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  • 1. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 956-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 2.
    Adjei, Evans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Surviving start-ups: the importance of entrepreneurial capital2021In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper constructs a theoretical framework that explains how exposure to entrepreneurial activities impacts start-ups’ survival. First, this study examines the effects of entrepreneurial capital (EC)–inherited entrepreneurial practices from parents as a result of the exposure to entrepreneurial activities, on the survival of start-ups. Second, it examines the effects of EC across firm types (family and non-family firm) and regions (smaller and larger region). Using a sample of start-ups in 2002 in Sweden, we found first that EC influences the survival of start-ups, especially start-ups in smaller regions. Further, we found that EC conditions the survival of family start-ups. This paper adds to the literature by opening the discussions on the survival of start-ups and EC. We provide policy implications thereafter.

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  • 3.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandra
    Regional labour market effects of immigration on low-skilled workers: the case of Sweden 1990–20032021In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 456-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of immigration on the labour market outcomes of low-educated natives (i.e. residents without a university diploma). Using the labour market competition theory, which argues that the labour market effects of natives depend on the skill set of immigrants, the paper addresses whether immigrants are complementary to or substitutes for native workers.

    Design/methodology/approach: Longitudinal matched employer–employee data on Sweden are used to estimate how low-educated natives, in regions experiencing the greatest influx of refugees from the Balkan wars, responded to this supply shock with regard to real wages, employment and job mobility between 1990 and 2003.

    Findings: First, the analysis shows that low-educated native workers respond to the arrival of immigrants with an increase in real wages. Second, although employment prospects in general worsened for low-skilled workers in most regions, this is not attributable to the regions experiencing the largest supply shock. Third, there are indications that low-skilled natives in immigration-rich regions are more likely to change workplace, particularly in combination with moving upwards in the wage distribution.

    Originality/value: Rather than seeing an emergence of the commonly perceived displacement mechanism when an economy is subject to a supply shock, the regional findings suggest that high inflows of immigrants tend to induce a mechanism that pulls native workers upwards in the wage distribution. This is important, as the proportion of immigrants is seldom evenly distributed within a nation.

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  • 4.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Family co-occurrence and firm productivity2021In: Family Business and Regional Development / [ed] Basco R, Stough R, Suwala L, Routledge, 2021, p. 83-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our book chapter examines the effects of family co-occurrence (i.e. the presence of familial relationships inside a firm, including between co-workers and between employees and the owner) on firm productivity. Analysing a set of Swedish firms over the 1995–2012 period, we find a positive and significant relationship between family co-occurrence and firm productivity. This positive relationship is particularly evident in smaller regions characterized by a more specialized industry mix. When looking at the specific case of family co-occurrence involving familial relationships with firm owners, we find that the positive productivity effect of familial relationships with firm owners varies depending on the type of family tie. While familial co-occurrence involving partners or spouses is positive and abates the negative effects of employees having very similar or very diverse skills (e.g. based on education), family co-occurrence involving siblings is pretty much non-existent. In sum, our findings suggest that family co-occurrence in workplaces does influence productivity and that the positive or negative impact of familial relationships on productivity is contingent on the type of family tie, the family members’ skills, and the regional context.

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  • 5.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    How Do Socialand Cognitive Proximity affect Plant Performance?: The Importance of Family and Skills Relatedness2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Learning and plant performance: On the effects of internal family networks2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces2016In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

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  • 8.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Morales, Diana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Charting paths to decolonise economic geography2024In: Regions, ISSN 2167-4582, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous publication advocated for integrating decolonial perspectives as a transversal principle to the practice and progress of economic geography (Morales, 2024). In this paper, we propose tools to achieve this goal, highlighting the opportunities that the expansion and diversification of the subdiscipline presents for doing so, anecdotally, we observe increased representation of women and individuals from diverse backgrounds at major conferences, in graduate schools, and as early career researchers (we are yet to witness such diversification at more advanced career stages). This presents a great opportunity to expand our theorisations, engage with different expertise and backgrounds, and learn from different geographies. However, diversifying the pool of economic geographers is not enough, we need to challenge, revise, and transform the structures, practices, and ideologies that have perpetuated colonial legacies in the areas of theory, curriculum and pedagogy, methodology, and the dissemination of research, in both education and practice. This may be an uncomfortable and lengthy, but necessary task. Here we propose some ideas on how to start.

  • 9.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Skogen som resurs in Region Västernorrland: näringslivsnalys 2002-20152019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har denna rapport analyserat skogsnäringarnas utveckling i Västernorrland 2002-2015 med avseende på sysselsättning, antal arbetsgivare och arbetsinkomster. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur Västernorrlands skogsindustri är kopplad till övriga delar av näringslivet i form av det humankapital som de delar med varandra. Detta görs empiriskt genom analyser av regionens skill-relatedness, det vill säga flöden av arbetskraft mellan sektorer i regionen, för att grafiskt visa i vilken grad olika sektorer är relaterade till varandra. Utifrån argumentet att humankapital är en central resurs för regional utveckling låter vi data visa hur regionens skogsnäringar är kopplade till övriga näringslivet, och därigenom belysa branschöverskridande relationer bortom gängse föreställningar om kopplingar drivna av det officiella industriklassificeringssystemet. 

