primarily target those disturbing the order of the market in the city centre as problematic. Our conclusion is that the method of certification creates major difficulties for politicising safety and instead enables an “economisation of the political”,producing safety for the urban market rather than for urban citizens.

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  • 19.
    Börjesson, Angelica
    et al.
    Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd, Högskolan i Borås.
    Enqvist, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vem vet bäst?: Bristande samsyn mellan Försäkringskassan och hälso- och sjukvården inom den förebyggande sjukpenningen2021In: Nordisk Administrativt Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1285, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 1-22, article id e4333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige kan förebyggande sjukpenning lämnas till den som genomgår medicinsk behandlingeller medicinsk rehabilitering i syfte att förebygga sjukdom, förkorta sjukdomstiden, eller helt eller delvis förebygga eller häva nedsättning av arbetsförmågan. Syftet med förmånen ärsåledes att en enskild ska kunna vara frånvarande från sitt arbete i den utsträckning det behövsför att medverka i medicinska insatser som kan förebygga att arbetsoförmåga på grund avsjukdom alls uppstår. Genom detta förebyggande syfte är förmånens ersättningsvillkor i högutsträckning knutna till prognostiska bedömningar i flera steg. Försäkringskassan, som är den myndighet som ska administrera ersättningen, ska bland annat bedöma om det finns en risk försjukdom, om den medicinska behandling som erbjuds kan förkorta eller förebygga sådan sjukdom i det enskilda fallet, samt om sjukdomen i sig kan förväntas sätta ner arbetsförmågan – vilket placerar förmånen mycket nära hälso- och sjukvårdens medicinska expertis. I artikeln visas att dessa omständigheter har förklaringsvärde för att Försäkringskassan samt hälso- ochsjukvården uppvisar vissa brister i samsyn när det gäller hur begreppet vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet ska förstås samt om förmånens syfte och funktion – och att detta inverkar på hur förmånens förebyggande (profylaktiska) syfte får genomslag i rättstillämpningen samt i sjukförsäkringen.

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  • 20.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Citizens governing schools: Customers, partners, right-holders2015In: ECER Programmes, 2015, article id 36757Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout Europe, evaluation has expanded radically at all levels of school governance as part of the broad doctrine of New Public Management including marketization, decentralization and performance management. There is a growing accountability pressure derived from globalisation of education governance resulting in evaluation systems (Leeuw and Furubo 2008) of monitoring, inspection and oversight, and benchmarking to measure performance and assess students and teachers. Sweden and other countries’ education systems increasingly rely on evaluations of different kinds as ways to control and enhance quality and performance in education and schooling but also to support competition and school choice (Merki 2011; Pollitt and Bouckaert 2011; Dahler-Larsen 2012; Lingard and Sellar 2013; Grek and Lindgren 2014). Despite the recent recentralisation effects of evaluation systems local autonomy is still high. Actors at the municipal and school level have different conditions and varying freedom of choice for local school governance in different education systems. The local context matters in a variety of ways. Local actors can assimilate, adjust or resist state policies of for example marketization and use evaluations in different ways. 

    Evaluation systems put in place assumes that citizens are rational and active choosers using evaluation and accessible performance data for an informed choice  (Musset 2012). But research indicate that parents are primarily concerned with “the atmosphere”, “pedagogical climate”, “safety” and “reputation of the school” (Ehren, Leeuw and Scheerens 2005, p. 71). However, school choice has made parents a more powerful policy actor in local school governance (Blomqvist 2004). But not only school choice contributed to the shift from macro democracy to micro democracy (Möller 1996). So did different forms of voice options for improving participation and influence in citizens daily encounter with welfare services (Jarl 2005; Kristoffersson 2008; Dahlstedt 2009b; Holmgren et al. 2012). During the 1990s the emphasis on active citizenship and collaboration was viewed as a natural part of the democratic mission of the schools. The school should be an arena for dialogue forming an active local citizenship. Progress should be achieved from the bottom-up by those involved promoting the inclusion of parents in a form of partnership with the school (Jarl 2005; Dahlstedt 2009b). This multi-actor model of governance focusing on citizens’ agency reflect what has been called a ‘will to empower’ (Cruikshank 1999), ‘politics of activation’ (Dahlstedt 2009a) or ‘government technologies of agency’ (Dean 2010).

