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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Strategisk kommunikation i ideella organisationer: En retorisk analys av hur Världsnaturfonden WWF kommunicerar förtroende i olika kommunikationskanaler2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has aimed to examine how Världsnaturfonden WWF communicates trust in various communication channels. We also wanted to see if there are any differences in the different channels on how WWF communicates trust. It is a qualitative study that uses critical rhetoric analysis as method. We choose to analyze the communication channels sponsored facebookposts, personalized letters and two sites from WWF:s website. The empirical data has been analyzed with the aid of theories of strategic communication, non-profit organizations, rhetoric and media specificity. The results show that WWF uses various communication strategies to communicate trust in all of the examined channels. The most important aspects of trust is communicated through presenting what WWF:s collected money has contributed to, that the organization appears to be knowledgeable and engaged in the various areas they work for. In all of the channels we have examined, we have also seen that WWF uses a personal address to the reader. In the sponsored facebookposts and in the personalized letters, we find that WWF communicates more trust than on the website by using more emotions. WWF express more gratitude for donors and more concern for the various animals and the environment affected. Other differences we have seen between the channels are that they differ in how they are designed, but these differences are mainly due to different norms relating to the specific channels. This study has contributed with knowledge of how a non-profit organization such as WWF rhetorically communicates trust to different target groups through different communication channels. This study has also contributed to knowledge of the differences and similarities regarding how WWF communicates trust through the three different communication channels.

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  • 2.
    Afvander Westman, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    MAN FÅR LÄRA DEM VARFÖR DE VET SAKER: en kvalitativ studie kring slöjdlärares outtalade hantverksundervisning2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tysta kunskapen förstås på olika sätt, det kan vara en kunnighet som inte verbaliseras och det kan vara en inövad och underförstådd kunnighet när det kommer till ett hantverk. Studiens syfte är att skapa större förståelse för hur slöjdlärare reflekterar kring och kännetecknar tyst kunskap som del av sin undervisning. Genom kvalitativa intervjuer med fem slöjdlärare samlas data in och analyseras med hjälp av en tolkning av Lindströms teoretiska modell gällande estetiska lärprocesser. Studiens resultat visar att slöjdlärare definierar den tysta kunskapen som en del av en redan erövrad kunnighet. Lärarnas egen hantverkskunnighet överförs till eleverna genom interaktion kring det hantverk som praktiseras, detta sker både verbalt och icke-verbalt. Användandet av metaforer och inkludering av slöjdspecifika begrepp nyttjas för att öka elevernas förståelse. Några av slöjdlärarna i studien verbaliserar gärna sitt handlande samtidigt som de visar och de andra slöjdlärarna visar hellre utan att verbalisera. Slöjdlärarna väljer att tala om tyst kunskap i relation till sin undervisning som det outtalade, det icke verbaliserade, den del av undervisningen då läraren fungerar som ett stöd för elevens egen utveckling av kunnighet.

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  • 3.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Christer Ericsson: Bandybaronen ifolkhemmet – familjen De Geer, bruket och folket2015In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 98, no 2-3, p. 155-158Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Ethnology: Theories and methods2018In: The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology: Topic: Theory and method / [ed] Hilary Callan, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2018, 1, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnology is a disciplinary field that is more or less interwoven with anthropology. Its main focus is the analysis of various cultures and cultural expressions, usually within a national context. In practice, ethnologists favor an approach toward culture from the individual perspective, with a key interest in how single ordinary individuals, seen as active cultural beings, think and act in their everyday lives. This implies that they are both shaped by and contributors to the shaping of cultures in their everyday lives. However, within ethnology, culture viewed as a bidirectional phenomenon is not merely regarded as an individual process. Rather, it is regarded as something that occurs in collective social contexts. When analyzing culture, ethnologists usually employ a combined focus on its ideational and folkloric aspects as well as aspects of materiality, locality, and identity. Ethnology's general methodological approaches comprise ethnographic fieldwork as well as studies of artifacts and sociocultural structures.

  • 5.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Etnologi: Kontinuitet och anpassning av ett kulturvetenskapligt ämne2018In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnology. The Adaptability and Continuity of a Discipline

    This article discusses the development throughtime and space of ethnology as a multifaceted disciplinaryfield. The objective of the article,however, is to challenge possible pre-assumptionsof ethnology as an incoherent i.e. variable and inconstant discipline, due to national limitations andtheoretical and methodological responsiveness, byproposing some core aspects regarding focalpoints,perspectives and methods that may beconsidered as prominent and unifying amongstethnologists both in Sweden and abroad. The articleargues for a general and continuing disciplinarianfocus on culture as a pluralistic, complexand individual-based phenomenon, as well as fundamentalinterest in the functions, social structures,constructions and experiences of cultures.Furthermore, the article describes how both earlierand later generations of ethnologists in generalhave chosen to study culture based on a selectionof recurring perspectives that comprise boththe intangible and tangible aspects of culture, aswell as the spatial and social contexts in whichcultures are formed and maintained. Finally, thearticle highlights how different types of ethnologicaldata are collected and analyzed via a combinationof constantly developed methods of culturalanalysis, though rooted in a disciplinarian tradition. In conclusion, despite a continuous progressionand adjustments within ethnology in regardto perspectives and methods over time and space,this has more often resulted in additions ratherthan replacements. For this reason, it seems relevantto define ethnology as a coherent discipline,designated by both adaptation and continuity.