    Även om inkomstutvecklingen och andelen kvinnor i Västernorrland följer riksgenomsnittet har både antalet företag och sysselsatta utvecklats betydligt sämre i Västernorrland. Generella utbildningsnivån har ökat både i riket och i regionen, men Västernorrland har generellt en lägre utbildningsnivå. Skogsnäringarna i Västernorrland bryter delvis mot detta generella regionala mönster. Både antalet sysselsatta och antalet arbetsställen inom skogsnäringarna har kraftigt minskat i antal och tvärtemot regionens generella utveckling har också andelen högutbildade (med minst treårig universitetsexamen) minskat liksom andelen kvinnor. Trots dessa kraftiga rationaliseringar på personalsidan är utvecklingen för skogsnäringarna inom Västernorrland betydligt mindre negativ än för riket i övrigt. Det gäller framförallt inkomstnivåerna bland de anställda. Inkomstnivåerna i Sveriges skogsnäring har sjunkit i relativa termer men ökat med drygt 20% i Västernorrland och ligger 2015 på en något högre nivå än övriga näringar i regionen. Det kan i sin tur tyda på en positiv omvandling mot mer kvalificerade arbetstillfällen, även om det också inneburit kraftiga rationaliseringar. 

    För att belysa hur skogsnäringarna är inbäddade i regionens struktur av kompetenser har vi kartlagt graden av specialisering (hur representerad en industri är i regionen relativ i riket), graden av relatedness(hur väl en industri är kopplad till andra industrier genom personalflöden), och graden av inbäddning (förekomsten av andra industrier i regionen som delar liknande kompetensresurser). När det gäller den relativa närvaron av skogsnäringar i regionen utifrån antalet sysselsatta finner vi att ingen av skogsnäringarna har en betydande relativ specialisering i Västernorrland. Det är endast tillverkning av wellpapp och pappers- och pappförpackningar som har en specialiseringsgrad över 1 (dvs högre än riksgenomsnittet). Det innebär med andra ord att trots ett relativt högt bidrag till regionalt förädlingsvärde och skatter är näringarna underrepresenterade på regionens arbetsmarknad. Det återspeglas bland annat i den relativt kraftiga minskningen av sysselsatta och arbetsställen vi identifierat (och som pågått långt innan den period denna rapport analyserar) men också den relativt kraftiga ökningen av inkomster (högre än riksgenomsnittet för skogsnäringarna och i paritet med regionen i övrigt). Skogsnäringarna har med andra ord genomfört produktivitetshöjande rationaliseringar vilket i sig kan gynna regionen.

    Utifrån vårt analytiska ramverk är det dock aningen mer problematiskt att de relativt få arbetsgivarna inom skogsnäringarna också är relativt isolerade i regionen utifrån ett kompetensresursperspektiv. Det är endast tillverkning av andra byggnads- och inredningssnickerier, skogsförvaltning, drivning och pappers- och papptillverkning som har en genomsnittlig koppling till andra näringar i regionen över gränsvärdet för en kompetensrelaterad verksamhet. Detta återspeglas också i hur inbäddad skogsnäringen är utifrån den relativa koncentrationen av kompetensrelaterade verksamheter. Det är endast ovan nämnda fyra näringar som är tydligt inbäddade i regionens näringslivsstruktur, och endast två (pappers- och papptillverkning och tillverkning av byggnads- och inredningssnickerier) som har ett inbäddningsindex över regionens medelvärde. Det innebär att skogsnäringarna generellt är relativt perifera när vi pratar om vilka kompetensresurser skogsnäringen delar med övriga regionen. Dock är teknisk konsultverksamhet direkt eller indirekt relaterat till flertalet skogsnäringar, vilket kan peka på ökade tekniknivåer och ökat behov av tekniska specialistkunskaper. Även om företag kan kompensera för en svag regional inbäddning genom utomregionala nätverk, innebär framförallt en svag inbäddning att det kan vara svårare för arbetskraften att finna nya produktiva uttryck för sina kompetenser i regionen vid framtida rationaliseringar. Det i sin tur kan driva på utflyttning till andra regioner.

    Utifrån en smart specialiseringsagenda drar vi slutsatsen att policyinsatser bör verka för att öka graden av inbäddning för regionens nyckelindustrier då det kan underlätta en framgångsrik omvandling som bygger på regionens redan existerande kompetensresurser. 

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  • 10.
    Amato, Stefano
    et al.
    IMT School for Advanced Studies.
    Adjei, Evans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Basco, Rodrigo
    American University of Sharjah.
    Suwala, Lech
    Technische Universität Berlin.
    SMEs/Family Businesses and Regional Context2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

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  • 12. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2020In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 589-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Växande Regionala Obalanser2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska ekonomiska geografin genomgår en snabb förändring. Allt fler tjänstejobb skapas i storstäderna. I takt med att industrijobben minskar bidrar det till färre jobb totalt sett utanför storstäderna. Det hänger samman med storstädernas ekonomiska mångfald: att tjänsterna växer fram i nära koppling till andra relaterade verksamheter. Många tjänster kräver specialkompetenser och hög utbildning, resurser som främst finns i storstäder. Därtill finns starkare efterfrågan kopplad till högre privat köpkraft och offentlig konsumtion. Då dessa processer i hög grad är självförstärkande, spelar politiken en viktig roll för att hantera omvandlingens negativa effekter.

