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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Söderlund, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp2006In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 273, no 1585, p. 431-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) developed a shallow body shape when feeding on zooplankton prey and a deep body shape when feeding on benthic chironomids. In addition, the presence of chemical cues from a pike predator affected body shape, where a shallow body shape was developed in the absence of pike and a deep body shape was developed in the presence of pike. Foraging activity was low in the presence of pike cues and when chironomids were given as prey. Our results thereby suggest that the change in body shape could be indirectly mediated through differences in foraging activity. Finally, the induced body shape changes affected the foraging efficiency, where crucians raised on a zooplankton diet or in the absence of pike cues had a higher foraging success on zooplankton compared to crucian raised on a chironomid diet or in the presence of pike. These results suggest that body changes in response to predators can be associated with a cost, in terms of competition for resources.

  • 2.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Problems detecting density-dependent diversification on phylogenies2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1659, p. 993-994Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Calatayud, Joaquín
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad de Alcala´, Edificio de Ciencias, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona km. 33,6, Alcala´ de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain; Department of Biogeography and Global Change, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), C/Jose´ Gutie´rrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.
    Angel Rodriguez, Miguel
    Molina-Venegas, Rafael
    Leo, Maria
    Luis Horreo, Jose
    Hortal, Joaquin
    Pleistocene climate change and the formation of regional species pools2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1905, article id 20190291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the description of bioregions dates back to the origin of biogeography, the processes originating their associated species pools hive been seldom studied. Ancient historical events are thought to play a fundamental role in configuring bioregions, but the effects of more recent events on these regional biotas are largely unknown. We used a network approach to identify regional and sub-regional faunas of European Carabus beetles and developed a method to explore the relative contribution of dispersal barriers, niche similarities and phylogenetic history on their configuration. We identify a transition zone matching the limit of the ice sheets at the Last Glacial Maximum. While southern species pools are mostly separated by dispersal barriers, in the north species are mainly sorted by their environmental niches. Strikingly, most phylogenetic structuration of Carabus faunas occurred during the Pleistocene. Our results show how extreme recent historical events - such as Pleistocene climate cooling, rather than just deep-time evolutionary processes-can profoundly modify the composition and structure of geographical species pools.

  • 4. Chen, Xiaojie
    et al.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Parent-preferred dispersal promotes cooperation in structured populations2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1895, article id 20181949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a key process for the emergence of social and biological behaviours. Yet, little attention has been paid to dispersal's effects on the evolution of cooperative behaviour in structured populations. To address this issue, we propose two new dispersal modes, parent-preferred and offspring-preferred dispersal, incorporate them into the birth-death update rule, and consider the resultant strategy evolution in the prisoner's dilemma on random-regular, small-world, and scale-free networks, respectively. We find that parent-preferred dispersal favours the evolution of cooperation in these different types of population structures, while offspring-preferred dispersal inhibits the evolution of cooperation in homogeneous populations. On scale-free networks when the strength of parent-preferred dispersal is weak, cooperation can be enhanced at intermediate strengths of offspring-preferred dispersal, and cooperators can coexist with defectors at high strengths of offspring-preferred dispersal. Moreover, our theoretical analysis based on the pair-approximation method corroborates the evolutionary outcomes on random-regular networks. We also incorporate the two new dispersal modes into three other update rules (death-birth, imitation, and pairwise comparison updating), and find that similar results about the effects of parent-preferred and offspring-preferred dispersal can again be observed in the aforementioned different types of population structures. Our work, thus, unveils robust effects of preferential dispersal modes on the evolution of cooperation in different interactive environments.