    Parents become a part of local school governance when they make choices, try to influence teachers, school-principals, schools administrators or local school boards. And their need of evaluation for this influence differs. Parents perceived as customers need easily accessible performance data to support informed school choice whereas parents acting as active and responsible citizens largely need the same evaluation knowledge as other policy actors. How local authorities, local school providers and schools govern their education and schooling through different forms of evaluation therefore shapes conceptions of citizenship. Studies on local policy, i.e. schools and school providers’ strategies and use of evaluation related information is scarce and there is a need for more knowledge on how it shapes citizen roles in different education systems. In this paper I therefore begin by exploring what ways are provided for parents as citizens, to influence, change and affect education in Sweden. I then turn to answer what evaluation related information is given on school and school provider websites to analyse what citizenship ideals are promoted using the categorisation developed from the channels for influence. I finish with discussing these forms of citizen power in education in relation to the more everyday encounter with teachers and school staff by drawing on previous research and interviews with parents and teachers.  

    Method: The material consists of government documents, reports, laws and regulation to explore the formal ways for parents to influence education. To explore what citizenship ideals are promoted in local school governance, I have analyzed four municipals websites and 8 school websites in these municipalities. The municipalities, all of which have populations of 75 000 – 100 000 have been selected strategically to reflect different contextual factors such as political majority, school performance, and share of independent schools. These have been anonymized and is referred to as “North”, “East”, “South” and “West”. The eight schools, two from each municipal, were also selected strategically on factors such as private or public provider, performance and socio-economic composition. By drawing on Hirschmans (Hirschman 1970) theory of exit and voice and Dahlberg and Vedungs (2001) categorisations of arguments for increased user orientation I categorize three different citizenship ideals when exploring formal ways for citizens to act and influence education in line with a politics of activation. These citizenship ideals functions as ideal types when analysing the websites and the evaluation and governance related information provided to (potential) users.

    To discuss citizen power in education and problematize how it relates to promoted citizenship ideals I draw on previous studies and research as well as interviews with parents and teachers at the schools. The interviews were conducted within the larger research project “Consequences of evaluation for school practice: steering, accountability and school development”, financed by the Swedish Research Council.

    Expected outcomes: Preliminary findings show that there are several ways for parents to affect and influence education in Sweden. The school choice reforms have considerably improved the power of parents in local school governance positioning parents as costumers. But user power have also been strengthened through providing different ways to complain and appeal positioning citizens as right-holders. Furthermore users are positioned as partners in influencing education through parent boards. The analysis of the websites shows how municipalities respond differently to state policies and accountability pressures in their use of providing evaluation related information. Municipalities with a right-wing political majority provide extensive benchmarking systems for informed school choice making customer the dominant position. Not surprisingly, the independent schools provide more performance data for marketing than the public schools. However, some of the independent schools also provide information on their collaboration with parents, indicating a position of citizens as partners. The position of citizens as right-holders are strongest on the public schools and public providers’ websites with information on rights and ways to claim them.

    Still parents don’t use evaluation related information as intended. Rather parents use grades, tests and school information more informally directly with teachers and school staff. Teachers report an increased pressure from parents on grades and changes within school, and the threat of exit makes their voice options more viable in individual contacts with staff. At least if other alternatives are present. But there are also indications that collective voice options are not used, instead exit is chosen sometimes in combination with the individual voice option of complaints and appeals. The problem of recruiting parents for collective action in parent boards or associations and the increasing amount of individual problem solving action through appeals and complaints suggest that parents mainly govern schools through individual rather than collective action.

  • 21.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Customers, partners, rights-holders: School evaluations on websites2016In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 327-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how evaluation, which has expanded at all levels of school governance throughout Europe, shapes parental roles by studying how local school governors and schools in Sweden represent evaluation to parents on their websites. Websites are prime locations for public communications and are useful for exploring the functions of evaluations intended for parental use. In recent decades, parental influence over school has increased through “choice and voice” options, while the role of evaluations has continued to expand in school governance. Evaluations construct social roles, identities, and relations and as such are constitutive of the social world and our place in it. By drawing on Dahler-Larsen’s concept of “constitutive effects”, the discursive implications of evaluation are discussed. The dominant type of evaluation represented on websites is performance data used for accountability and informed school choice purposes. Parents are primarily positioned as customers who exert influence through choice and exit options, reinforcing the almost unquestioned norm of parental right to educational authority. Representations of evaluation differ depending on local political majority, school performance, and public versus independent provider; as such, they are not hegemonic but tend to strengthen the position of parents as individual rights-holders, marginalising forms of collective action. 

