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  • 1.
    Dehghanpour, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Process of Impact of Entrepreneurship Education and Training on Entrepreneurship Perception and Intention: Study of Educational System of Iran2013In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 55, no 8/9, p. 868-885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Conventional wisdom as well as many studies confirms that entrepreneurship education increases entrepreneurial intention but there is a lack of research on some aspects including conceptual and theoretical development, mechanism of the effect of education, and study of regional variations. This paper studies the process of impact of entrepreneurship education and training on attitudes towards entrepreneurship, perception of social norms, self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention.

    Design/methodology/approach - Empirical data from 601 individuals from Iran is utilized to evaluate the model. The data are reported by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Binary logistics regression is used to evaluate the effects of variables.

    Findings - Results show that completion of one entrepreneurship course increase the likelihood of having entrepreneurial intention by 1.3 times. Wald criteria demonstrate that fear of failure, desirability of entrepreneurial career, entrepreneurs’ status in society, self-efficacy and Education & Training are significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention. Perceived opportunity is not a strong but a moderate predictor.

    Research limitations/implications - Because of the country level focus of research, the research results may lack generalizability. This paper makes no rigid claim of causality . The causality is likely to be bi-directional.

    Practical implications - The findings have wider implications for a theory of entrepreneurial intention and also for the practice of teaching entrepreneurship. Higher efficiency of informal training than formal training, failing entrepreneurship education to provide necessary knowledge and skills for nascent entrepreneurs, and not considering the effect of macro socioeconomic conditions call for an immediate pedagogical redesign of entrepreneurship education and training in Iran.

    Originality/value - The paper summarizes learning processes and teaching models of entrepreneurship education, matches them with educational theories and makes argument on the mechanism of the effects of education. Then, Utilizing empirical data, The paper shows the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training and education initiatives in Iran and propose areas for improvement in the national level based on the summarized educational theories and teaching models.

  • 2.
    Fjellström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kristmansson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Learning as an apprentice in Sweden: A comparative study on affordances for vocational learning in school and work life apprentice education2016In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 629-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare, and identify both similarities and differences in, affordances for vocational learning in two contrasting education systems, for construction worker and shop salesperson apprentices, in Swedish contexts.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through interviews and observations in two research projects, each addressing relevant aspects of one of the focal educational systems. A framework consisting of identified goals, activities and guidance was applied in the analysis.

    Findings - The results show that the affordances for learning in the examined educational systems are dependent on the learners' access to, and participation in, workplace activities. A conclusion is that workplace demands override educational goals in both cases. Thus, the affordances for learning related to both individual and educational goals are dependent on the access to guidance during workplace activities.

    Originality/value - The study highlights constraints between educational goals and workplace affordances in both apprenticeship systems, which largely develop vocational competencies related to specific workplace demands and activities. A presented model regards apprenticeships as vocational and educational training in workplaces is outlined that enable a deeper understanding of the correspondence between individual, educational and workplace goals that forms the type of activity which leads to a learning outcome.

  • 3.
    Hoppe, Magnus
    et al.
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Educational approaches to entrepreneurship in higher education: a view from the Swedish horizon2017In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 59, no 7/8, p. 751-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present and develop models of educational approaches to entrepreneurship that can provide complementary analytical structures to better study, enact and reflect upon the role of entrepreneurship in higher education.

    Design/methodology/approach: A general framework for entrepreneurship education is developed by using theory as well as practical experiences from the fields of business, engineering and pedagogy. The paper is mainly conceptual where the unfolding Swedish practice is used as contextual backdrop.

    Findings: The FOR/IN/THROUGH/ABOUT (FITA) taxonomy is presented and used to develop three models of how to approach entrepreneurship in higher education depending on purpose. As there exists a didactical divide between entrepreneurial education for business and entrepreneurial approach to teaching and learning, educators and researchers ought to let their specific context influence the adoption of the taxonomy as well as the presented models.

    Research limitations/implications: The differentiations suggested by the presented models can be used to both structure the designs and limit claims of future research. More heuristic research is called for.

    Practical implications: The use of FITA in the designing of entrepreneurship education offers new opportunities for enhancing complementary student learning in higher education.

    Social implications: The study suggests that any political or scholarly initiative must acknowledge the diversity of entrepreneurship education and chose different approaches depending on what is to be achieved.

    Originality/value: The multidisciplinary approach has made it possible to present and create models that denote a common ground for a productive discussion on how to better understand and make use of entrepreneurship in higher education.

  • 4.
    Hörnqvist, Maj-Lis
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fostering an entrepreneurial attitude: challenges in the leadership of school principals2014In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 551-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to uncover the meaning of entrepreneurship in schools and a school leadership which aims to nurture an entrepreneurial attitude. The authors will also discuss what challenges there could be for principals to lead activities to develop an entrepreneurial attitude to learning and teaching.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates policy documents and scientific material concerning entrepreneurial attitude, leadership and school culture.

    Findings – In Sweden as well as internationally there are clear policy intentions for renewal of schoolwork in a more entrepreneurial direction. The most striking challenges for principals are to be enough creative within the boarders set by school authorities when setting vision and goals for the development of their schools to enhance an entrepreneurial attitude, building trust and distributing power among staff, along with having courage to think outside “the box”.

    Research limitations/implications – The point of departure is entrepreneurial attitude in education as understood in a Swedish context. International policies as well as research are discussed.

    Practical implications – The paper illuminates strategic ways of thinking and acting according to leadership in an entrepreneurial learning school context.

    Originality/value – The role of principals as well as the significance of culture in a school context focused on developing an entrepreneurial attitude is quite often discussed in research. School differs from business in that there are more restrictions set by school authorities. The paper shows an undeveloped area which can be useful to identify and problematize challenges for leadership.

  • 5.
    Lindberg, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bohman, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hulten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Enhancing students' entrepreneurial mindset: a Swedish experience2017In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 59, no 7-8, p. 768-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on the test of a pedagogical intervention to enhance students' entrepreneurial mindset on a university course.

    Design/methodology/approach – The course where the authors tested the new course design is a mandatory one in the business school’s undergraduate business program. Pre- and post-evaluations of the students’ opportunity recognition (OR) and individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) were carried out to measure the effects of an intervention aimed at enhancing these capabilities.

    Findings – The results from paired-samples t-tests indicate significant positive changes (enhancements) of the students’ OR and IEO. The positive effects of the intervention methods are accounted for as evidence of the benefits of applying pedagogical methods that fit the learning style of young adults.

    Practical implications – The findings suggest that students’ mindsets can be positively affected by an intervention tailored to enhance their OR and IEO capabilities. The findings have implications for curriculum development because the strengthening of these capabilities is a precondition for further development of the participants’ innovative and creative thinking, as well as their entrepreneurial orientation.  Since innovative and entrepreneurial activities have a positive impact on economies worldwide, the authors encourage the adaption of the intervention methods applied in this study in other settings.

    Originality/value – This paper reports the results of a pedagogical intervention aimed at enhancing students’ entrepreneurial mindset. The findings from the study demonstrate that the applied intervention method supports the development of functional skills, which complement the conceptual knowledge gained from other courses in the undergraduate program.

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