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  • 1.
    Abdallah, Wissam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vad är rättvisa?: En undersökning om vem eller vilka Platons teori riktar sig till2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plato´s Republic is maybe the most widely read philosophical work of all times. It is the earliest surviving, systematic utopia in Europe´s history and continues to inspire people today. But who did Plato want to address with his work and why? In this paper I will discuss these issues. My thesis is that Plato wanted to direct his Republic to people, men and women, who have a good character and love wisdom in order to make them to think radically differently from the traditional norms. If these would-be philosophers could challenge the old-fashioned way of seeing things they could take the lead to establish a just society. I will also discuss critically two alternative approaches from other philosophers.

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  • 2.
    Abreu Zavaleta, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Disagreement Lost2021In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 199, no 1-2, p. 1899-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a puzzle about non-merely-verbal disputes. At first sight, it would seem that a dispute over the truth of an utterance is not merely verbal only if there is a proposition that the parties to the dispute take the utterance under dispute to express, which one of the parties accepts and the other rejects. Yet, as I argue, it is extremely rare for ordinary disputes over an utterance’s truth to satisfy this condition, in which case non-merely verbal disputes are extremely rare. After examining various responses to the puzzle, I outline a solution using the framework of truthmaker semantics.

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  • 3.
    Abreu Zavaleta, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gómez-Torrente on reference to ordinary substances2020In: Manuscrito, ISSN 0100-6045, E-ISSN 2317-630X, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Kripke-Putnam orthodoxy, a term like 'water' refers to samples of the same substance as the items on the basis of which the term was introduced. However, observations due to Needham (2000) and Leslie (2013) cast doubt on the idea that there is a uniquely privileged notion of substance relevant to the determination of reference, in which case it would seem at best indeterminate what the word `water' refers to. In response to this problem, Gómez-Torrente (2019) has argued that there is a privileged notion of substance that plays a role in the determination of reference, namely, the ordinary notion of substance. This paper argues that Gómez-Torrente's proposal is not successful. Contrary to what Gómez-Torrente supposes, there is no uniquely privileged ordinary notion of substance; rather, there are many notions of substance compatible with the meaning of 'substance' none of which seems privileged over the rest.

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  • 4.
    Adcock, Tina
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Roberts, Peder
    Department of History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nations, Natures, and Networks: The New Environments of Northern Studies2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 7-11Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 5.
    Agamalova, Medeya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Klimat och Rättvisa: Varierande grader av utsatthet för klimatförändringar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that changes in climate have an effect on people all around the world.There is also data supporting the claim that people are affected differently based on their ability (or lack thereof) to handle the imposed risks. The degree of ability can also determine whether adaptation and mitigation measures will be successful. This thesis discusses a few climate justice theories and principles to settle on those that can handle the variety in degrees of imposed risks. Arguments against isolated treatment of greenhouse gas emissions are drawn from discussion of the per capita principle. It is also argued that ideas about justice ought to be included into the theories and principles which guide international agreements. It is also shown that the absence of an account of historical responsibility ignores important considerations. Arguments against the rival account of Posner and Weisbach further strengthens the defended view.

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  • 6. Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Hermansson, Jörgen
    Jarstad, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Karlsson, Christer
    Widmalm, Sten
    Projektsamhället och hoten mot akademin2016In: Det hotade universitetet / [ed] Shirin Ahlbäck Öberg, Li Bennich-Björkman, Jörgen Hermansson, Anna Jarstad, Christer Karlsson och Sten Widmalm, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2016, p. 9-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pagin, Peter
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svedberg, Maria
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 8.
    Ahlkvist, Emilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Samkönade äktenskaps vara eller icke vara inom Svenska kyrkan.: En argumentationsanalys av debattartiklar från Kyrkans tidning och Dagens Nyheter.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Samkönade äktenskaps vara eller icke vara inom Svenska kyrkan utförs en argumentationsanalys, baserad på hermeneutiks metod och kvalitativ textanalys, av debattartiklar som behandlat frågan som Svenska kyrkan ska behålla vigselrätten efter att svenska staten har gjort äktenskapsbalken könsneutral. Alla undersökta debattartiklar är publicerade mellan 2008-12-11 och 2009-10-31 i Kyrkans tidning och Dagens Nyheter. I resultatanalysen framgår det att både ja- och nej-sidan använder sig av ungefär samma typer av argument men med olika vinklingar och tolkningar. Nej-sidan använder sig dock mer av ett toleransperspektiv än ja-sidan. I ja-sidans argumenterande kan man hitta en underliggande normkritik av heteronormativiteten.