  • 17.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The spawning salmon as a resource by recreational use : the case of the wild Baltic salmon and conditions for angling in north Swedish rivers2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse the preconditions for increasedsalmon angling in the remaining wild salmon rivers in Upper Norrland in northernSweden, as well as to evaluate the present and possible future impacts on the localeconomy. It includes the identification of the internal and external conditions, in what ishere called the Salmon Utilisation Landscape, that influence the present use as well asfuture development of the Baltic salmon as a resource in angling. The empirical materialsderive from two mail surveys, 1) a survey of anglers in the River Byske and 2) a jointNordic survey on the economic value of recreational fishing.Interest in recreational fishing is widespread in Sweden. About 35 % of adultSwedes fish for recreation. Recreational fishery and angling can be seen as one expressionof the urbanised society's need for contact with nature and outdoor recreation. Salmonangling is one part of recreational fishery. Salmon are considered by many to be the 'biggame' of angling. Salmon anglers are often the most devoted kind of anglers, investingconsiderable resources into this leisure activity. The subgroup of Swedish salmon anglingspecialists is estimated at 10-30,000 persons. The wider category of Active River anglersconsists of approximately 170,000 persons.Salmon fishing in the River Byske has turned out to be representative of salmonangling in Upper Norrland, comparable with other high-class Scandinavian salmon rivers.The growing proportion of remote anglers in the 1990s indicates that the Byske hasbecome a rather specialised angling water. The groups of Fishing tourists and Home fishersmake up two distinctive categories. Fishing tourists fish more intensively, have higher dailyexpenditures and show higher consumer surplus. They fish the river almost entirely forsalmon in. On the other hand, Home fishers to a large extent claim the right to fish fordecent prices and without any particular restrictions. During the 1990s, the average annualincome to the local economy of Byske river valley derived from salmon angling fishingtourism was about 850,000 SEK.Many river habitats have been depleted during the 20th century and many salmonstocks were exterminated by severe degeneration factors linked to industrialisation. To thisis added the over-fishing on wild stocks of salmon and the mortality syndrome, M74. Theavailable estimates of the potential production of wild salmon smolt in Upper Norrlandaggregates close to 1.2 million. This can be converted to an angling activity of some250,000 fishing days.On the basis of the prevailing cost level, the potential angling activity in UpperNorrland would amount to a direct annual turnover of 75 million SEK, however theimpact caused by fishing tourism is likely to remain within the interval of 10 - 30 millionSEK. The Active River anglers' average willingness to pay for annual access to a salmon andsea trout scenario was 1,100 SEK per capita. There is a widespread attitude among manyanglers that fishing should be accessible for all and prices should be kept low. In theNordic context such opinions are especially evident among Swedish anglers in general, butless frequent among devoted salmon anglers.

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    The spawning salmon as a resource by recreational use
  • 18.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Elekes, Zoltán
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Agglomeration and Social Networks Research Lab, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Budepest, Hungary.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Escaping from low-wage employment: the role of co-worker networks2022In: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 83, article id 100747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-wage jobs are often regarded as dead-ends in the labour market careers of young people. Previous research focused on disentangling to what degree the association between a low-wage job at the start of working life and limited chances of transitioning to better-paid employment is causal or spurious. Less attention has been paid to the channels that may facilitate the upward wage mobility of low-wage workers. We focus on such mechanisms, and we scrutinize the impact of social ties to higher-educated co-workers. Due to knowledge spillovers, job referrals, as well as firm-level productivity gains, having higher-educated co-workers may improve an individual's chances of transitioning to a better-paid job. We use linked employer-employee data from longitudinal Swedish registers and panel data models that incorporate measures of low-wage workers' social ties to higher-educated co-workers. Our results confirm that having social ties to higher-educated co-workers increases individual chances of transitioning to better-paid employment.

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  • 19.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 26, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU; utilizing a revisited neo-functional framework focusing on cultivated spillover and non-governmental forest stakeholders' preferences and strategies. The study is based on in-depth interviews with central non-governmental representatives divided into four categories: forest owners, forest industry, environmental representatives and other representatives. The paper shows that, in spite of lacking interest and engagement in this issue on the Swedish government's side, the Swedish forest owners and the forest industry have made a U-turn and now welcome some form of formalized forest policy in the EU, as it would benefit their interests. They also believe they can influence the content of the integration process. This confirms the theoretical premise that organized interests, in this case non-governmental forestry stakeholders in Sweden, can act as pressure groups for further coordination and integration. National and transnational elites and their work in transnational networks and associations seem particularly important in this context.

  • 20.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Arctic geographies in the making: understanding political economy, institutional strategic selectivity, and agency in tourism pathway development2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has long been promoted as a catalyst for socio-economic development in sparsely populated areas based on the commodification of culture and natural environments. This thesis examines the case of Arctic tourism in the two neighbouring northern counties of Finnish Lapland and Norrbotten (Sweden). Although characterised by similar resource endowments for tourism, these two regions have historically pursued divergent pathways, leading to different industry characteristics and spatial development outcomes. More recently, Lapland and Norrbotten have witnessed a remarkable increase in Arctic-themed tourism featuring soft nature-based winter activities and resort accommodation for export markets.

    To better understand the complex factors facilitating the emergence and consolidation of this pathway, a theoretical framework combining perspectives drawn from evolutionary economic geography, geographical political economy, and the strategic relational approach to structure and agency was selected. Through this theoretical lens, the thesis studies how wider politico-economic trajectories, institutional priorities and strategic selectivity, and entrepreneurial agency are intertwined in tourism path creation that takes place in path-dependent regional opportunity spaces. Empirically, the thesis rests upon a case study methodology that integrates expert interviews, document analysis, and spatial mapping of regional development funding for tourism projects and firms.