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  • 22.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Do you have a complaint?: Juridification in marketized school2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Equivalence and performance gaps in Swedish school inspection: context and the politics of blame2016In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 133-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses and critically discusses how context is relevant when constructing and upholding an equivalent education for all within the neo-liberal educational regime of marketisation and accountability. At the centre of the article is a study of national school inspection reports in four municipalities in Sweden, exploring performance gaps, equality and justice in an educational system, that for decades has emphasised universal welfare, justice and equality. By drawing on the concept of ‘the politics of blame’, findings show that accountability and blame are constructed in complex ways. Although teachers and schools are blamed for low expectations with little contextual consideration by Swedish Schools Inspectorate, local governments are blamed for not redistributing resources. This can both challenge and strengthen the contemporary regime in governing education.

  • 24.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Marknadens misslyckande?: om behovet av utökad kontroll av fristående skolor2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 39-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market failure? The need for increased control of independent schools. This article critically analyses the introduction of an establishment control of independent schools in Sweden. I discuss how we can understand this change in the current governing regime of both marketization in terms of school choice and competition and increased central state control through national school inspections. This is done by analysing documents such as project plans and reports and interviews with employees at the Swedish Schools Inspectorate. By drawing on Bacchi’s (2009) “What’s the problem represented to be?” approach, I ask: What is the purpose of the establishment control? What problem is the new control represented to solve? For whom is the control necessary? Establishment control is represented as a problem of market risks that is justified by everyone’s gain. I argue that this is not only constructing legitimacy for school inspections but is also contributing to upholding market principles in education as such.

  • 25.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Practices of exclusion?: Complaints, gender and power in education2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores representations of gender in the neo-liberal educational regime of individualisation and governing by both marketization and increased central state control. At the centre of the paper is a study of the use of parents/students complaints to the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SSI) and the Child and School Student Representative (CSSR). The paper focuses on the historic development of complaints and the logics underpinning its increased legalization and use. The marketization of education simultaneously tend to construct a politics of accountability and blame visible in inspection, evaluations, quality audits and ranking list. These examples of increased state control in school is part of an audit explosion as the solution to several ‘problems’ in school. What has not to the same extent been explored in this governing by evaluation is the increase in filed complaints. This appears to put more emphasis on legal claims where the individual’s right according to law is at the center, marginalizing structural and contextual factors and risking a juridification of politics. I argue that this constructs new forms of citizenship more in line with a legal rather than a political framework where the dominant logic of individual rights, and discourses of failing boys work to exclude considerations of the effects of gender and other dimensions of difference/marginalization. Emphasis on student rights have been closely connected to market logics of competition, choice and students as costumers. The two discourses seem to legitimize and reinforce each other so that social and cultural aspects of governance are neglected.

  • 26.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Utvärdering, marknadsföring och skolval2018In: Skolan, marknaden och framtiden / [ed] Magnus Dahlstedt och Andreas Fejes, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 245-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Carlbaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Benerdal, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The local market makers: Swedish municipalities as preschool quasi-market organisers2024In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 63-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National policies aiming at marketisation and privatisation in welfare sectors such as Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) require governance and organisation to be realised. In Sweden, the municipalities are key but largely under-researched organisers for preschool quasi-market infrastructures. This study explores the different ways in which Swedish municipalities act as quasi-market organisers in the preschool setting. Following organisational theory, we analyse their market shaping activities in translating national regulations in efforts to influence, support and control their local preschool quasi-market. Documents, websites, and interviews with public officials from 30 municipalities characterised as having either a large (N = 10), medium (N = 10), or small (N = 10) private ECEC sector are analysed. The analysis highlights large variations on how municipalities act as market makers, which is further discussed in the form of three ideal types: the Frontier, the Keeper, and the Endorser. We conclude that municipalities' varying and hybridised market shaping activities and local characteristics are important to understand the implications that emerge in terms of different rules of the game, stakeholder interdependencies and relationships, composition of market actors etc. Attentiveness to the sub-national/local actors are essential in understanding different welfare quasi-markets within national policy frameworks of marketisation and privatisation.