  • 5.
    Cherif, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Loreau, Michel
    Plant - herbivore -decomposer stoichiometric mismatches and nutrientcycling in ecosystems2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1754, p. 20122453-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant stoichiometry is thought to have a major influence on how herbivores affect nutrient availability in ecosystems. Most conceptual models predict that plants with high nutrient contents increase nutrient excretion by herbivores, in turn raising nutrient availability. To test this hypothesis, we built a stoichiometrically explicit model that includes a simple but thorough description of the processes of herbivory and decomposition. Our results challenge traditional views of herbivore impacts on nutrient availability in many ways. They show that the relationship between plant nutrient content and the impact of herbivores predicted by conceptual models holds only at high plant nutrient contents. At low plant nutrient contents, the impact of herbivores is mediated by the mineralization/immobilization of nutrients by decomposers and by the type of resource limiting the growth of decomposers. Both parameters are functions of the mismatch between plant and decomposer stoichiometries. Our work provides new predictions about the impacts of herbivores on ecosystemfertility that depend on critical interactions between plant, herbivore and decomposer stoichiometries in ecosystems.

  • 6.
    Cherif, Mehdi
    et al.
    Department of Biology, McGill University.
    Loreau, Michel
    Department of Biology, McGill University.
    When microbes and consumers determine the limiting nutrient of autotrophs: a theoretical analysis2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1656, p. 487-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological stoichiometry postulates that differential nutrient recycling of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus by consumers can shift the element that limits plant growth. However, this hypothesis has so far considered the effect of consumers, mostly herbivores, out of their food-web context. Microbial decomposers are important components of food webs, and might prove as important as consumers in changing the availability of elements for plants. In this theoretical study, we investigate how decomposers determine the nutrient that limits plants, both by feeding on nutrients and organic carbon released by plants and consumers, and by being fed upon by omnivorous consumers. We show that decomposers can greatly alter the relative availability of nutrients for plants. The type of limiting nutrient promoted by decomposers depends on their own elemental composition and, when applicable, on their ingestion by consumers. Our results highlight the limitations of previous stoichiometric theories of plant nutrient limitation control, which often ignored trophic levels other than plants and herbivores. They also suggest that detrital chains play an important role in determining plant nutrient limitation in many ecosystems.

  • 7.
    Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, CA, USA .
    Fogarty, Sean
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Weinersmith, Kelly
    Sih, Andrew
    Personality-dependent dispersal in the invasive mosquitofish: group composition matters2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1712, p. 1670-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding/predicting ecological invasions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of their immense economical and ecological costs. Recent studies have revealed that within-species variation in behaviour (i.e. animal personality) can shed light on the invasion process. The general hypothesis is that individuals' personality type may affect their colonization success, suggesting that some individuals might be better invaders than others. We have recently shown that, in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), social personality trait was an important indicator of dispersal distance, with more asocial individuals dispersing further. Here, we tested how mean personality within a population, in addition to individual personality type, affect dispersal and settlement decisions in the mosquitofish. We found that individual dispersal tendencies were influenced by the population's mean boldness and sociability score. For example, individuals from populations with more asocial individuals or with more bold individuals are more likely to disperse regardless of their own personality type. We suggest that identifying behavioural traits facilitating invasions, even at the group level, can thus have direct applications in pest management.

  • 8. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Tymen, Blaise
    Sih, Andrew
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Personality-dependent dispersal cancelled under predation risk2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1773, p. 20132349-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a fundamental life-history trait for many ecological processes. Recent studies suggest that dispersers, in comparison to residents, display various phenotypic specializations increasing their dispersal inclination or success. Among them, dispersers are believed to be consistently more bold, exploratory, asocial or aggressive than residents. These links between behavioural types and dispersal should vary with the cause of dispersal. However, with the exception of one study, personality-dependent dispersal has not been studied in contrasting environments. Here, we used mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to test whether personality-dependent dispersal varies with predation risk, a factor that should induce boldness or sociability-dependent dispersal. Corroborating previous studies, we found that dispersing mosquitofish are less social than non-dispersing fish when there was no predation risk. However, personality-dependent dispersal is negated under predation risk, dispersers having similar personality types to residents. Our results suggest that adaptive dispersal decisions could commonly depend on interactions between phenotypes and ecological contexts.