    The findings show that the geographical reimagination of Lapland and Norrbotten as Arctic tourism regions is part of wider socio-economic transformations. Export-oriented Arctic tourism is linked to a global political economy promoting economic growth and entrepreneurship, governed by multiscalar public-private networks, as the foundation of sustainable development and social wellbeing. For local places, the alignment with the Arctic represents an upscaling strategy to gain visibility and competitiveness within globalised politico-economic environments. At the regional level, public organisations mediate Arctic tourism pathways inter alia by granting funding and financing for firms and public-private development projects. The institutional strategic selectivity entailed therein privileges commonly established actors and business ideas over new ones, fostering pathway reproduction and the (unintended) continuation of uneven development structures. These opportunity spaces also conditioned the rise of Arctic-themed resort enclave as a distinct tourism product in Lapland and Norrbotten. Although these venues offer potential for new tourism development in previously underdeveloped locations as well as local business cooperation and spinoffs, there remain challenges, not least in relation to their limitations regarding year-round employment and a homogenous market focus implying a boom-and-bust vulnerability.

    To summarise, the findings of the four papers included in the thesis provide a nuanced picture of the processes that have shaped Arctic tourism in the two case study regions, raising attention to the limits and opportunities of export-oriented tourism for regional development and local communities in sparsely populated areas.

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  • 21.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Public funding and destination evolution in sparsely populated Arctic regions2023In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1833-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the role of public funding in transforming tourism pathways in sparsely populated Arctic destinations, comparing Northern Sweden and Finnish Lapland. Our theoretical framework considers destination path plasticity and moments of change through the lens of geographical political economy to understand patterns of uneven development. This perspective helps explain how regional development funding driven by multi-scalar political priorities and global markets set structural conditions for tourism. We present a spatial analysis of public funding between 2007 and 2021 for private firms and public projects, complemented by document analysis and expert interviews. We find that public funding in Finnish Lapland has largely reinforced ‘Arctification’ and export-driven tourism in a few locations. In Northern Sweden, it has focused more on redistributing resources to micro-businesses and broader socio-economic development in lagging regions, yet with limited impacts on changing dominant tourism pathways. Public projects improved knowledge creation and networking among public and private actors but were largely unable to consolidate emerging pathways in the long run. Overall, regional development funding supported incremental change around existing pathways and had limited transformative effects in response to shocks or disruptive moments due to the rigid nature of funding programmes.

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  • 22.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hall, C. Michael
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Building a gateway to the arctic: a political economy perspective on tourism development and conservation in Finnish Lapland2022In: Tourism transformations in protected area gateway communities / [ed] Susan L. Slocum; Peter Wiltshier; John Basil Read IV, CABI Publishing, 2022, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gateway communities conventionally focuses on micro-level aspects that emerge in the nexus of environmental conservation, tourism development and local livelihoods. However, the embeddedness of places and the local tourism sector in the modes of production, consumption and capital circulation of contemporary capitalism remains oftentimes unaddressed. This chapter, therefore, adopts a political economy perspective and examines the macro-frameworks that condition tourism development in Finnish Lapland, in tandem with attempts to consolidate its gateway position to the Arctic. The aim is to encourage a more nuanced view on gateway status in regions where tourism development is driven by multi-scalar stakeholder interests and embedded into competitive regional development initiatives. While the devastating effects of climate change and human induced pollution on the fragile terrestrial and maritime Arctic ecosystems are well recognized, the spatial reimagination of Lapland in the Arctic represents another neoliberal step towards the total commodification of the environment.

  • 23.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Tjärhanteringen i Västerbottens län under 1800-talets senare hälft: en studie av produktion och transporter med särskild hänsyn till Ume- och Vindelälvens dalgångar1973Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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    Tjärhanteringen i Västerbottens län under 1800-talets senare hälft: en studie av produktion och transporter med särskild hänsyn till Ume- och Vindelälvens dalgångar
  • 24.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Human capital, skills and uneven intra-urban employment growth: The case of Göteborg, Sweden 1990-20082014In: Urban Studies Research, ISSN 2090-4185, E-ISSN 2090-4193, Vol. 2014, article id 260813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has elucidated the role of talents to explain urban growth differences but it remains to be shown whether urban dynamics, such as human capital and a mixed local population, can be linked to intra-urban employment growth. By use of a unique longitudinal database, we track the economic development through the lens of intra-urban employment growth of a number of primary urban areas (PUA) in Göteborg, Sweden. Regarding factors influencing employment growth we find that relative concentrations of human capital protect areas from rising unemployment during severe recession (1990-1993) and recovery (1990-2000) while the composition of skills is beneficial during recovery (1990-2000) and long-term growth (1990-2008). Our findings suggest that neither too high concentrations of creative occupations, nor too low, is beneficial. Thus, human capital drives much of the employment changes in relation to the recession and early transition from manufacturing to service but composition of skills is more relevant for explaining long-term intra-urban employment growth.