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  • 28.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia ; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A
    Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Local economies of mobility in sparsely populated areas: cases from Australia's spine2014In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 36, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing contemporary body of literature about the 'new mobilities' – increasingly mobile populations and their impacts on local economies, particularly in more sparsely populated areas of developed nations. Much of the focus has been on the 'fly in/fly out' workforce associated with mining projects, but attention has also been paid to increasing numbers of 'fly in/fly out' workers in the health sector, the changing nature of tourist populations, the use of temporary contract labour for government administration, and the movement of Indigenous people from remote communities into urban centres. This paper uses five case examples in South Australia and the Northern Territory (Australia's 'spine') to examine the diversity of experiences of the new mobilities. The paper presents a framework for investigating new mobilities at the local settlement level through developing an understanding of macro and micro factors driving mobility and the consequences in terms of aspects of social and economic distance between mobile populations and host communities. The framework provides for useful insights to be drawn from secondary data sources including the Australian Census and tourist surveys. The paper concludes that the geographic characteristics of short term mobility observed in this research essentially conform to the 'Eight Ds' model of the human and economic geography of sparsely populated areas.

  • 29.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Flinders University.
    Wellstead, Adam
    Government with a Cast of Dozens: Policy Capacity Risks and Policy Work in the Northern Territory2015In: Australian journal of public administration, ISSN 0313-6647, E-ISSN 1467-8500, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number challenges to maintaining high-quality policy capacity in sparsely populated areas such as Australia's Northern Territory (e.g. natural resource dependent economy, prominence of Indigenous issues, provision of local services). Moreover, the Territory government has recently been undergoing a host of public sector changes. This paper utilises survey methodologies of policy workers that were recently developed in Canada and examines nine risk factors to policy work. A survey of 119 policy workers in the Northern Territory was conducted in 2013. The analysis examined four key policy-work areas (policy activities, barriers, areas for improved policy capacity, nature of change in work environment). The survey findings offer some practical insights for managers. Formal policy-work training is recognised as critical. Policy capacity may be increased through better inter-departmental (and potentially inter-governmental) cooperation and information sharing, more opportunities to engage with non-governmental stakeholders, and more opportunities for those leaving the full-time Northern Territory policy workforce to continue to contribute. From a conceptual point of view, the extent to which policy capacity' as commonly conceived in the literature is applicable to contexts, such as Australia's Northern Territory, warrants further examination.

  • 30.
    Copus, Colin
    et al.
    De Montfort University, UK.
    Iglesias, Angel
    University Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Hacek, Miro
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Illner, Michael
    Prague Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Have mayors will travel: trends and developments in the direct election of the mayor : a five-nation study2016In: Local public sector reforms in times of crisis: national trajectories and international comparisons / [ed] Sabine Kuhlmann; Geert Bouckaert, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 301-315Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether citizens should directly elect the mayor or whether only councilors should be able to indirectly choose the local political governing body to the exclusion of the public from the process is one of the most controversial debates around the reform of local government—at least for policy makers and councilors. Debates about direct or indirect election of local political leaders focus on different interpretations of political concepts such as: the legitimacy to act, visibility and profile of local leaders, transparency of political decision-making processes, accountability, and the role of the citizen in local representative democracy. The chapter takes five European countries selected because of their different political traditions and structures, to assess the nature of the policy debate about the selection of the local political leader. It does this to assess how far path-dependent responses to reform have influenced political change or whether crisis moments provide opportunities for new considerations about the reform of local politics to emerge.