  • 6.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Folkfest kring lokalhistoriska betydelser: Kulturarvsbetonade festivaler för främjandet av lokal identitet på postindustriella mindre orter2018In: Tidsskrift for kulturforskning, ISSN 1502-7473, E-ISSN 2387-6727, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 45-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celebrating local history – Cultural heritage festivals in post-industrial small towns as prerequisites for local identification

    Many minor post-industrial communities in Sweden, such as Surahammar and Timrå, struggle with financial difficulties and socio-cultural challenges due to the industrial decline and increased dependency on immigration from neighboring cities. In the light of this, arranging annual local festivals with a focus on cultural heritage can be seen as an opportunity to strengthen local identity as well as its inhabitant’s coexistences and sense of belonging. This article aims to analyze two local festivals, viewed as platforms for the production, communication and experiences of local cultural heritage values. Empirically resting on data collection and analysis of mainly ethnographic fieldwork, comprising interviews and observations, the article argues that these post-industrial local festivals involves identificational negotiations in regard to both the ritualized communication and implementation of local cultural heritage values. In conclusion, these festivals confirms a clearly industrial linked local cultural heritage but at the same time challenges it through enlargements, sufficiently vigilant connected to a local past in order to allow for inclusive local identifications, regardless of e.g. spatial origins.

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  • 7.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Ideologisering, manifestering och gemenskapande: kulturarvsproduktion som process i lokala industrisamhällen under omvandling2019In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 65-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideologization, manifestation and community making 

    - Processes of heritage production in two local communities in transition

    As the local industry has taken on an increasingly marginalized role in post-industrial small towns, like Surahammar and Timrå, in Central and Northern Sweden, an industrial past has emerged as the more valuable politically, economically but also socio-culturally, to nurture, preserve and identify with in these local industrial communities that undergo transition. This article aims to analyze local heritage production as a use and representation of history. Empirically resting on data collection and analysis of primary and secondary sources, comprising interviews, observations, archives and contextual literature, the article argues that local post-industrial heritage production may involve continuation as well as alterations of processes started in the past industrial society. Also, it comprises local adaptation as well as adjustments on heritage discourses. In conclusion, despite of local differences similarities may, as shown in Surahammar and Timrå, indeed occur in both design and content. This involves a pre-dominance of “non-professional” producers and including and excluding representations of places and people. Furthermore, local heritage provide combined political, economic and socio-cultural arenas of different ideologies as well as sites for creation of shared values and evoking emotions of belonging in diversified communities. In Surahammar and Timrå this has been done recurrently with the use of effective homogenization strategies within the field of heritage, i.e. by emphasizing sufficiently remote pasts to induce temporary but nevertheless efficient “classless and rootless” unity in pride of local place and values.

  • 8.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Kulturella värden och värderingar av kultur i ett industrisamhälle i förändring2005In: Historiens vägar: Gestaltning, historia och kulturarv, Härnösand: Landstinget Västernorrland/ISKA, Härnösand , 2005, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Mobile lives and communities: Towards an ethnological understanding and knowledge production of belonging and spatial identity in the "rural" Commuter community2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Uppsala universitet.
    Pendlarliv med tillgång till både land och stad: det berikade goda livet?2022In: Polarisering och samexistens: kulturella förändringar i vår tid / [ed] Maria Zackariasson; Magnus Öhlander & Oscar Pripp, Umeå: Borea , 2022, p. 155-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Place as Cultural heritage?: Towards a norm critical and norm creative spatial cultural heritage production2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Recension av Carlsson, Bergdahl, Annika & Andersson, Jerker: Hembygd - någonstans i Sverige2013In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 96, no 4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13. Agnidakis, Paul
    Rekrytering och genomströmming: Pedagogiskt fokus på Antropologin som mångfacetterat och multilokalt ämne2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Rätten till platsen [Elektronisk resurs]: tillhörighet och samhörighet i två lokala industrisamhällen under omvandling2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Surahammar och Timrå är två mindre orter i mellersta respektive norra Sverige som förenas i ett framgångsrikt industriellt förflutet. Båda har även, i likhet med många andra orter som präglats av en industriell produktion, drabbats av den senare tidens förändrade villkor för industrin. För Surahammars och Timrås del innebär det att ett beroende av industrin succesivt kommit att ersättas med ett beroende av nyinflyttning från i första hand de intilliggande städernas befolkning. Invånare som har ett förflutet från tiden då industrin dominerade i samhället samsas numera om den lokala ytan med dem som har flyttat in under senare tid. Den här etnologiska studien handlar om hur människor skapar sig en plats i två mindre industrisamhällen som genomgår omvandling. Vilka betydelser tilldelar man platsen man bor och verkar på, och hur hävdar man sin lokala existens inför sig själv och gentemot andra?