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  • 25.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Knowledge flows in high-impact firms: how does relatedness influence survival, acquisition and exit?2016In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 637-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the impact on regional renewal and employment ascribed to rapidly growing firms (high-impactfirms, HIFs), this paper argues that little is still known in economic geography and business studies todayregarding the mechanisms influencing growth of such firms and, hence, the potential impact on regionalemployment. The aim of this paper is thus to explore how the qualitative content of skills (i.e. the degree ofsimilarity, relatedness and unrelatedness) recruited to a firm during a period of fast growth influences itsfuture success. Our findings, based on a sample of 1,589 HIFs in the Swedish economy, suggest that it is notonly the number of people employed that matters in aiding the understanding of the future destiny of the firms– but also, more importantly, it is the scope of the skills recruited and their proximity to related industries.

  • 26.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ström, Patrik
    On the waterfront: studying the development of residences and work-places at Norra Älvstranden, Gothenburg, Sweden2014In: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 29, no 4-5, p. 429-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following economic restructuring, waterfront redevelopment emerges as a post-industrial option for struggling cities and regions that will boost economic growth. If functioning according to plan, publicly initiated and privately executed waterfront redevelopment will attract educated and high-income earning residents as it simultaneously transforms derelict industrial grounds into residential areas and science parks. The recent financial crisis of 2008 has seen severe turbulence in the urban economy resulting in for example foreclosures and drops in real-estate value. Drawn on this background, the aim of this paper is to shed light on whether a specific place-based activity: the establishment of a redeveloped waterfront in Gothenburg, Sweden facilitating residences and workplaces, has attracted human capital in the form of residents and workers often termed ‘talented’ and ‘creative’. This paper uses a unique longitudinal micro database (GILDA) containing information on residence, work, age etc. covering the entire Swedish population between the years 1990 and 2008 and focuses on flows of in- and out-migration of two human capital sub-groups; the arts-educated bohemians and the engineering-educated consultants. Results show that the waterfront attracts resident consultants and not bohemians, while the growth of workplaces stagnate and decline following the global economic recession of 2008. The paper contributes to knowledge on the complexity of redevelopment and how difficult it is to manage this process.

  • 27.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University / Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Labour market externalities and regional growth in Sweden: the importance of labour mobility between skill-related industries2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1669-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between labour market externalities and regional growth based on real labour flows. In particular, we test for the importance of labour mobility across so-called skill-related industries. We make use of a sophisticated indicator that measures the degree of skill-relatedness between all industries, and we employ actual labour flows between 435 4-digit industries within 72 Swedish functional labour market regions to estimate how labour market externalities are related to regional growth in the period 1998-2002. Both our fixed effect models and GMM-estimates demonstrate that a strong intensity of intra-regional labour flows between skill-related industries impacts positively on regional productivity growth, but less so on regional employment growth. Labour mobility between unrelated industries tends to dampen regional unemployment growth while a high degree of intra-industry labour flows is only found to be associated with rising regional unemployment.

  • 28.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Creative Outposts: Tourism's Place in Rural Innovation2012In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 383-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of local tourism innovation in order to see how tourism development benefits tourism stakeholders including the local community. The paper is concerned with the social impacts of tourism and contends that there is a latent positive social capital in rural communities. Some "creative outposts" manage not just to survive but to thrive, and tourism often acts as a catalyst for innovative local development. Examples of tourism innovation can be new and better interactions among tourism stakeholders as well as changes in institutional arrangements. Entrepreneurs and institutional stakeholders are interviewed to investigate the dynamics of local tourism innovation. The social dimension in which tourism stakeholders operate is poorly understood and this paper presents a case study of Jokkmokk village with results showing tourism has a subtle yet palpable positive social role in the community. Themes emerging from the interviews are: the tourist office and tourism firms co-evolve over time, tourism networks are loose and project-based, tourism is a desirable diversifier, and tourism contributes to the local leisure space. Particular focus is given to the fact that this is an Arctic rural community, and the research provides a basis for understanding tourism innovation systems in this context. Tourism development is found to be complementary to rural coping strategies in "creative outposts". 

  • 29.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism development against the odds: the tenacity of tourism in rural areas2012In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 333-337Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-Firm Survival in Tourism?2013In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 31.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism Evolution: On the Synergies of Tourism Studies and Evolutionary Economic Geography2013In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, p. 370-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) is receiving increasing interest from tourism scholars. EEG has proven to be a useful explanatory paradigm in other sectors, e.g., high-technology and creative sectors. There remains, however, a lack of theoretical discussion on evolutionary principles of economic change within relatively low-technology service sectors, of which tourism is a prime example. This paper introduces EEG to a wider tourism audience by presenting the core principles of EEG and how they relate to tourism studies. A selection of new research paths combining EEG and tourism studies is highlighted together with a number of latent research synergies which can progress both EEG and tourism studies. The paper calls for further empirical and conceptual engagement with EEG by tourism scholars.

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  • 32. Bullock, Ryan C. L.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vuojala-Magga, Terhi
    Ambjornsson, Emmeline Laszlo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Forestry administrator framings of responses to socioeconomic disturbance: Examples from northern regions in Canada, Sweden, and Finland2016In: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 945-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global forest sector endures rapid crises and more gradually evolving social, political, and environmental influences, little attention has been paid to how forest administrators view changing sectoral conditions and response measures. We analyze policy frames mobilized by 27 senior actors within major private and state-owned companies, and government agencies in northern forest regions of Canada, Sweden, and Finland. Results show that four intervening theme areas are engaged by forest administrators to frame sectoral changes and responses, namely, the role of international markets; timber pricing and supply; the role of the state; and environmental policies. However, perceived regional differences in the level of impact of the international market changes, public versus private wood supply dependence, and satisfaction with forestry institutions lead actors to frame problems and solutions differently. While forest policy discourse is relatively consistent across these regions, responses are specified to regional contexts.