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  • 9.
    Ahlstrand, Kajsa
    et al.
    Teologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Palmer, Brian
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige; Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Willander, Erika
    Svenska kyrkan.
    Guds närmaste stad?2008In: Guds närmaste stad?: en studie om religionernas betydelse i ett svenskt samhälle i början av 2000-talet / [ed] Kajsa Ahlstrand; Göran Gunner, Stockholm: Verbum , 2008, p. 9-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ailert, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Avsikt, insikt och moraliskt ansvar: En genomgång av diskussionen gällande doktrinen om trippel effekt mellan Frances M. Kamm och John Harris.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 11.
    Albin, Irgens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Det Stora Vilddjuret och Yogan: En religionshistorisk studie av Aleister Crowleys yoga och hans påverkan på sentida efterföljare i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar den brittiske tänkaren Aleister Crowley, hans tolkning avyoga, och hans tankars påverkan på moderna efterföljare av hans religion i Sverige.Uppsatsen behandlar frågorna om hur Crowleys syn på yoga utvecklats och hur denkan ses i svenska efterföljares tankar idag. Uppsatsen använder sig av litteraturstudierav Crowleys verk, samt intervjuer med medlemmar i ordern Ordo Templi OrientisSverige. Uppsatsen utmynnar i att Crowleys tankar om yoga kan ses i sin historiskakontext påverkad av bland annat orientalism och religionism, och att Crowleys tankarfortsätter påverka moderna utövare av yoga inom O.T.O.

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  • 12. Aldrin, Viktor
    et al.
    Holmgren, Anders
    Religionskunskap 1 för gymnasiet: ett digitalt läromedel2016Other (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Aler Tubella, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Barsotti, Flavia
    Strategy Office, ING Analytics, ING Bank, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Koçer, Rüya Gökhan
    Strategy Office, ING Analytics, ING Bank, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Mendez, Julian Alfredo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ethical implications of fairness interventions: what might be hidden behind engineering choices?2022In: Ethics and Information Technology, ISSN 1388-1957, E-ISSN 1572-8439, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of fairness in machine learning models is widely acknowledged, and ongoing academic debate revolves around how to determine the appropriate fairness definition, and how to tackle the trade-off between fairness and model performance. In this paper we argue that besides these concerns, there can be ethical implications behind seemingly purely technical choices in fairness interventions in a typical model development pipeline. As an example we show that the technical choice between in-processing and post-processing is not necessarily value-free and may have serious implications in terms of who will be affected by the specific fairness intervention. The paper reveals how assessing the technical choices in terms of their ethical consequences can contribute to the design of fair models and to the related societal discussions.