  • 15.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Rätten till platsen: Tillhörighet och samhörighet i två lokala industrisamhällen under omvandling2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the demise of industry that has led to a search for new solutions for the survival of smaller communities traditionally dependent on industrial production. In two local industrial communities in central and northern Sweden, Surahammar and Timrå, industrial dependency has gradually been replaced by a dependency on immigration, largely from the neighboring cities of Västerås and Sundsvall. In the changed order of these local communities, old and new inhabitants have had to negotiate positions in order to co-exist. The objective of the thesis is to present how old and new inhabitants relate to and are attached to the local community as a place in which they reside and live their lives. In focus is an interest in the local identity construction of the inhabitants, i.e. how they identify with the place in which they dwell and live their everyday lives, with and in reference to each other and the outside world. Another concern relates to just how different local options for identification can be for individuals and for collective groups of people.

    Adopting a phenomenological and constructivist perspective, I regard local place as something that both old and new inhabitants are shaped by and shape in a collective process based on contrasts. The analysis is based on empirical data gathered during several years of fieldwork in the studied communities. The empirical data mainly consists of interviews and participant observations with old and new inhabitants in Surahammar and Timrå. Moreover, biographical literature, newspaper articles and data retrieved from the Internet have contributed important insights into how the local place is experienced and valued among the different groups of inhabitants. The thesis recognises the values and symbols that old and new inhabitants agree upon and that often result in spatial attachments. In addition, ideological, social and cultural differences are depicted as factors that shape a place as old and new inhabitants articulate local attachment and identification based on different grounds, needs and dreams.

  • 16.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Trans-local identities: Regional belonging and communality in rural Post-Industrial/agricultural Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Urban commuting: Expanding urban spaces through mobility practices in post-industrial Swedish regions2015In: / [ed] Stockholmia, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Gunnarsdotter, Yvonne
    Hansen, Kjell
    Stiernström, Arvid
    Waldenström, Cecilia
    Slutvärdering av Landsbygdsprogrammet 2007-2013: Axel 3: Förbättra livskvalitet på landsbygden; Axel 4: Leader - genomföra lokala utvecklingsstrategier2016Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Houltz, Anders
    Stadsrummet reflekterar tiden2016In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, no 71, p. 5-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Strandin Pers, Annika
    I riktning mot en normkreativ kulturmiljövård: Metodutveckling utifrån exemplet Statens fastighetsverk i Sverige2018In: Kulturstudier, E-ISSN 1904-5352, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 167-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv och metoder, hämtade från etnologin och kulturgeografin, och med en empirisk utgångspunkt i tre kulturmiljöer som förvaltas av Statens fastighetsverk (SFV) i Sverige, analyserar artikeln historiebruk i form av kulturarvsproduktion och föreslår ett applicerbart normkritiskt samt i förlängningen normkreativt angreppssätt för att möjliggöra alternativa, varierade och mer inkluderande historieskildringar kring kulturmiljöer. Genom att utveckla och integrera dessa synsätt och verktyg vill artikeln argumentera för att man får tillgång till nya berättelser om platsen; berättelser som går utöver den traditionella, „normala“ historien om staten, enskilda byggnaders materiella utformning och den sociokulturella och ekonomiska eliten. En långsiktig effekt blir att det möjliggör ökad mångfald och inkludering både i fråga om förmedling och representation av platser som komplexa rumsliga och sociokulturella helheter.