  • 9. Cote, Julien
    et al.
    Fogarty, Sean
    Weinersmith, Kelly
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sih, Andrew
    Personality traits and dispersal tendency in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1687, p. 1571-1579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological invasions, where non-native species spread to new areas, grow to high densities and have large, negative impacts on ecological communities, are a major worldwide problem. Recent studies suggest that one of the key mechanisms influencing invasion dynamics is personality-dependent dispersal: the tendency for dispersers to have a different personality type than the average from a source population. We examined this possibility in the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). We measured individual tendencies to disperse in experimental streams and several personality traits: sociability, boldness, activity and exploration tendency before and three weeks after dispersal. We found that mosquitofish display consistent behavioural tendencies over time, and significant positive correlations between all personality traits. Most notably, sociability was an important indicator of dispersal distance, with more asocial individuals dispersing further, suggesting personality-biased dispersal on an invasion front. These results could have important ecological implications, as invasion by a biased subset of individuals is likely to have different ecological impacts than invasion by a random group of colonists.

  • 10.
    Gauthier, Gilles
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec city, Québec, Canada.
    Ehrich, Dorothée
    Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Belke-Brea, Maria
    Department of Geography, Takuvik Joint International Laboratory and Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec city, Québec, Canada.
    Domine, Florent
    Department of Chemistry, Takuvik Joint International Laboratory and Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec city, Québec, Canada; CNRS-INSU, Paris, France.
    Alisauskas, Ray
    Wildlife Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, SK, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Clark, Karin
    Environment and Natural Resources, Government of Northwest Territories, NT, Yellowknife, Canada.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Eide, Nina E.
    Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Framstad, Erik
    Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Frandsen, Jay
    Parks Canada, Western Arctic Field Unit, NT, Inuvik, Canada.
    Gilg, Olivier
    UMR 6249 Chrono-Environnement, CNRS, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Francheville, France; Groupe de recherche en Écologie Arctique, Francheville, France.
    Henttonen, Heikki
    Terrestrial Population Dynamics, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kataev, Gennadiy D.
    Laplandskiy Nature Reserve, Murmansk Region, Monchegorsk, Russian Federation.
    Menyushina, Irina E.
    Retired, Moscow, Russia.
    Oksanen, Lauri
    Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway; Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Oksanen, Tarja
    Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway; Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Samelius, Gustaf
    Snow Leopard Trust, WA, Seattle, United States.
    Sittler, Benoit
    Groupe de recherche en Écologie Arctique, Francheville, France; Chair for Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Smith, Paul A.
    Wildlife Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, ON, Ottawa, Canada.
    Sokolov, Aleksandr A.
    Arctic Research Station of Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Labytnangi, Russian Federation.
    Sokolova, Natalia A.
    Arctic Research Station of Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Labytnangi, Russian Federation.
    Schmidt, Niels M.
    Department of Ecoscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Taking the beat of the Arctic: are lemming population cycles changing due to winter climate?2024In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 291, no 2016, article id 20232361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of fading vole and lemming population cycles and persisting low populations in some parts of the Arctic have raised concerns about the spread of these fundamental changes to tundra food web dynamics. By compiling 24 unique time series of lemming population fluctuations across the circumpolar region, we show that virtually all populations displayed alternating periods of cyclic/non-cyclic fluctuations over the past four decades. Cyclic patterns were detected 55% of the time (n = 649 years pooled across sites) with a median periodicity of 3.7 years, and non-cyclic periods were not more frequent in recent years. Overall, there was an indication for a negative effect of warm spells occurring during the snow onset period of the preceding year on lemming abundance. However, winter duration or early winter climatic conditions did not differ on average between cyclic and non-cyclic periods. Analysis of the time series shows that there is presently no Arctic-wide collapse of lemming cycles, even though cycles have been sporadic at most sites during the last decades. Although non-stationary dynamics appears a common feature of lemming populations also in the past, continued warming in early winter may decrease the frequency of periodic irruptions with negative consequences for tundra ecosystems.