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  • 14.
    Algander, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Anders Hansson, Vad är fel med ojämlikhet?2023In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, no 1, p. 43-45Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Algander, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bör vi skapa lyckliga människor?2023In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 21-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Algander, Per
    Nova Institute of Philosophy, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Comment on Brown and Savulescu2019In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 645-645Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Alm, Erika
    Institutionen för idéhistoria och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    ”Ett emballage för inälvor och emotioner”: föreställningar om kroppen i statliga utredningar från 1960- och 1970-talen2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on the polyphonic body politics of modern society, as activated in three Swedish Government Official Reports from the 1960s and 1970s. The analysis takes as its point of departure the assumptions about embodiment and identity uncovered in these reports. I argue that the reports – which concern the establishment of juridical sex, the right to abortion, and sterilization – all deal with the question of the individual’s right to decide on issues relating to his or her own body. The commissioners themselves claim that their proposals are formulated in the name of individual rights; and that they are progressive and modern. Although the importance to uphold the individual’s right to autonomy is thus emphasized, there are other values that need to be accounted for. The individual’s sovereignty in these matters is per definition a question open for discussion, and it actualizes a conflict of interest between the individual on one hand and the state or the public interest on the other, or between the individual and professional experts. Who is to decide in matters of the body? What assumptions are made in relation to sex, gender and desire? In addition to the historical approach – the attempt to reconstruct the discourses on sex, gender, and desire, individual autonomy and public interest, generated in the mentioned reports – I initiate a theoretical line of inquiry that draws from the conviction that we need to seek new ways to approach the body; ways that challenge dichotomies that are taken for granted, such as the distinction between body and mind, inner and outer, biological and social, nature and nurture etc. Focusing on Judith Butler’s reformulation of Aristotle’s concepts form and matter into the dynamic concept of materialization, I argue that the concept form has analytic qualities that make it especially useful when analyzing discourses of the body.

     

  • 18.
    Alm, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Cultural Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lundahl Hero, Mikela
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna
    Division of Social Work and Social Pedagogy, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Laskar, Pia
    Department of Research and Collections, National Historical Museums of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Lena
    Department of Cultural Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Diana
    Department of Gender Studies, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Wasshede, Cathrin
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Västra Götalands Län, Sweden.
    Introduction2020In: Pluralistic struggles in gender, sexuality and coloniality: challenging Swedish exceptionalism / [ed] Erika Alm; Linda Berg; Mikela Lundahl Hero; Anna Johansson; Pia Laskar; Lena Martinsson; Diana Mulinari; Cathrin Wasshede, London, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Almquist, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Att klassificera miljöetiska teorier: En analys av den centristiska terminologin och Lars Samuelssons kritik av den2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 20.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Begär eller hushållning: Om behovets historia2001In: Förbjudna njutningar: Spår från konsumtionskulturens historia i Sverige / [ed] Peder Aléx & Johan Söderberg, Stockholm: Podium , 2001, p. 37-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    De osynliga intellektuella: Exemplet Gertrud Bergström1995In: Obemärkta: Det dagliga livets idéhistoria / [ed] Ronny Ambjörnsson och Sverker Sörlin, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 1995, p. 199-224Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den rationella konsumenten: KF som folkuppfostrare 1899-19391994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the consumer co-operative in Sweden, specifically The Co-operative Union and Wholesale Society and the ideas that were developed within and disseminated by this organization between the years 1899 and 1939. The main theories used in the dissertation are Max Weber’s ideal-type and Norbert Elias’ civilization process.

    Initially, the dissertation describes the roots of the co-operative movement in Sweden and subsequently, the informal program and the organization of The Co-operative Union, formed in 1899.

    From the very beginning the co-operative union fiercly attacked consumer credit. The consumer (it was often a women that was implied) would learn how to control impulses and passions and never allow her instincts to influence a decision when making a purchase. Here, the co-operative connected with economic theories that put consumption above production. Through the co-operative, every authentic need could be met through the supply of real goods. Certain products, false and/or bad, were to be avoided. The consumer should continuously debate good taste, i.e. simple, practical and beautiful goods, which answered genuine needs in society. Through debate and discussion in the public arena, insight would be gained into utility and correct aesthetics. The discussion about “natural needs” included campaigns for nutritious food and functional shops and houses. Beside this campaign in study circle activities and co-operative newspapers, the mind of the reader.

    Study circles and newspaper articles directed a challenge to the woman to not only be “the woman with the basket” but also to be more efficient, i.e. planning her time in a spirit of Taylorism. This demanded both discipline and rationality in order to avoid credit, but also calmness, peace of mind and responsibility for more than just oneself. In the late 1930s she was supposed to be economist, nutrition expert, cook, cleaner, psychologist and child-raiser, all at the same time. All these were seen as factors that were a part of being a rational consumer.