  • 21.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Strandin Pers, Annika
    Normkritisk kulturmiljöpraxis: Exemplet Rosersberg2015Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Strandin Pers, Annika
    Normkritisk kulturmiljöpraxis: Exemplet Statens fastighetsverk2017Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    Sundberg, Molly
    Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Uppsala universitet, Sverige.
    De som inte strömmar igenom: Undersökning om studenters avbrott vid Uppsala universitet2017Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ahlsved, Kaj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Idrottsföreningars sång- och musikkultur ur ett jämlikhets och medborgarperspektiv2022In: Saga och sed: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademiens årsbok, ISSN 0586-5360, no 2021, p. 55-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ahlsved, Kaj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Idrottspropagandans klingande former: Helsingfors gymnastikklubbs uppvisningsverksamhet 1875–19002021In: Finsk tidskrift : kultur, ekonomi, politik, ISSN 0015-248X, E-ISSN 2670-2541, no 7-8, p. 9-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ahlsved, Kaj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sang som våpen: Historier om sangens slagkraft2023In: Puls: Journal for Ethnomusicology and Ethnochoreology, E-ISSN 2002-2972 , Vol. 8, p. 112-115Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Alenius, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Det svenska kulturreservatet: Kulturreservatet Öna som representant för kulturellt bevarade odlingslandskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Det svenska kulturreservatet
  • 28.
    Alexis, Ida Salina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Äntligen Bild!: En studie om motiverat lärande i skolan genom ämnesintegrering av bildämnet2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna magisterstudie är bildämnet i fokus för elevers motivation vid integrationen mellanämnena bild och svenska. Studien syftar till att ge fördjupade kunskaper om hur elever iskolans yngre åldrar upplever motivation vid ämnesintegrering. Begreppet ämnesintegrationinnebär att olika ämnen samverkar med varandra i syfte att sammanfoga skilda delar till enhelhet.Undersökningen inspireras av en fenomenologisk och hermeneutisk forskningsansats. Genom kvalitativa semistukturerade intervjuer synliggörs ett elevperspektiv med fokus på känslor ochupplevelser av motivation vid ämnesintegrerad undervisning. Empirin består avgruppintervjuer, som är riktade mot fenomenologins livsvärldsintervju med 15 elever i åk 2,samt analyser av data från deltagande observationer och fältanteckningar frånämnesintegrerade lektionstillfällen.Fyra huvudteman kring motivation visar sig tydligt framträdande i studien utifrånresultatanalysen. Vikten av att lärandet sätts i ett sammanhang, Vinsten med att det finns entydlig mottagare, Möjligheten att som elev få vara medbestämmande, Ett helhetsperspektiv pålärande. Med hjälp av dessa tematiseringar kan resultatet från forskningsstudien svara på deämnesdidaktiska frågorna kring vad, hur och varför elever och deras motivation kan påverkasav ämnesintegrering genom bild i undervisningssituationer. Undersökningens slutliga utfallvisar på att elevers upplevelser av motivation kan innefatta ett starkt samband mellan, känslor,rörelse och kommunikation. Studien ger läsaren även vidare kunskaper om hur motivation kanupplevas och kännas ur elevernas synvinkel. Min förhoppning har varit att med hjälp av dettaperspektiv finna och tillföra ny kunskap, vilket den har visat sig göra.

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  • 29.
    Almgren Mason, Suzanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media.
    Life in the labyrinth: a reflexive exploration of research and politics2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about exploring the politics within and around research. The starting point is a European project which ran from late 1997 to the end of 2000. It was called "Self-employment activities concerning women and mi­norities: their success or failure in relation to social citizenship policies" and had as its objective to provide the EU-Commission with recommendations for improved self-employment policies. Background material was comple­mented by interviews with "experts", but the main source of information was in the form of biographical interviews with the self-employed, or for­merly self-employed, themselves. The qualitative method was used as a way of researching how individuals' background and experiences influenced their decision to become self-employed as well as their tendency to use labour market policies available for starting businesses. It was also a way to find out how those policies impacted on the individuals' lives. The conse­quent recommendations included a suggestion for broadening existing policies to comprise social aspects as well as financial allowances, and also the caution that self-employment was perhaps not the best solution to labour market and social exclusion.

    This latter doubt arose during project work, as did questions about methodology, the role of the researcher, and eventually about the politics that inform research. Only briefly touched upon in the project reports, these issues instead became the basis for the thesis. A reflexive rereading of the Final Report led to a critical examination of the political uses of con­cepts and categories, of how stereotypes affect research, and of the embeddedness in ethnocentric discourses of both research and researcher. The use of postcolonial and feminist theory, discourse analysis and a social constructionist perspective broadened the analytical possibilities and fur­thered understanding of the connections between politics and research. A conclusion is that a comprehensive change in the social order as well as in people's conscience is required to stem ethnic discrimination in society and the perpetuation of stereotypes and preconstructed categories in research.