  • 11. Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Mobley, Kenyon B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Sagebakken, Gry
    Jones, Adam G
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1687, p. 1581-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differential allocation hypothesis assumes that animals should weigh costs and benefits of investing into reproduction with a current mate against the expected quality of future mates, and predicts that they should invest more into reproduction when pairing with a high-quality mate. In the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), males care for the embryos in a brood pouch and females compete for access to male mating partners. Both sexes prefer mating with large partners. In the present study, we show that the same female provides both large and small mating partners with eggs of similar size, weight and lipid content when mated to two males in succession. Importantly, however, eggs provided to small males (less preferred) had higher egg protein content (11% more) than those provided to large males (preferred). Thus, contrary to the differential allocation hypothesis, eggs did not contain more resources when females mated with a larger male. Instead, the pattern observed in our results is consistent with a compensatory reproductive strategy.

  • 12.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko, Sweden .
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1775, p. 20132641-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km(2)), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9-1.5 degrees C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091-2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike-brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity.

  • 13. Hennige, S. J.
    et al.
    Larsson, A. I.
    Orejas, C.
    Gori, A.
    De Clippele, L. H.
    Lee, Y. C.
    Jimeno, G.
    Georgoulas, K.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Roberts, J. M.
    Using the Goldilocks Principle to model coral ecosystem engineering2021In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 288, no 1956, article id 20211260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and proliferation of reef-forming corals is of vast importance in terms of the biodiversity they support and the ecosystem services they provide. The complex three-dimensional structures engineered by corals are comprised of both live and dead coral, and the function, growth and stability of these systems will depend on the ratio of both. To model how the ratio of live : dead coral may change, the 'Goldilocks Principle' can be used, where organisms will only flourish if conditions are 'just right'. With data from particle imaging velocimetry and numerical smooth particle hydrodynamic modelling with two simple rules, we demonstrate how this principle can be applied to a model reef system, and how corals are effectively optimizing their own local flow requirements through habitat engineering. Building on advances here, these approaches can be used in conjunction with numerical modelling to investigate the growth and mortality of biodiversity supporting framework in present-day and future coral reef structures.

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  • 14. Hennige, S. J.
    et al.
    Wicks, L. C.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Perna, G.
    Findlay, H. S.
    Roberts, J. M.
    Hidden impacts of ocean acidification to live and dead coral framework2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1813, article id 20150990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold-water corals, such as Lophelia pertusa, are key habitat-forming organisms found throughout the world's oceans to 3000 m deep. The complex three-dimensional framework made by these vulnerable marine ecosystems support high biodiversity and commercially important species. Given their importance, a key question is how both the living and the dead framework will fare under projected climate change. Here, we demonstrate that over 12 months L. pertusa can physiologically acclimate to increased CO2, showing sustained net calcification. However, their new skeletal structure changes and exhibits decreased crystallographic and molecular-scale bonding organization. Although physiological acclimatization was evident, we also demonstrate that there is a negative correlation between increasing CO2 levels and breaking strength of exposed framework (approx. 20-30% weaker after 12 months), meaning the exposed bases of reefs will be less effective load-bearers', and will become more susceptible to bioerosion and mechanical damage by 2100.

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  • 15.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    et al.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Perna, G.
    Gambi, M. C.
    Micheli, F.
    Kroeker, K. J.
    Coralline algae in a naturally acidified ecosystem persist by maintaining control of skeletal mineralogy and size2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1840, article id 20161159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine calcifiers, the trade-offs among different sublethal responses within individual species and the emergent effects of these trade-offs must be determined in an ecosystem setting. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide a model to test the ecological consequences of such sublethal effects as they are important in ecosystem functioning, service provision, carbon cycling and use dissolved inorganic carbon to calcify and photosynthesize. Settlement tiles were placed in ambient pH, low pH and extremely low pH conditions for 14 months at a natural CO2 vent. The size, magnesium (Mg) content and molecular-scale skeletal disorder of CCA patches were assessed at 3.5, 6.5 and 14 months from tile deployment. Despite reductions in their abundance in low pH, the largest CCA from ambient and low pH zones were of similar sizes and had similar Mg content and skeletal disorder. This suggests that the most resilient CCA in low pH did not trade-off skeletal structure to maintain growth. CCA that settled in the extremely low pH, however, were significantly smaller and exhibited altered skeletal mineralogy (high Mg calcite to gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate)), although at present it is unclear if these mineralogical changes offered any fitness benefits in extreme low pH. This field assessment of biological effects of OA provides endpoint information needed to generate an ecosystem relevant understanding of calcifying system persistence.