  • 23.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Från Konsumentbladet till moderna VI1993In: Presshistorisk årsbok, Stockholm: Föreningen Pressarkivets vänner , 1993, p. 116-132Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Gränsöverskridande samarbete: Herman Stolpe och konsumentkooperationen2008In: Mångsysslare och gränsöverskridare: 13 uppsatser i idéhistoria / [ed] Bosse Sundin & Maria Göransdotter, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2008, p. ?-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    KF en folkrörelse med ideal2000In: Sverige 1900-talet / [ed] Stefan Westander, Susan Båge, Johan Tufvesson, Bolla dölling, Dan Jansson, Arne Järtelius, Kristin Rosenberg, Höganäs: Bra Böcker , 2000, p. 88-93Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Konsumera rätt - ett svensk ideal: behov, hushållning och konsumtion2003Book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Konsumera rätt: om ett svensk medborgarideal2001In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har vi betonat vikten av att hushålla och spara. Varje samhälle har regler, som föreskriver hur vi skall bete oss som samhällsmedborgare. Men de reglerna stannar inte vid det privata hemmets dörr. Också hemmets behov har definierats enligt normer om "rätt" och "fel". Det blir alldeles tydligt om vi som här studerar svensk konsumentupplysning, skolverksamhet i hemekonomi och organisationer som KF och Svenska Slöjdföreningen. Konsumera rätt, och ha rätt behov.

  • 28.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Kooperationen som folkbildare1990In: Tiden, ISSN 0040-6759, Vol. 7, p. 419-427Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Kvinnan med korgen: Hemarbete och konsumentmakt1995In: Kooperativ årsbok 1996 / [ed] Aléx et al, Stockholm: Föreningen Kooperativa Studier , 1995, p. 55-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Samarbetet reser vidare2001In: Reseberättelser: Idéhistoriska resor i sociala och geografiska rum / [ed] Lena Eskilsson och Mohammad Fazlhashemi, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2001, p. 95-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Skolkökslärarinnorna och kunskapen om hemmet2002In: Sekelskiftets utmaningar: Essäer om välfärd, utbildning och nationell identitet vid sekelskiftet 1900 / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hattje, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2002, p. 127-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Spara och Slösa – svensk 1900-talskonsumtion2001In: Efter arbetet: Studier av svensk fritid / [ed] Peder Aléx och Jonny Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2001, p. 120-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Aléx, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Swedish Consumer Cooperation as an Educational Endeavor1999In: Consumers against Capitalism?: Consumer Cooperation in Europé, North America and Japan, 1840-1990 / [ed] Ellen Furlough & Carl Strikwerda, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc , 1999Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Ambjörnsson, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Platsens ande: idéer om Antarktis: idéer om Antarktis2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 292-319Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Amnell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Integration: Elizabeth Andersons imperativ2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Anderalm, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Animalism, foster och döda människor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 37.
    Anderalm, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Human Being or Human Brain?: Animalism and the Problem of Thinking Brains2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Animalismens huvudargument säger att du är det tänkande objektet som sitter i din stol, och enligt animalisterna själva innebär detta att du är identisk med ett mänskligt djur. Argumentet är dock problematiskt då det inte tycks utesluta eventuella tänkande delar hos det mänskliga djuret, som till exempel dess hjärna. Detta beror på att hjärnor också kan beskrivas som tänkande, samt att även de befinner sig inom det spatiella område som upptas av det mänskliga djuret. I den här uppsatsen argumenterar jag för att tänkande hjärnor är ett problem för animalismen och att tesen att vi är identiska med hjärnor är ett verkligt hot mot den animalistiska teorin om personlig identitet. Olika argument som lagts fram mot tesen att vi är hjärnor avhandlas, som till exempel att hjärnor inte existerar och att hjärnor inte tänker. Jag diskuterar även två argument som tidigare använts för att visa att vi är personer snarare än mänskliga djur (the Transplant Intuition och the Remnant Person Problem), men i det här sammanhanget bedöms de utifrån deras förmåga att stödja hjärnteorin.