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    Life in the Labyrinth
  • 30.
    Almlöf, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Sjöholm, Sannah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    ”Du kan ju tolka den tillförbannelse”: En intervjustudie om hur lärare i hem- och konsumentkunskap tolkar och realiserar kursplanen i ämnet.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Syftet var att undersöka hur lärare i hem- och konsumentkunskap resonerade kring tolkningsarbetet av kursplanen, vilka motiv som ligger bakom hur ämnesinnehåll prioriteras samt vilka faktorer som påverkar lärares sätt att tolka och realisera kursplanen. Kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer genomfördes med sex lärare i hem- och konsumentkunskap. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av tematisk analys. Det framkom att visst ämnesinnehåll kommer i kläm i undervisningen medan andra gavs mer utrymme. Generellt sett verkade den praktiska matlagningen vara ett dominerande inslag i undervisningen, med risken att annat ämnesinnehåll blev lidande. Fyra teman identifierades: ”Planering av undervisning kräver tolkningsarbete av kursplanen”, ”Motiv som ligger till grund för att visst ämnesinnehåll prioriteras i undervisningen”, ”Svårigheter med att realisera specifika ämnesinnehåll” och ”Kollegialt samarbete underlättar planering och genomförande av undervisning”. Lärares behov av att prioritera bland ämnesinnehållet verkade leda till att vissa innehåll hastades igenom, eller i värsta fall utelämnades helt. 118 undervisningstimmar i ämnet upplevdes inte tillräckligt för att inrymma ämnets innehåll på ett tillfredställande sätt. Kursplanens formuleringar verkar även öppna upp för tolkning, oönskade skillnader skulle kunna minskas med fortbildning och diskussion med ämneskollegor. Ökad undervisningstid och vägledning i tolkningsarbetet skulle kunna gynna likvärdigheten i skolan och öka elevers möjlighet till måluppfyllelse. Mer tid i ämnet och ökad satsning på kollegialt arbete skulle kunna leda till positiva effekter, både på individ och samhällsnivå.

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  • 31.
    Alter, George
    et al.
    History and PIRT Indiana University Bloomingtom USA .
    Oris, Michel
    Université de Genève Département d’Histoire économique 40, boulevard du pont d’Arve CH-1211 Genève 4 Suisse.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The family and mortality: A case study from rural Belgium2001In: Annales de Démographie Historique, ISSN 0066-2062, E-ISSN 1776-2774, Vol. 2001, p. 11-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in mortality among families give us clues about the importance of unobserved health-related behaviors. For example, if lower mortality was due to types of personal behavior learned in childhood, it should carry over to mortality at older ages. In this paper we use records from a nineteenth-century Belgian community to look at differences at mortality differences among families in two ways. First, we construct a direct measure of exposure to disease in childhood by counting the number of children in each family that died before age 15. Second, we calculate the overall effect of inter-family differences by using a "random effect" model that estimates the variance of the "family effect". Both of these measures show a strong family effect in childhood, but this effect diminishes after age 15 and disappears after age 55. Moreover, in a period still dominated by infectious diseases, those who survived diseases in childhood acquired immunities that helped them in later life.

  • 32.
    Ambrosiani, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Early printed Church Slavonic Psalters in Swedish collections2021In: Славянски текстове и традиции: сборник в чест на Катрин Мери Макробърт = Slavonic texts and traditions : in honour of Catherine Mary MacRobert / [ed] Svetlina Nikolova, Ralph Cleminson, Veselka Zhelyazkova, Margaret Dimitrova, Sofia: Cyrillo-Methodian Research Centre , 2021, p. 161-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents 29 printed Church Slavonic Psalters from the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries currently preserved at Uppsala University Library and other Swedish repositories. Approximately half of the books were printed in Moscow, whereas the remaining books were printed in Kiev, Lviv, Vilna and other important printing centres during this period. The Swedish collections of early printed Church Slavonic Psalters are not impressive when it comes to numbers, but they offer insight in the early spread of Cyrillic printed books outside their countries of origin as well as in an important period in the history of book collecting in northern Europe.

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  • 33. Amelang, Katrin
    et al.
    Anastasiadou-Christophidou, Violetta
    Constantinou, Costas S.
    Johansson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lundin, Susanne
    Beck, Stefan
    Learning to eat strawberries in a disciplined way: normalization practices following organ transplantation2011In: Ethnologia Europaea, ISSN 0425-4597, E-ISSN 1604-3030, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 54-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Amft, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Sápmi i förändringens tid: en studie av svenska samers levnadsvillkor under 1900-talet ur ett genus- och etnicitetsperspektiv2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a study of the changing living conditions for the Sami in Swedish Såpmi (Samiland) throughout the twentieth century with an analysis based on a gender and ethnic perspective.

    At the turn of the century, the Sami lived as nomadic reindeer herders and were primarily self- sufficient. This changed as the reindeer herders shifted from a self-sufficient lifestyle to a money economy tor a variety of reasons. Over time they became more integrated in the dominant Swedish society and even more dependent on it. Reindeer herding has become increasingly mechanized since the I960's with rationalizations as a result. Even in to the 1990's the industry was the object of streamlining ettorts. A process of masculinization has also occurred and today's reindeer herding is a distinctly male coded profession. Women do not regularly participate in the daily work of reindeer breeding and their ability to have any direct influence on the herding districts (sameby) is limited. This is also largely true in terms of the Sami Parliament, the Sami popularly elected body.