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  • 16.
    Lind, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Persbo, Frida
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Pool desiccation and developmental thresholds in the common frog, Rana temporaria.2008In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 275, no 1638, p. 1073-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental threshold is the minimum size or condition that a developing organism must have reached in order for a life-history transition to occur. Although developmental thresholds have been observed for many organisms, inter-population variation among natural populations has not been examined. Since isolated populations can be subjected to strong divergent selection, population divergence in developmental thresholds can be predicted if environmental conditions favour fast or slow developmental time in different populations. Amphibian metamorphosis is a well-studied life-history transition, and using a common garden approach we compared the development time and the developmental threshold of metamorphosis in four island populations of the common frog Rana temporaria: two populations originating from islands with only temporary breeding pools and two from islands with permanent pools. As predicted, tadpoles from time-constrained temporary pools had a genetically shorter development time than those from permanent pools. Furthermore, the variation in development time among females from temporary pools was low, consistent with the action of selection on rapid development in this environment. However, there were no clear differences in the developmental thresholds between the populations, indicating that the main response to life in a temporary pool is to shorten the development time.

  • 17.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Larsson, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sun-basking fish benefit from body temperatures that are higher than ambient water2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1879, article id 20180639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In terrestrial environments, cold-blooded animals can attain higher bodytemperatures by sun basking, and thereby potentially benefit from broaderniches, improved performance and higher fitness. The higher heat capacityand thermal conductivity of water compared with air have been universallyassumed to render heat gain from sun basking impossible for aquaticectotherms, such that their opportunities to behaviourally regulate body temperatureare largely limited to choosing warmer or colder habitats. Here wechallenge this paradigm. Using physical modelswe first showthat submergedobjects exposed to natural sunlight attain temperatures in excess of ambientwater. We next demonstrate that free-ranging carp (Cyprinus carpio) canincrease their body temperature during aquatic sun basking close to thesurface. The temperature excess gained by basking was larger in dark thanin pale individuals, increased with behavioural boldness, and was associatedwith faster growth. Overall, our results establish aquatic sun basking as a novelecologically significant mechanism for thermoregulation in fish. The discoveryof this previously overlooked process has practical implications for aquaculture,offers alternative explanations for behavioural and phenotypicadaptations, will spur future research in fish ecology, and calls for modificationsof models concerning climate change impacts on biodiversity inmarine and freshwater environments.

  • 18.
    Petrin, Zlatko
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contrasting effects of anthropogenic and natural acidity in streams: a meta-analysis.2008In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 275, no 1639, p. 1143-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    arge-scale human activities including the extensive combustion of fossil fuels have caused acidification of freshwater systems on a continental scale, resulting in reduced species diversity and, in some instances, impaired ecological functioning. In regions where acidity is natural, however, species diversity and functioning seem less affected. This contrasting response is likely to have more than one explanation including the possibility of adaptation in organisms exposed to natural acidity over evolutionary timescales and differential toxicity due to dissimilarities in water chemistry other than pH. However, empirical evidence supporting these hypotheses is equivocal. Partly, this is because previous research has mainly been conducted at relatively small geographical scales, and information on ecological functioning in this context is generally scarce. Our goal was to test whether anthropogenic acidity has stronger negative effects on species diversity and ecological functioning than natural acidity. Using a meta-analytic approach based on 60 data sets we show that macroinvertebrate species richness and the decomposition of leaf litter - an important process in small streams - tend to decrease with increasing acidity across regions and across both acidity categories. Macroinvertebrate species richness, however, declines three times more rapidly with increasing acidity where it is anthropogenic than where it is natural, in agreement with the adaptation hypothesis and the hypothesis of differences in water chemistry. In contrast, the loss in ecological functioning differs little between categories, probably because increases in the biomass of taxa remaining at low pH compensate for losses in functionality that would otherwise accompany losses of taxa from acidic systems. This example from freshwater acidification illustrates how natural and anthropogenic stressors can differ markedly in their effects on species diversity and one aspect of ecological functioning.

