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  • 1.
    Ivanova, Militsa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Education, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Michaelides, Michalis
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Education, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    How does the number of actions on constructed-response items relate to test-taking effort and performance?2020Ingår i: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, E-ISSN 1744-4187, Vol. 26, nr 5-6, s. 252-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collecting process data in computer-based assessments provides opportunities to describe examinee behaviour during a test-taking session. The number of actions taken by students while interacting with an item is in this context a variable that has been gaining attention. The present study aims to investigate how the number of actions performed on constructed-response items relates to self-reported effort, performance, and item cluster position in the test. The theory of planned behaviour was used as an interpretative framework. Data from two item clusters of the 2015 Swedish Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Science administration were utilised. Results showed that the number of actions was significantly related to performance on the items, self-reported test-taking effort, and cluster position. Latent variable models were examined separately for performance-level groups. Overall, the number of actions performed on constructed-response items as a behavioural indicator in testing situations may be useful in gauging test-taking engagement.

  • 2.
    Lundgren, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Within-item response processes as indicators of test-taking effort and motivation2020Ingår i: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, E-ISSN 1744-4187, Vol. 26, nr 5-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study used process data from a computer-based problem-solving task as indications of behavioural level of test-taking effort, and explored how behavioural item-level effort related to overall test performance and self-reported effort. Variables were extracted from raw process data and clustered. Four distinct clusters were obtained and characterised as high effort, medium effort, low effort, and planner. Regression modelling indicated that among students that failed to solve the task, level of effort invested before giving up positively predicted overall test performance. Among students that solved the task, level of effort was instead weakly negatively related to test performance. A low level of behavioural effort before giving up the task was also related to lower self-reported effort. Results suggest that effort invested before giving up provides information about test-takers’ motivation to spend effort on the test. We conclude that process data could augment existing methods of assessing test-taking effort.

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  • 3.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Can a multidimensional test be evaluated with unidimensional item response theory?2012Ingår i: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, E-ISSN 1744-4187, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 307-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible consequences of using unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) on a multidimensional college admission test. The test consists of 5 subscales and can be divided into two sections, that is, it can be considered both as a unidimensional and a multidimensional test. The test was examined with both UIRT and multidimensional IRT (MIRT). Simulations were used to examine item and ability parameter recovery when UIRT and MIRT models were used. The results obtained from the college admission test showed that although we get a better model fit when using MIRT instead of UIRT, the difference is small if we compare it with using a consecutive UIRT approach. The results from the simulations indicate that if the test only has between-item multidimensionality, it is probably not harmful to use UIRT instead of MIRT models.

  • 4.
    Zhao, Anran
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Brown, Gavin T. L.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Meissel, Kane
    Faculty of Education and Social Work, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Manipulating the consequences of tests: how Shanghai teens react to different consequences2021Ingår i: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, E-ISSN 1744-4187, Vol. 26, nr 5-6, s. 221-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' test-taking motivation has been found to be a predictor of performance. This study tests whether Shanghai students’ conceptions of tests and test-taking motivation differ when the consequence of tests have different foci (i.e., none, country, or personal). A between-subjects experiment with vignette instructions systematically assigned 1,003 Shanghai senior secondary school students to one of the three vignettes. Students' conceptions of tests and test-taking motivation scales were evaluated using factor analyses. Invariance testing suggested invariant relationships between the two constructs across the three groups. Students' general conception of tests meaningfully predicted their reported effort (β =.18). Latent mean analyses suggested that students' reported effort, anxiety, and importance were not significantly different between country at stakes and personal stakes groups, but higher than when no consequences were attached. This study suggests that Shanghai students' test-taking attitudes may contribute to high effort and consequently high performance on international large-scale assessments.

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