    The Sami population has experienced unfavorable special legislation and regulation from the State. The population was divided into several different categories with different rights. Sami women were marginalized two-fold and subordinated, partly because of their ethnic affiliation (as Sami) and partly because of their sex (as women). This continues to be true today.

    The analysis of gender division of labor shows that a married couple had their own autonomous areas of power within the household. The wife was however still subordinate to her husband in his role as master of the family. The older reindeer herding society was not noted for its equality. There was a distinct hierarchy based on sex, age, and social status. Division of labor in modern reindeer breeding is in principle based on the same normative system as the older nomadic society.

    The study of the ethnic processes in Såpmi shows among other things that from a Sami perspective, a person is Sami who is related to other Sami and whose actions are based on a Sami identity. It is also clear today that there are many different Sami identities, that an individual person draws from a number of such identities and that it is the context that determines which of these are active in any given situation. The Sami identity is sex-based, i.e. there is a difference between a "male Sami" and a "female Sami." Sami women, unlike Sami men, cannot be politically active while also being active based on their sexual identity. Were they to do so, they would be excluded by definition from their ethnic group. Sami women must therefore subordinate themselves as women to be "genuine" Sami. They thereby contribute to their own marginalization and help maintain their own subordinated position in the Sami society.

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    Sápmi i förändringens tid
  • 35.
    Anderson, David G.
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Cultures of Reciprocity and Cultures of Control in the Circumpolar North2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 11-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article surveys different cultures of engagement between people, animals, and the landscape across the circumpolar Arctic. Through ethnographic examples the article describes offering rituals and placings in several Arctic contexts in the light of the emphasis they place on affirming personhood. Similarly, rituals of management and regulation are described in the terms of how they strive to create predictability and control. The article tries to mediate this contrast by examining “architectural” examples of co-operation and co-domestication between humans, animals and landscapes. The article concludes with a reflection on how the themes of “origins” and “animal rights” further reconstruct these dichotomies.

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  • 36.
    Anderson, Elizabeth
    et al.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Maddrell, AvrilUniversity of the West of England, UK.McLoughlin, KateUniversity of Glasgow, UK.Vincent, AlanaUniversity of Glasgow, UK.
    Memory, mourning, landscape2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume sheds twenty-first-century light on the charged interactions between memory, mourning and landscape. A century after Freud, our understanding of how memory and mourning function continues to be challenged, revised and refined. Increasingly, scholarly attention is paid to the role of situation in memorialising, whether in commemorations of individuals or in marking the mass deaths of late modern warfare and disasters. Memory, Mourning, Landscape offers the nuanced insights provided by interdisciplinarity in nine essays by leading and up-and-coming academics from the fields of history, museum studies, literature, anthropology, architecture, law, geography, theology and archaeology. The vital visual element is reinforced with an illustrated coda by a practising artist. The result is a unique symbiotic dialogue which will speak to scholars from a range of disciplines.

  • 37. Anderson, Ian
    et al.
    Robson, Bridget
    Connolly, Michele
    Al-Yaman, Fadwa
    Bjertness, Espen
    King, Alexandra
    Tynan, Michael
    Madden, Richard
    Bang, Abhay
    Coimbra, Carlos E. A., Jr.
    Pesantes, Maria Amalia
    Amigo, Hugo
    Andronov, Sergei
    Armien, Blas
    Obando, Daniel Ayala
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor
    Bhutta, Zulfi Qar Ahmed
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Briceno-Leon, Roberto
    Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild
    Bustos, Patricia
    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
    Chu, Jiayou
    Deji, .
    Gouda, Jitendra
    Harikumar, Rachakulla
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Izugbara, Chimaraoke
    Kamaka, Martina
    King, Malcolm
    Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao
    Lara, Macarena
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Lema, Claudia
    Taborda, Ana Maria Leon
    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan
    Lobanov, Andrey
    Melhus, Marita
    Meshram, Indrapal
    Miranda, J. Jaime
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Nagalla, Balkrishna
    Nimmathota, Arlappa
    Popov, Andrey Ivanovich
    Poveda, Ana Maria Penuela
    Ram, Faujdar
    Reich, Hannah
    Santos, Ricardo V.
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Shekhar, Chander
    Sherpa, Lhamo Y.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tanywe, Asahngwa
    Ugwu, Chidi
    Ugwu, Fabian
    Vapattanawong, Patama
    Wan, Xia
    Welch, James R.
    Yang, Gonghuan
    Yang, Zhaoqing
    Yap, Leslie
    Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10040, p. 131-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries.

    Methods: Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated.

    Findings: Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in four populations; educational attainment for 26 of 27 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 24 populations; and economic status for 15 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 14 populations.