  • 31.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg.
    Children with Gender Identity Disorder: a Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Analysis. Author: Simona Giordano, 2013, Published by Routledge2015In: Analize – Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 117-125Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 32.
    de Fine Licht, Jenny
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Karlsson, David
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Skoog, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Här, där eller överallt?: Medborgares åsikter om lokalisering av offentlig service2023In: Ovisshetens tid: SOM-undersökningen 2022 / [ed] Ulrika Andersson; Patrik Öhberg; Anders Carlander; Johan Martinsson; Nora Theorin, Göteborgs universitet , 2023, p. 329-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet handlar om svenska folkets åsikter om lokalisering av offentlig service. Vi analyserar uppfattningar relaterade till bevarande av skolor och stöd till livsmedelsbutiker i glesbygd, samt centralisering av universitet och sjukvård, och undersöker i vilken grad ideologiska och avståndsbaserade faktorer bidrar till att förklara åsiktsvariationen. Dramatiken i lokaliseringspolitiken beskrivs ofta som en konflikt mellan stad och land, eller centrum och periferi, men resultaten visar att bostadsort och avstånd till service inte alls är så avgörande som man skulle kunna tro. Det är svårt att koppla människors åsikter om lokalisering till var de bor. Däremot har ideologiska faktorer en viss betydelse. Våra resultat väcker därmed nya spännande frågor om vad som egentligen förklarar den stora åsiktspridning och de starka känslor som kommer till uttryck när politiker och medborgare hanterar dessa frågor.

  • 33.
    de Fine Licht, Jenny
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Karlsson, David
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Skoog, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Närhet eller effektivitet: en kommunal utmaning2023In: Kommunal Ekonomi, ISSN 0282-0099, no 2, p. 39-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34. De Vito, Laura
    et al.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sociology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Russel, Duncan
    Implementing the Water Framework Directive and Tackling Diffuse Pollution from Agriculture: Lessons from England and Scotland2020In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tackling diffuse pollution from agriculture is a key challenge for governments seeking to implement the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (WFD). In the research literature, how best to integrate and align effective measures for tackling diffuse pollution, within the context of the EU’s multilevel governance structure, remains an open question. This paper focuses on the first and second implementation cycles of the WFD to explore how national governance arrangements either facilitated or hindered the adoption of effective policies, especially with regards to the delivery of agricultural and water policies on the ground. It draws on data collected through systematic document analysis and interviews with key experts, policymakers and interest groups, and presents a comparative analysis of two case studies: England and Scotland. The case studies show that Scotland’s joined-up governance structure, which enabled policymakers and interest groups to work together and to build trust and cooperation, facilitated the adoption of stricter measures for tackling diffuse pollution. In contrast, in England institutional fragmentation prevented a meaningful engagement of all parties and acted as a barrier. The analysis unpacks the design of policy mixes and the conditions that allow national governments to pursue more holistic and integrated governance approaches to overcome opposition from interest groups and gain their support.

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  • 35. Duit, Andreas
    et al.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Dealing With a Wicked Problem?: A Dark Tale of Carnivore Management in Sweden 2007-20112018In: Administration & Society, ISSN 0095-3997, E-ISSN 1552-3039, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1072-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate whether increased participation offers a way of addressing wicked policy problems. We utilize a natural policy experiment in the form of a 2010 reform of Swedish wildlife management policy aiming to solve longstanding conflicts over predators through increased stakeholder participation in regional Wildlife Management Boards. Using a panel study design containing quantitative and qualitative data, we estimate pre- and post-reform levels of three wickedness-reducing mechanisms: legitimacy, deliberation, and conflict intensity. Despite a substantial increase in participation, we find no evidence of reduced wickedness after the reform.

  • 36.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Miljand, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mancheva, Irina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Devolving power from the state: local initiatives for nature protection and recreation in Sweden2020In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 433-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quests for devolving more power to local actors for nature protection stem from both international and national policies. Also, there is a growing recognition of the need for local governments to promote green infrastructure for citizens to recreate and learn about their environment. Starting in 2004, the Swedish government has allocated special funding towards these goals through the Local Nature Conservation Programme (LONA). Virtually all Swedish municipalities have received such funding in pursuit of facilitating wide access to nature and promoting recreational activities, including the protection of nature areas, creating pathways, information devices, and promoting these areas among new societal groups to enjoy. This study presents the results of ten years of experience with LONA. A survey with respondents from 191 municipalities and 20 county administrations, together with 20 key informant interviews, show that the programme has been a success in several respects. Not only have most municipalities created a wealth of new ways to engage local organisations and citizens in nature conservation and recreation, but they have also broadened the ways they think about how nature is important to their constituencies. Due to innovative ways to count voluntary work as local matching of funding, smaller and less resourceful municipalities have also become engaged. Still, the local needs for further initiatives are deemed considerable. State support coupled with knowledge sharing is important to show policy priority to such bottom-up initiatives.