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  • 38.
    Andersson, Björn
    Umeå University.
    Runor, magi, ideologi: en idéhistorisk studie1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation deals with runology from the perspective of the history of science and ideas. Its point of departure is the controversial question among runologists of whether or not runes were used for magical purposes and places this question in atradition of magic writing, with its roots in early antiquity (when written language emerges in Mesopotamia), and in thoughts about symbolism, whose origins are lost to usin the mists of our prehistoric past.

    Sweden's — and Scandinavia's — first true runologist, Johannes Bureus, considered runes not as an ancient form of writing but rather as a guide to metaphysical truths, a cabbal uppsalica. However, rune magic and the symbolic interpretation of runes also hasan historic currency of the less-savoury sort: as an element in an enthusiasm for allthings Germanic, displaying powerful racist tendencies, which burgeoned around theturn ofthe last century and which reached its zenith during the Nazi era in Germany.

    Concurrently, an interest in the magical properties of runes blossomed among runologists in Scandinavia. Some of them went so far as to claim that the Germanic peoples, under the influence of their contact with the literacy systems of Mediterranean cultures, had also adapted the magical-writing practice which we know from the numerous inscriptions and lead tablets found buried throughout the Roman empire. The foundations of this so-called "gematria" consists of the fact that the letters are used as numbers and therefore have a numerical value. In this manner, each word resulted in a sum, and it appears that practitioners considered that names or terms with the same numerical value also corresponded to one another in a mystical manner. In the case of runes, the numbers 16 and 24 were considered significant, since they corresponded to the two rune alphabets, the elder and the newer futhark. One of these runologists was Sigurd Agrell, professor of Slavic languages in Lund, according to whom rune gematria had its origins in Mithraism, which was proven by the similarities between the Mithraic calender and the secret sequence of rune lines (the uthark), as well as in the very names of the runes themselves.

    After the Second World War these rune-magic theories were subjected to harsh criticism, at least in part as a result of the symbolic excesses of lay runologists in Nazi Germany. The demand for linguistically-grounded research with neo-Positivistic overtones was now confronted with a runology based on an increasingly hermeneutic perspective, wherein philological knowledge concerning the religious, magical and social functions of the inscriptions would now comprise the basis for their interpretation. In contrast with its mother discipline, archeology, runology has almost entirely lacked a theoretical and methodical discussion. Lately however, an increasing interest in theory can be discerned, the result of large-scale research projects, computerization and a transition to more comprehensive studies.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gifts and society in fourteenth century Sweden2013In: Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia, Brill Academic Publishers, 2013, Vol. 16, p. 219-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kyrkan som plats vid skolavslutningar?: En studie av lärare och lärarstudenters attityder gentemot kyrkovistelse och konfessionella inslag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka vad blivande lärare och aktiva lärare har för attityder tillskolavslutning och högtidsfirande i kyrkan samt skolavslutning och högtidsfirande i kyrkan medkonfessionella inslag. Studien baseras på en internetenkät som blivande lärare och aktiva läraresvarat på. Resultatet visar att den största andelen av de aktiva lärarna och blivande lärarna varpositiva till vistelsen i kyrkolokalerna i samband med skolavslutningar och högtidsfirande. Denstörsta andelen var däremot negativa till företeelsen med konfessionella inslag vid dessahögtidsfiranden. Äldre aktiva lärare och blivande lärare var i högre grad positiva till bådevistelsen i kyrkan och de konfessionella inslagen än de yngre. Slutsatserna är att sekulariseringeni Sverige ser ut att fortsätta i linje med de reviderade sekulariseringsteorierna, då konfessionalitetinte länge ses som något önskvärt bland den största andelen av aktiva lärare och blivande lärare.Dock finns det också nämnvärda avvikelser från detta mönster. Kyrkan fortsätter samtidigt ha ensekulär, traditionsbunden roll i skolan och är därför fortfarande relevant.