    Interpretation: We systematically collated data across a broader sample of countries and indicators than done in previous studies. Taking into account the UN Sustainable Development Goals, we recommend that national governments develop targeted policy responses to Indigenous health, improving access to health services, and Indigenous data within national surveillance systems.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    [Conference report] Indigenous Resources. Decolonization and Development2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 95-96Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 39.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peter Fjågesund, The Dream of the North. A Cultural History to 1920 (Studia Imagologica 23), Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi 2014, ISBN 9789042038370; e-ISBN 9789401210829, 573 pp.2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 132-133Article, book review (Refereed)
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  • 40.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Texter i samspel i O. P. Petterssons Gamla byar i Vilhelmina – exemplet Marsvik2013In: Svenska landsmål och svenskt folkliv, ISSN 0347-1837, Vol. 136, no 339, p. 7-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the intertextuality of a chapter of the book Gamla byar i Vilhelmnina (Old Villages in Vilhelmina), by folklore scholar Olof Petter Pettersson. It illustrates how the work is a many-voiced and hence sometimes complex text, with much to tell us about the colonisation of Swedish Lapland. 

    Alongside a neutral narrative voice, it is possible to make out intertextual references by Pettersson to traditional knowledge of various kinds. There are references, for example, to names in use at the time the author was writing, sometimes linked to a specific geographical area or thnic group. Other instances that are discussed include the written texts cited by Pettersson, which reflect the strict legal and economic perspective of the state, and references to early legends and names used in the past, which the author often traces to old Sami oral traditions.

    It also emerges that Pettersson alternates between conveying folk traditions and knowledge, on the one hand, and a more analytical mode of writing, on the other.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Berättaren och berättelsen: En studie av ett gränsområde2012In: Språkets gränser - och verklighetens: Perspektiv på begreppet gräns / [ed] Daniel Andersson & Lars-Erik Edlund, Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 17-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 42.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Från kolonisation till gruvexploatering: nyttoperspektiv på naturen i Sápmi förr och nu2016In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 1, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Ro, trygghet och tröst: naturen som sammanhang2014In: Naturen för mig: nutida röster och kulturella perspektiv / [ed] Lina Midholm, Katarina Saltzman, Göteborg: Institutet för språk och folkminnen, 2014, p. 183-190Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Ro, trygghet och tröst: naturen som sammanhang
  • 44.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Enbom, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Från "Mohrens sista suck" till "Unionen som sprack": om studentspex som kulturyttring och forskningsfält2000In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, no 2, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Enbom, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Varför rappar ingen om Norrland längre?: En essä om människan, samhället och naturen i Euskefeurats texter2001In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 31-38Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Andersson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Eriksson, Nicolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Politisk representation i lokaltidningen: "Ettans" makt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study, Political representation in the local paper - the power of the front page, shows how the local paper Västerbottens-kuriren chooses, consciously or unknowingly, to represent politics on the front page during the election period of 2018. Given the premises that journalists must adhere to, could affect the reporting of politics.

    The method for this study was a quantitative content analysis where a frequency count is used based on headline, preamble and to some extent image use on the front page. 

    The study concluded that the newspaper had some political news, but that they were majorly excluded from appearing in the most visible article on the front page. The most common subjects that were on the front page were personal articles, or culture and entertainment oriented, which indicates a greater exposure to "softer" news. Of the political articles, the topic "other" was most prevalent, but also economics and business was a frequently recurring political topic. It was also shown that there was a gap in July when the frequency of political articles was reduced. The most widely used framing used by the political articles was game framing, which indicates a repetitive behavior on the part of journalists which, in the worst case scenario, could lead to skepticism against both politics and against the newspaper from the public.

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    "Ettans" makt
  • 47.
    Andersson Munoz, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Det finns - Giraffer i Tallskogen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Räv och Katt bor i en skog tillsammans med en massa andra djur, och har det ganska bra. När det kommer en grupp främmande djur till skogen i behov av hjälp, lovar Räv att hjälpa dem – men de andra djuren vägrar. Räv ger sig iväg med de nya djuren, medan Katt väljer att inte följa med. Räv och nydjuren bygger upp ett nytt hem på ett kalhygge. Katt blir kvar hos gammeldjuren, som tycker illa om Räv. Katt inser att hen och skogsdjuren gjort fel. Hen börjar att försvara Räv inför de andra skogsdjuren. Det blir bråk. Katt rusar ut mitt under en stor storm, och hamnar i en knipa. Räv och ett nydjur hjälper hen, tack och lov – och Katt kan äntligen be dem om förlåtelse. 

    Stormen har förstört de gamla skogsdjurens bon och förråd – nu är det ombytta roller: Katt, Räv och Nydjuren väljer att hjälpa de gamla skogsdjuren. Tillsammans bygger gammel- och nydjuren upp någonting helt nytt. 