  • 33.
    Butler, Richard
    et al.
    School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
    Hall, C. Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    The influence of fashion and accessibility on destination consumption2006In: Tourism business frontiers: consumers, products and industry / [ed] Dimitrios Buhalis; Carlos Costa; Francesca Ford, Abingdon: Routledge, 2006, 1, p. 94-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bwalya-Umar, Bridget
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Geography and Environmental Studies Department, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Mubanga, Kabwe H.
    Do locals benefit from being in the "tourist capital'?: Views from Livingstone, Zambia2018In: Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1467-3584, E-ISSN 1742-9692, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 333-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used 268 household and 13 key informant interviews to get the views of Livingstone city residents on economic, environmental and sociocultural effects of tourism on local households and the city. Results show very few economic benefits at household level with residents perceiving big tourism-related businesses, the state and its officials to be the main beneficiaries. Although tourists were commended for helping vulnerable residents, they were blamed for contributing to prostitution and diseases by local residents; and were targeted for petty thefts by unemployed youths. Sociocultural effects of tourism are significant for residents but are routinely ignored or glossed over by tourism development practitioners. Tourism had resulted in a general improvement in the city environs. It is concluded that tourism development projects must target increased benefits for residents to increase benevolent attitudes from them towards tourism in their city, and to ensure a more sustainable variant of tourism is achieved in the tourist capital.

  • 35.
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Mines, Tourism and Related Diversification in the Swedish Far NorthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Byström, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Mining tourism in abandoned and existing mines in the Swedish Far North2022In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057, Vol. 58, no 1, article id e40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish North is sometimes described as a resource periphery, while others choose to label it a pleasure periphery. Regardless of the terms used, the region is characterised by problems such as out-migration and demographic issues. This study investigates why there are such different perceptions of the same area, and whether there is any contradiction between extractive resource industries and the tourism industry. This is done by collecting visitor data from mining companies and conducting interviews with a variety of respondents in three mining communities in northern Sweden. Mining tourism is a phenomenon occurring in this region and can be regarded as a context in which the two main narratives meet while being a rather overlooked form of tourism. This is partly due to the low level of knowledge regarding its impacts, but also to a somewhat established idea of mining tourism as a "bad"form of tourism. Individuals' perceptions of mining tourism as a phenomenon seem to be highly value-related and influenced by both location and occupation. As such, various opinions can be explained by social exchange theory, which proposes that attitudes will be influenced by individuals' evaluation of outcomes for themselves and their community. In this paper, the emergence of mining tourism is understood as knowledge creation rooted in a regional path dependency on mining and tourism. Hence, mining tourism becomes a new regional tourism product that contributes to tourism, at least in terms of standard technical visits and, at best, a well-developed tourist attraction that appeals to visitors in quantities similar to iconic regional attractions such as the Icehotel. Then again, a tourism industry selling dreams of "untouched nature"argues that this tourism product produces "bad imaging".

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  • 37.
    Byström, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Space Penetration in the Far North: Resource Extraction as Precondition for Tourism DevelopmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38. Carina, E.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Implementation of forest certification in Sweden: an issue of organisation and communication2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 473-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of nature conservation is often implemented on productive forest land largely by means of forest certification a market-driven, voluntary system of third-party verification of the fulfilment of specific goals. This study assesses how certification requirements are being implemented in various organisations in the forest sector at various levels, and the problems and opportunities identified at each level in order to implement the requirements of the standard. Based on interviews with 34 stakeholders in Sweden, the study demonstrates that forest certification is a communication issue: it places great demands on communication or "information logistics" between different parts of the felling and forest management chain, from the top management to the contractor in the field. Integration with environmental performance systems, clarity in the division of responsibility, formalisation of requirements for forest planning and further integration of a culture of continuous improvement and internal reporting could support implementation of the certification system.

  • 39.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Govan, Jeanie
    Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous experiences of the mining resource cycle in Australia’s northern territory: Benefits, burdens and bridges?2018In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model of how Indigenous communities may engage with the mining sector to better manage local development impacts and influence governance processes. The model uses a resource lifecycle perspective to identify the various development opportunities and challenges that remote Indigenous communities and stakeholders may face at different stages of the mining project. The model is applied to two case studies located in the Northern Territory of Australia (Gove Peninsula and Ngukurr) which involved different types and scales of mining and provided different opportunities for development and governance engagement for surrounding Indigenous communities. Both cases emphasise how the benefits and burdens associated with mining, as well as the bridges between Indigenous and outsider approaches to development and governance, can change very quickly due to the volatile nature of remote mining operations. There is thus a need for more flexible agreements and more dynamic relationships between Indigenous, mining and other governance stakeholders that can be adjusted and renegotiated as the conditions for mining change. The final discussion reflects on how the model may be applied in the context mining governance and Indigenous stakeholder engagement in the Fennoscandian north.