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  • 41. Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Enbom, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Bland småbrukare och storspioner2008In: Provins: Norrländsk litterär tidskrift, ISSN 0280-9974, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Critical rationalism and the principle of sufficient reason2009In: Rethinking Popper, Berlin: Springer , 2009, p. 21-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the principle of sufficient reason we should always try to give sufficient reasons for the truth (or high probability) of our opinions. All such attempts lead to a trilemma of justification: they force us to choose between infinite regress, logical circle, or dogmatism. According to the principle of critical testing we should always try to test our opinions critically. It is reasonable to claim that opinions that has survived critical tests are true. Such truthclaims are conjectural and do not confront us with any trilemma of justification. Scientific theories can be tested through observations and experiments. Statements about observations and experiments can be tested by experience. Although Critical Rationalism is a philosophical position, it can also be critically discussed. If we follow the principle of critical testing, no trilemma of justification arises when we claim that it is reasonable to accept Critical Rationalism. This opens the way for a critical philosophy stressing the fallibility of human knowledge.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den kritiska rationalismens intellektuella moral2012In: Från ett öppet universum: Studier i Karl Poppers filosofi / [ed] Ola Lindberg, Umeå: h:ström , 2012, p. 18-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Der Anfang der Kopernikanischen Revolution2021In: Hans Albert und der Kritische Rationalismus: Festschrift zum 100. Geburtstag von Hans Albert / [ed] Volker Gadenne och Reinhard Neck, Berlin: Peter Lang , 2021, p. 269-278Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Förnuftig tro och intellektuell moral2009In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is Experience a Reason for Accepting Basic Statements?2013In: Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in Honur of Ingvar Johansson on His Seventieth Birthday / [ed] C. Svennerlind, J. Almäng & R. Ingthorsson, Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag , 2013, p. 42-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of accepting a basic statement is distinguished from the logical justification of the content of a basic statement. Although experience cannot logically justify the content of a basic statement, it is argued that experience might be a reason for accepting a basic statement.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Karl Popper und seine Kritiker: Kuhn, Feyerabend und Lakatos2019In: Handbuch Karl Popper / [ed] Giuseppe Franco, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2019, p. 717-731Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of the criticism of Popper's philosophy of science from the point of view of the history of science. Is is shown how this criticism can be answered with the help of basic ideas in critical rationalism.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Karl Popper und seine Kritiker: Kuhn, Feyerabend und Lakatos2018In: Handbuch Karl Popper / [ed] Giuseppe Franco, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend und Imre Lakatos kritisieren Poppers Wissenschaftsauffassung mit den Argumenten, dass die Erfahrung keine sichere Grundlage für Falsifikationen von Theorien gibt, und dass falsifizierte Theorien in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte selten vollständig aufgegeben werden. Es wird gezeigt, dass eine kritische Diskussion von fehlbaren Prüfsätzen möglich ist, und dass es nicht notwendig ist, falsifizierte Theorien vollständig aufzugeben. Mit diesen Argumenten kann Kuhns, Feyerabends und Lakatos’ Kritik zurückgewiesen werden.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Kritische oder beschreibende Wissenschaftstheorie?2005In: Deskriptive oder normative Wissenschaftstheorie? / [ed] Bernward Gesang, Frankfurt, Main: Ontos Verlag, 2005, p. 75-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kritische Prüfung und Erkenntnisfortschritt2019In: Begegnungen mit Hans Albert: Eine Hommage / [ed] Giuseppe Franco, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2019, p. 23-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Als Student der Wissenschaftstheorie an der Universität Göteborg in Schweden Ende der sechziger Jahre habe ich zum ersten Mal Karl Poppers Logik der Forschung und Hans Alberts Traktat über kritische Vernunft gelesen. Dieser erste Kontakt mit der Philosophie des Kritischen Rationalismus hat einen tiefen Eindruck bei mir hinterlassen. Besonders aufschlussreich fand ich Alberts Ausführungen über das Prinzip der zureichenden Begründung und das Prinzip der kritischen Prüfung. Albert zeigt, dass das Prinzip der zureichenden Begründung zu einem Trilemma (dem Münchhausentrilemma) führt, während das Prinzip der kritischen Prüfung es ermöglicht, das Trilemma zu vermeiden und Erkenntnisfortschritt zu erzielen.

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