    Det här är historien om hur det hamnade giraffer i en skandinavisk skog. Med den här Det Finns-filmen vill jag ställa frågor som: Vad ska man göra när någon behöver hjälp? Är det okej att vara rädd, tveksam eller konstig? Får en ändra sig? och andra frågor jag själv tänkte mycket på när jag var barn.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Vad gör det för skillnad?: Fyra organisationers integrerade arbete med kvalitativ jämställdhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns väldigt många sätt att arbeta både med jämställdhet i stort och med kvalitativ jämställdhet. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur fyra olika verksamheter integrerar arbetet med kvalitativ jämställdhet i verksamheten. Utifrån detta arbetades det fram en frågeställning om hur jämställdhetsarbetet beskrevs, motiverades och vad det visade på för förståelse av genus och jämställdhet. Metoden jag använt mig av är semistrukturerade intervjuer. I själva analysen har jag utgått från teorier om jämställdhet och jämställhetsarbete, makt, genus och perspektiv på organisationer. Resultatet visar på att det finns många olika sätt att arbeta med jämställdhet och också flera olika anledningar som motiverade till ett jämställdhetsarbete. De offentliga organisationerna framhävde motiv om rättvisa och demokrati medan de privata organiastionerna dessutom lyfte fram ett ekonomiskt perspektiv som viktigt. Alla informater menade att det fanns en stor fördel att arbeta med kvalitativ jämställdhet. Slutsatsen blir att det finns många olika sätt att arbeta integrerat med kvalitativ jämställdhet, men för att det ska få någon genomgripande effekt måste det vara ett långsiktigt arbete.

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  • 49.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    ”DET FINNS ETT ÄMNE SOMELEVERNA FÅR VÄLJA I OCHDET ÄR SLÖJD”: En studie av slöjdlärares upplevelserkring val av materialinriktning islöjdämnet.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utveckla kunskap om varför skolor har slöjdval och på vilketsätt lärare upplever slöjdvalets påverkan på slöjdundervisningen. Studien genomfördes meden metod av kvalitativ ansats där fem stycken intervjuer gjordes med slöjdlärare verksamma i grundskolans senare år på skolor där elever ges möjlighet att välja materialinriktning. Frågeställningarna som guidade mig under arbetets gång var: 1. Varför har skolor slöjdval och hur motiveras detta? 2. Vilka för- och nackdelar upplever slöjdlärare med slöjdvalet? 3. Vilka förutsättningar för undervisning i slöjd skapas av slöjdvalet? Huvudresultaten var att tradition är orsaken till varför skolor genomför vad slöjdlärare kallar för slöjdval i grundskolans senare år. Slöjdvalet upplevs av de intervjuade slöjdlärarna sompositivt, likaså av eleverna. De främsta fördelarna med val av materialinriktning visade sig vara:- Mer motiverade och drivna elever- Högre måluppfyllelse och betyg hos eleverna- Ett mer varierat yrke för slöjdläraren- Bättre arbetsmiljö i slöjdsalen. De mest påtagliga nackdelarna menade slöjdlärarna vara dels ojämna grupper i förhållande tillbåde storlek och kön, dels att konflikter kunde uppstå mellan lärarkollegorna samt mellan lärare och elev. Fortsättningsvis visade resultaten att slöjdvalet har påverkan och påverkas av 5 olika ramfaktorer: Tradition, gruppen, rummet, tiden och styrdokument.

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  • 50.
    Anna-Maria, Mikkonen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    VAD ÄR MÖJLIGT MED 5 TRASIGA GITARRER, 23 MARACAS OCH EN TRIANGEL?: Ett examensarbete om likvärdig musikundervisning i grundskolan.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a qualitative study whose purpose is to describe and understand the views of Principals and music teachers on the importance of framework factors for equivalent music education. The study has a hermeneutic approach and is based on a qualitative method with semi-structured interviews. The questions are based on the influence of framework factors on students' knowledge development in the music subject, in relation to equivalence. The research on which the study is based deals with equivalence in primary school and curriculum theory. The researcher has used literature in the form of the compulsory school curriculum, dissertations, scientific articles, and other publications.The study includes a principal from the middle of Sweden and two music teachers from the south of Sweden. All participants worked at different schools in different municipalities. All schools were high school schools with student enrolment from various middle schools within the municipality. The interviews were recorded and analysed from a framework factor theoretical perspective. The result did not provide clear answers but suggests that music teachers have a consensus that framework factors affect students' opportunities for knowledge development based on the curriculum guidelines. In this discussion, the author problematizes the preconditions for equivalent music education in primary school based on previous research in equivalence with a framework factor theoretical perspective. Factors that appear are lack of classrooms adapted and equipped for music lessons due to financial conditions, the school's organization, management, and culture and norms at each school.Key

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