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  • 40. Carson, Dean Bradley
    et al.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Demographic instability as a barrier to remote economic development in the north: Are cities the answer?2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 15, article id 8566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote and sparsely populated northern peripheries in Australia, Europe and North America experience high rates of population turnover and struggle to recruit and retain popula-tions. There has been discussion about the extent to which their larger urban centres may be key to navigating common ‘boom and bust’ cycles, thus contributing to more stable and resilient demographic and economic development in their jurisdictions. This paper examines the population development in twelve remote northern jurisdictions dominated by a large city, comparing urban and regional growth patterns around periods of economic boom and bust since 1990. It was expected that periods of high population growth would be initially led by regional areas where resource projects are commonly located, but that the cities would ultimately benefit more from high growth periods and suffer less from periods of low population growth. It was also expected that cities would retain key populations better than regions because of a growing global urban preference. Results suggest that regional areas did grow more at the start of high growth periods, but there was no universal experience of higher city growth throughout the two boom and bust cycles. Rather, each city and region had unique growth pattern properties. Cities must not be assumed a priori to be the drivers of demographic development, but attention needs to be paid to what types of cities promote less volatile growth and development potential in the regions.

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  • 41.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Harwood, Sharon
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    A City for the Temporary?: Political Economy and Urban Planning in Darwin, Australia2010In: Urban Policy and Research, ISSN 0811-1146, E-ISSN 1476-7244, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin, in Australia’s Northern Territory, faces urban planning challenges consistent with those reported in ‘resource peripheries’ around the world. The city has recently experienced strong population growth associated with resources and construction projects, and an increase in public sector workers sent to address the challenges faced by remote (particularly Indigenous) populations. The Northern Territory Government is determined to foster further growth, and promotes ‘major projects’ in urban development as the key. Analysis of the public debates about two recent major projects (the Waterfront Development and the Lyons residential development) reveal a planning process consistent with the clientelism observed by Rayner and Howlett (2009) in resource peripheries in Canada. The risks of clientelism are both the marginalisation of important internal publics and the institutionalisation of ‘temporariness’ as the driver of growth. Shifting to a more consultative planning process might help stimulate internal development, but could also put at risk the relationships that the Northern Territory Government has established with external investors.

  • 42.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    International lifestyle immigrants and their contributions to rural tourism innovation: Experiences from Sweden's far north2018In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the contributions of international lifestyle immigrants to new tourism development and innovation in the sparsely populated north of Sweden. Based on a qualitative case study, the paper examines how lifestyle immigrants contributed as tourism entrepreneurs to the formation of local capital in tourism, and stimulated local learning and innovation spillover through networks of interaction and collaboration. The theoretical framework integrates concepts from rural lifestyle migration, local community development, and local tourism innovation systems. The results document how immigrants emerged as important drivers of new tourism products, processes and markets, and introduced a range of new ideas, skills and external networks to the region. Yet, an in-depth social network analysis reveals that immigrants made more limited contributions to networks, collaborations and knowledge exchange with local tourism stakeholders, thus limiting learning outcomes and innovation spillover at a broader local system level. Reasons for this lack of systemic interaction included socio-cultural distance between immigrants and locals, limited levels of trust and reciprocity, diverging development and lifestyle priorities, and issues around exclusive immigrant networking. Finally, the relevance of the theoretical framework is discussed in relation to its applicability to other immigrant mobilities in sparsely populated rural areas.

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  • 43.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Hodge, Heidi
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Understanding Local Innovation Systems in Peripheral Tourism Destinations2014In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism destinations in peripheral areas are often large regions established by centralised government agencies to encourage collaboration between dispersed communities and foster innovation. Relatively little research attention has been paid to the impact that centrally defined destination boundaries have on whether and how small communities contribute to innovation at a regional level. This paper examines the case of Burra, a small town in rural South Australia. It analyses the networking, collaboration and knowledge exchange behaviour of tourism stakeholders in the context of the state-government-defined 'Clare Valley' tourism region. Data were drawn from a web-based social network analysis, in-depth interviews, historic document analysis and field observations. The study found that the local tourism system had limited aspirations and capabilities to collaborate with other towns in the region. Lack of regional engagement was only partially due to intra-regional competition and resistance to regional boundaries. More significant barriers included a local culture of operating in isolation, an embedded reliance on public sector leadership to manage systemic interactions, an aging system with limited ambition to change and an inability to harness in-migrants and externally based stakeholders to stimulate knowledge transfer. Changing the imposed destination boundaries would have limited impact on the operation of the local system. The paper concludes that effective regional destination development in peripheral areas needs to be better informed by more detailed understandings of local tourism systems and their capacities to engage.

  • 44.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    Lakehead University, Canada.
    Theoretical perspectives on rural tourism development2015In: Demystifying theories in tourism research / [ed] Kelly S. Bricker; Holly Donohoe, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2015, p. 46-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Chabala, Mwila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Privatization of State Owned Enterprises: An Analysis of Impact on Regional Migration Patterns in Zambia Between 1990-20002014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, migration has been an ongoing phenomenon driven by various factors ranging from social, political, economic and environmental situations. Zambia is not immune to migration and has seen a considerable share of its population engage in both internal and external migratory activities. Recognising the important role that migration plays in any economy and how it is influenced by circumstances prevailing at different points in time, this thesis seeks to analyse migration flows between Zambia's regions and the impact that privatisation of state owned enterprises had on migration patterns between 1990 and 2000. Because of challenges in gathering statistics to conduct a thorough quantitative analysis, the study employs a descriptive methodology using statistics collected from the Central Statistics Office online data catalogue and institutions such as the World Bank. The statistics are organised, calculated and analysed using Microsoft Excel and GIS Arcmap. The results indicate that soon after privatisation began in 1991, there was a sharp reduction in employment figures and a reduction in the proportion of urban population. The proportion of rural destined migrants was 2.3 times higher than that of urban destined migrants during the period of privatisation, an indication that people were leaving urban areas for rural areas. Return migration also rose, however, the country experienced both urbanisation and counter urbanisation during the period 1990-2000. Findings of this study show similarities to Beauchemin & Schoumaker's (2006) findings in Burkina Faso were changes in migration patterns were observed after the economy underwent structural change in the 1980's.