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  • 37.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ett uthålligt språk: genomförande av lagarna om användning av minoritetsspråk i förvaltningsområdena i Norrbottens län åren 2000-20042005In: Nationella minoriteter och minoritetsspråk, Stockholm: Sveriges riksdag , 2005, p. 75-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Enbom, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sjöström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Öhman, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Institutionella villkor för mediehantering: en jämförande kartläggning mellan socialtjänst, skola och polis2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional conditions for news management – a survey of social services, schools and the police

    In recent years, organizations within the public sector have become increasingly attentive to how they are perceived by the public. Professional news management is primarily associated with the private sector, where the rationale has been to maximize profit and market value. For organizations under democratic authority, the ultimate goals are different. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare news management in three types of public sector organizations: school, police and social services. The three types of organizations are chosen because they appear different in some respects that might potentially affect news management.

    The paper draws on data from a national survey of all 21 Swedish regional police authorities and a representative sample of municipal school (n=90) and social service administrations (n=91) (attrition rate < 10%). Data are analyzed in terms of policies, personnel and activities.

    With the exception of a couple of small municipalities, all organizations have a systematic and professional organization for media relations. The police authorities stand out in having implemented more developed strategies. The school administrations tend to be somewhat more active in their media relations than social services.

    Differences between the types of organizations are discussed in terms of variation in institutional conditions for news management. The reason why the police stand out can be attributed to a higher newsworthiness, higher public visibility and less strict secrecy rules. We conclude that conditions relating to public interests have the most impact on the formation of news management. 

  • 39.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó.
    et al.
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Karlsson, David
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige; Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (ifn), Stockholm, Sverige.
    Demokratirådets rapport 2022: den lokala demokratins vägval2022Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Feltenius, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fortfarande mellan stolarna?: Om samverkan mellan statliga myndigheter inom sjukförsäkringen2019Report (Refereed)
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  • 41.
    Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Henriksson, Linnéa
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Business and Economics/Public Administration, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Participation without influence? On the role of councils for elderly and councils on disability2022In: Perspectives on local governance across Europe: insights on local state-society relations / [ed] Björn Egner; Hubert Heinelt; Jakub Lysek; Patricia Silva; Filipe Teles, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, p. 261-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Councils for elderly and councils on disability have existed for many years in the Nordic countries, but very little is known about their actual operations and functions. The purpose of this chapter is to describe and analyse the role performed by those councils in three Nordic countries: Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Of special interest is the role of the councils in terms of participation and influence and how it is experienced among representatives of civil society. The following research questions are answered in this chapter: (a) What is the perception held by representatives of civil society on the role performed by the councils, that is type of participation? Further, is this participation with or without influence? (b) Do their perceptions differ from the views held by other members of the councils, namely elected politicians? (c) Is there any variation between different types of councils and countries in those respects and how could it be explained?

  • 42.
    Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abolishing the Act on System of Choice in Swedish eldercare: on arguments and replacements in the municipalities2024In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 141-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Since 2009 Swedish municipalities may apply the Act on System of Choice (LOV) in, among other things, eldercare. About half of the 290 Swedish municipalities have chosen this within home-care services for older citizens, thus creating conditions for a welfare mix where private and public providers compete. Some of these municipalities later made decisions to abolish LOV. This article aims to analyse the arguments put forward by municipal politicians to abolish LOV and discusses if the case of abandoning LOV represents a case of re-municipalization.

    Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative method was used to analyse decision protocols and media materials from 20 Swedish municipalities that had abolished LOV in home-care services.

    Findings: The article shows that politics and ideology seem to have only a limited significance in abolishing LOV. The most important arguments found in the empirical materials were instead pragmatic and related to the transaction costs: in smaller municipalities about the weak position of private providers and in larger municipalities about reported cases of welfare crime and extensive needs to control and review. In smaller municipalities, LOV was replaced by public monopoly and in larger municipalities by other types of procurements.

    Originality/value: With its focus on eldercare in party-dominated municipalities, the article adds knowledge to the literature on drivers of re-municipalization but also discusses possible delimitations of the concept of re-municipalization.