  • 19.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Oslo, Norway.
    Rojas, Alexis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Late Holocene anthropogenic landscape change in northwestern Europe impacted insect biodiversity as much as climate change did after the last Ice Age2022In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 289, no 1977, article id 20212734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the last Ice Age (ca 115 000–11 700 years ago), the geographical ranges of most plants and animals have shifted, expanded or contracted. Understanding the timing, geographical patterns and drivers of past changes in insect communities is essential for evaluating the biodiversity implications of future climate changes, yet our knowledge of long-term patterns is limited. We applied a network modelling approach to the recent fossil record of northwestern European beetles to investigate how their taxonomic and trait composition changed during the past 16 000 years. We found two major changes in beetle faunas 4000–3500 and 10 000–9500 years ago, coinciding with periods of human population growth in the Late Holocene and climate warming in the Early Holocene. Our results demonstrate that humans have affected insect biodiversity since at least the introduction of agropastoralism, with landscape-scale effects that can be observed at sites away from areas of direct human impact.

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  • 20.
    Pontarp, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Petchey, Owen L.
    Community trait overdispersion due to trophic interactions: concerns for assembly process inference2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1840, article id 20161729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected link between competitive exclusion and community trait over-dispersion has been used to infer competition in local communities, and trait clustering has been interpreted as habitat filtering. Such community assembly process inference has received criticism for ignoring trophic interactions, as competition and trophic interactions might create similar trait patterns. While other theoretical studies have generally demonstrated the importance of predation for coexistence, ours provides the first quantitative demonstration of such effects on assembly process inference, using a trait-based ecological model to simulate the assembly of a competitive primary consumer community with and without the influence of trophic interactions. We quantified and contrasted trait dispersion/clustering of the competitive communities with the absence and presence of secondary consumers. Trophic interactions most often decreased trait clustering (i.e. increased dispersion) in the competitive communities due to evenly distributed invasions of secondary consumers and subsequent competitor extinctions over trait space. Furthermore, effects of trophic interactions were somewhat dependent on model parameters and clustering metric. These effects create considerable problems for process inference from trait distributions; one potential solution is to use more process-based and inclusive models in inference.

  • 21.
    Pontarp, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Petchey, Owen L.
    Ecological opportunity and predator-prey interactions: linking eco-evolutionary processes and diversification in adaptive radiations2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1874, article id 20172550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of life's diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations. By combining available micro-evolutionary theory and simulations of adaptive radiations we show that intraspecific competition is crucial for diversification as it induces disruptive selection, in particular in early phases of radiation. The diversification rate is however decreased in later phases owing to interspecific competition as niche availability, and population sizes are decreased. We provide new insight into how predation tends to have a negative effect on prey diversification through decreased population sizes, decreased disruptive selection and through the exclusion of prey from parts of niche space. The seemingly disparate effects of competition and predation on adaptive radiations, listed in the literature, may thus be acting and interacting in the same adaptive radiation at different relative strength as the radiation progresses.

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  • 22. Saaristo, Minna
    et al.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden .
    Balshine, Sigal
    Bertram, Michael G.
    Brooks, Bryan W.
    Ehlman, Sean M.
    McCallum, Erin S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sih, Andrew
    Sundin, Josefin
    Wong, Bob B. M.
    Arnold, Kathryn E.
    Direct and indirect effects of chemical contaminants on the behaviour, ecology and evolution of wildlife2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1885, article id 20181297Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical contaminants (e.g. metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) are changing ecosystems via effects on wildlife. Indeed, recent work explicitly performed under environmentally realistic conditions reveals that chemical contaminants can have both direct and indirect effects at multiple levels of organization by influencing animal behaviour. Altered behaviour reflects multiple physiological changes and links individual-to population-level processes, thereby representing a sensitive tool for holistically assessing impacts of environmentally relevant contaminant concentrations. Here, we show that even if direct effects of contaminants on behavioural responses are reasonably well documented, there are significant knowledge gaps in understanding both the plasticity (i.e. individual variation) and evolution of contaminant-induced behavioural changes. We explore implications of multi-level processes by developing a conceptual framework that integrates direct and indirect effects on behaviour under environmentally realistic contexts. Our framework illustrates how sublethal behavioural effects of contaminants can be both negative and positive, varying dynamically within the same individuals and populations. This is because linkages within communities will act indirectly to alter and even magnify contaminant-induced effects. Given the increasing pressure on wildlife and ecosystems from chemical pollution, we argue there is a need to incorporate existing knowledge in ecology and evolution to improve ecological hazard and risk assessments.