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  • 46. Dannevig, Halvor
    et al.
    Bay-Larsen, Ingrid
    van Oort, Bob
    Keskitalo, Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptive capacity to changes in terrestrial ecosystem services amongst primary small-scale resource users in northern Norway and Sweden2015In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from case studies in which we investigate the interrelations between changes in ecosystem services (ESs) and adaptive capacity among small-scale users of multi-use forest or outfields resources in northern Sweden and Norway. The study presents a framework that utilizes scenarios for changes in ESs under climate change in combination with qualitative interviews with outfield resource users in order to assess their adaptive capacity to the projected changes. The study illustrates that ESs may change significantly under climate change, and in particular affect winter snow and ice conditions, for instance increasing the duration of the growing season but with consequences for pasture quality. We find that given structural constraints, the key factors that influence the selected resource users' adaptive capacity at an individual level include motivation and entrepreneurial inclinations, which are related to the lifestyle choice of making a livelihood based on small-scale and multi-use occupations.

  • 47.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, Canada.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Consuming stories: Placing food in the arctic tourism experience2013In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 8, no 2-3, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Circumpolar North holds an increasing allure for travellers, combining romantic perceptions of ‘wilderness’ with a nostalgia for a frontier land far removed from ‘civilization’ and the maladies of modernity. Following global food tourism trends, the unique attributes of the circumpolar cupboard are being recognized, thus enhancing the appeal of northern destinations. Arctic food tourism is embracing the rich storytelling traditions of circumpolar peoples, both the indigenous people who have always lived with the land and more recent newcomers who have made ‘the North’ their home. The slow and local food movements are also impacting how Arctic foods are presented within tourism. This article examines emerging food tourism trends in the Circumpolar North. The growing importance of food and its relationship to land-based traditions and tourism activities in northern Canada and Sweden is evaluated. How northern foods and food-related traditions are used to position polar tourism in the marketplace is explored through textual analysis. There are unique challenges posed by this complex development environment including challenges encountered in developing tourism in peripheral areas generally, as well as specific food-related matters. Results underline impacts of food tourism trends and highlight how, in the North, consuming food is also about consuming stories. 

  • 48.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Department of Recreation and Tourism, Vancouver Island University.
    Maher, Patrick
    Department of Community Studies, Cape Breton University.
    Dawson, Jackie
    Department of Geography, Institute for Science, Society and Policy, University of Ottawa.
    Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin
    Department of Geosciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
    Huijbens, Edward
    Icelandic Tourism Research Centre, University of Akureyri.
    Lamers, Machiel
    Environmental Policy Group, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University.
    Liggett, Daniela
    Gateway Antarctica, University of Canterbury.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Department of Human Geography, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University.
    Stewart, Emma
    Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, Faculty of Environment, Society & Design, Lincoln University.
    Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships2016In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 35, article id 24980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverseinterests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade,various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integratedand comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing theseimpacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning,implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change andresponsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of thisarticle is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On theone hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrumof impact fields.Onthe other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and farreachingactivities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational dataand participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, weprovide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest toAOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, includingAlaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic andRussia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. Onthe basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International PolarTourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that thepotential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS issignificant and has been overlooked.

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  • 49. de Vos, Duco
    et al.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    van Ham, Maarten
    Meijers, Evert
    Does broadband internet allow cities to 'borrow size'?: Evidence from the Swedish labour market2020In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 1175-1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Borrowed size refers to the idea that small cities near larger metropolitan centres can reap the advantages of large agglomerations, but without the costs of agglomeration. The study explores whether broadband internet helps such smaller cities to enjoy the labour market benefits of a larger city. Using Swedish micro-data from 2007 to 2015, together with unique data on broadband, suggestive evidence is found that broadband indeed allows smaller cities to reap such benefits. Borrowed size is primarily driven by the overall penetration of broadband in the place of residence, rather than by broadband availability at the residence.

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  • 50.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tokmakcioglu, Kaya
    Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Second Home Property Values in the Swedish Mountain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has and will have its impacts on the tourism industry, especially where weather-dependent amenities constitute the key attractions. In this study, our aim is to assess the impacts of climate change on existing and proposed second homes in and around ski resorts in the Swedish mountains, which are determined as among the most attractive locations for such development. It is thought that, along with climate change induced natural disasters and phenomena such as landslides, avalanches, floods and permafrost thaw, property value loss (or gain) is a major climate change impact that needs to be considered in conjunction with the vulnerability of skiing-based second homes and their immediate and wider regions. For this purpose, firstly, corresponding (and lagged) states of the ski climate are treated as estimators for second home sales prices for the 2000-2016 period and, secondly, the quantified relationship is simulated according to future climate projections, based on data available from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The results are mapped in terms of existing and potential skiing-based second home regions, the latter with a certain focus on the "winners", and according to different representative concentration pathways.

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