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  • 43.
    Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Business as usual?: Civil society organizations in a marketized Swedish welfare state2019In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 230-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine the participation of pensioners’ organizations in a context of marketization within local elderly care. The literature on New Public Management (NPM) points out different views on the effects of marketization on the participation of civil society organizations within the decision-making process. One view states marketization implies less of participation by civil society organizations since this stands in conflict with inherent values of NPM, such as efficiency and the citizen as customer on a market. An opposite view states that marketization does not cause this effect, i.e., civil society organizations participate in the same manner as before. The empirical investigation consists of results from a questionnaire sent out to pensioners’ organizations in Swedish municipalities with a marketized elderly care. The main result is that marketization does not cause any major crowding out effect on civil society organizations from the decision-making process. However, according to the survey, there exists a variation in this respect – participation varies between municipalities.

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  • 44.
    Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conservation or disappearance? The public provider of home care services in a system of choice2023In: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 63-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse the position of the public provider (i.e. share of recipients) of home-care services in Swedish municipalities with marketization: a system of choice. Following the literature, an assumption is that the public provider has difficulties in surviving the competition with private home-care providers. In addition, the relevancy of this assumption could differ between different municipal settings. To test this assumption, we use statistical analysis. The main result is that the public provider is a 'strong player' in most municipalities experiencing marketization. However, there exists a variation in this respect – the position varies between municipalities.

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  • 45.
    Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    ”Kunden i fokus!” – om den kommunala hemtjänstens presentation av verksamheten i en marknadiserad äldreomsorg2022In: Nordisk Administrativt Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1285, Vol. 99, no 3, article id 4779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Just over half of Sweden’s municipalities have introduced freedom of choice for users of home-care services, based on the Swedish Act on System of Choice in the Public Sector (LOV). The system of choice results in a ‘welfare mix’ in the municipalities, where public and private providers compete. This article investigates how the public provider of home-care services presents its activities in the context of LOV and marketization. Are approaches to ‘convergence’ or ‘divergence’ applied in relation to the idea of the private company? Convergence means that the public provider attempts to imitate the private company in the presentation of its activities, whereas ‘divergence’ refers to the public provider’s efforts to highlight the differences. The empirical study comprises directed content analysis and includes the 106 municipalities with LOV that have presented the public home-care provider on the municipality’s website. The study concludes that the dominant approach represents divergence, supplemented with several elements of convergence. The public provider’s presentations emphasize, for example, municipal ownership and the municipality’s long-term experience providing home-care services. At the same time, there are company-inspired elements, such as the use of the term ‘customer’. The results of the studyare situated in a discussion of how public providers develop in the context of marketization. The situation that public providers uncritically ‘import’ courses of action from private companies may challenge central values in public administration, such astransparency, objectivity, universalism, and adherence to the democratic chain of delegation.

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  • 46.
    Feltenius, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Med företaget som förebild?: Om kommunal hemtjänst i en marknadiserad äldreomsorg2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport sammanfattar vi de huvudsakliga resultaten från forskningsprojektet ”Med företaget som förebild? Om kommunal hemtjänst i en marknadiserad äldreomsorg”. I projektet har vi analyserat den offentliga utföraren av hemtjänst i kommuner som valt att införa lagen om valfrihetssystem (LOV). Tillämpandet av den lagen gör det möjligt för äldre personer med ett beviljat biståndsbeslut att kunna välja utförare av hemtjänst. Som en följd av LOV har det därför i många kommuner uppstått en blandning av offentliga, idéburna och privata hemtjänstutförare – en så kallad välfärdsmix.

    Införandet av LOV och välfärdsmixen har inneburit förändrade förutsättningar för den offentliga utföraren av hemtjänst. Från att ha varit den enda utföraren inom hemtjänsten, konkurrerar den offentliga utföraren numera med andra utförare. Det kan uttryckas som att samtidigt som marknaden har trätt in i kommunerna, har kommunerna även trätt in på marknaden. Frågan är vad som sker med den offentliga utföraren i denna kontext av marknadisering och konkurrens.

    Mot den bakgrunden undersöker vi vilka tillvägagångssätt som offentliga utförare använder sig av i en kontext av valfrihetssystem. Handlar det om tillvägagångssätt i termer av konvergens eller divergens i förhållande till idén om det privata företaget? Konvergens innebär att kommunal hemtjänst använder idén om det privata företaget som förebild för verksamheten. Med divergens avses det motsatta, nämligen att kommunen använder det privata företaget som motpol för den egna verksamheten.

    För att kunna besvara forskningsfrågan har vi studerat den offentliga utföraren av hemtjänst i sex kommuner utifrån följande aspekter: Organisering, beteckning och logotyp, profilering, uppföljning och kontroll, incitamentsstrukturer samt marknadsföring. Det huvudsakliga material som använts till studien består av intervjuer med kommunpolitiker, tjänstemän och enhetschefer inom hemtjänst. Detta har kompletterats med dokument och annat skriftligt material.

    Resultatet av studien visar att den offentliga utförarens tillvägagångssätt huvudsakligen präglas av divergens i förhållande till idéen om det privata företaget. Det finns flera uttryck för det, som att den offentliga utföraren utgör en integrerad del av den kommunala förvaltningen, att det endast sporadiskt förekommer försök att profilera och marknadsföra verksamheten samt frånvaron av incitamentssystem. Även om den dominerande bilden av den offentliga utförarens tillvägagångssätt huvudsakligen präglas av divergens i förhållande till idén om det privata företaget, finns också inslag av konvergens. Det märks främst genom att hemtjänsten är en ”mätande verksamhet” med inslag av bland annat tidsstyrning av insatserna, men även att äldre personer med hemtjänst benämns ”kund”.

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  • 47.
    Flodén, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conservation, collaboration, and claims: Saemie inclusion and influence in a Swedish national park process2023In: Frontiers in Conservation Science, E-ISSN 2673-611X, Vol. 3, article id 1105415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, environmental governance and management has historically been centralized, with low levels of local influence and control. Although a large proportion of the areas set aside for environmental protection in Sweden are located in Saepmie, the traditional lands of the Saemie people, Saemie influence in the governance and management of these areas has been limited. However, recent events and ongoing processes indicate a potential change in both discourse and policy practice. This paper critically examines the planning process for a proposed national park in the southern part of the Swedish mountain range. It was organized in a collaborative and participatory form, including Saemie representatives on both local and central levels. After several years of planning, local Saemie opposition to the park led to the termination of the process. We investigate discursive constructions of the local Saemie actors’ inclusion in the process and their effects on possible Saemie influence. Our results show that state and Saemie actors articulate inclusion in different ways, limiting and enabling varying forms of influence. The landscape and the state of nature were central constructions affecting the process, and the project’s aim transformed over time – with significant consequences for the process and, possibly, also its results.

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  • 48.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Why do local governments privatize?: Political representation and contagion in the privatization of welfare services in Sweden2024In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has highlighted that decentralization is key to understanding the marketization of the Swedish welfare state, while local political factors are important to explaining the subnational differences in actual degrees of welfare service privatization. Other research has highlighted the impact of pragmatism rather than ideology in local government's decisions to outsource welfare services, including policy diffusion through geographical proximity to highly privatized municipalities. However, little research has been done on the role or type of political representation and whether this matters to the diffusion of welfare service privatization. Thus, there is little knowledge about whether local governments are primarily responsive to public preferences, the ideological position of the local government, or influences from neighboring municipalities. Drawing on the literature on political representation and policy diffusion, I test three hypotheses: that the local governments are primarily responsive to public preferences (sanction representation), that local governments are primarily responsive to their own ideological position (gyroscopic representation), or that local governments are primarily influenced by outsourcing in neighboring municipalities (contagion). Using a time-lagged correlational design with survey data covering both local politicians and ordinary municipal residents, as well as public accounts of municipal outsourcing, I find that public preferences play a negligible role to the privatization process. A minor part of the between-municipal variation in welfare service privatization can be attributed to the preferences of local politicians (gyroscopic representation), while a more substantial part is due to pressures from outsourcing among municipal neighbors (contagion).

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  • 49.
    Granström, Görel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Landström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Mannelqvist, Ruth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Sundström, Lotta
    Åklagarmyndigheten.
    Pilotprojekt för arbete med bemötande av brottsoffer: ett bemötandeprojekt riktat till åklagare2008Report (Other academic)
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    Pilotprojekt för arbete med bemötande av brottsoffer
  • 50.
    Grape, Owe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Blom, BjörnUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.Johansson, Roine
    Organisation och omvärld: nyinstitutionell analys av människobehandlande organisationer2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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