  • 23. Sagebakken, Gry
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Mobley, Kenyon B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gonçalves, Inês Braga
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos.2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1683, p. 971-977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these 'reduced' embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using (14)C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that (14)C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant (14)C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch.

  • 24.
    Shenoi, Vinesh Naresh
    et al.
    Ifm Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Brengdahl, Martin I.
    Ifm Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Grace, Jaime L.
    Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago, 1032 W. Sheridan Rd., IL, Chicago, United States.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Unit of Chemical Ecology, Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sundsvägen 14, Box 102, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Rydén, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Friberg, Urban
    Ifm Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A genome-wide test for paternal indirect genetic effects on lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster2022In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 289, no 1974, article id 20212707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing sires to various environmental manipulations has demonstrated that paternal effects can be non-trivial also in species where male investment in offspring is almost exclusively limited to sperm. Whether paternal effects also have a genetic component (i.e. paternal indirect genetic effects (PIGEs)) in such species is however largely unknown, primarily because of methodological difficulties separating indirect from direct effects of genes. PIGEs may nevertheless be important since they have the capacity to contribute to evolutionary change. Here we use Drosophila genetics to construct a breeding design that allows testing nearly complete haploid genomes (more than 99%) for PIGEs. Using this technique, we estimate the variance in male lifespan due to PIGEs among four populations and compare this to the total paternal genetic variance (the sum of paternal indirect and direct genetic effects). Our results indicate that a substantial part of the total paternal genetic variance results from PIGEs. A screen of 38 haploid genomes, randomly sampled from a single population, suggests that PIGEs also influence variation in lifespan within populations. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PIGEs may constitute an underappreciated source of phenotypic variation.

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  • 25.
    Sjödin, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Space race functional responses2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1801, article id 20142121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holing type 11 response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  • 26. Van der Merwe, MM
    et al.
    Kinnear, MW
    Barrett, LG
    Dodds, PN
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Thrall, PH
    Burdon, JJ
    Positive selection in AvrP4 avirulence gene homologues across the genus Melampsora2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1669, p. 2913-2922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogen genes involved in interactions with their plant hosts are expected to evolve under positive Darwinian selection or balancing selection. In this study a single copy avirulence gene, AvrP4, in the plant pathogen Melampsora lini, was used to investigate the evolution of such a gene across species. Partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequences were obtained to establish phylogenetic relationships among the Melampsora species. We amplified AvrP4 homologues from species pathogenic on hosts from different plant families and orders, across the inferred phylogeny. Translations of the AvrP4 sequences revealed a predicted signal peptide and towards the C-terminus of the protein, six identically spaced cysteines were identified in all sequences. Maximum likelihood analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that positive selection played a role in the evolution of the gene during the diversification of the genus. Fourteen codons under significant positive selection reside in the C-terminal 28 amino acid region, suggesting that this region interacts with host molecules in most sequenced accessions. Selection pressures on the gene may be either due to the pathogenicity or avirulence function of the gene or both.

  • 27.
    Voerman, Sofie E.
    et al.
    Lyell Centre for Earth and Marine Science and Technology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Marsh, Beauregard C.
    Lyell Centre for Earth and Marine Science and Technology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Bahia, Ricardo G.
    Botanical Garden Research Institute of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Conservação Marinha, Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Santos, Brazil.
    Becker, Ana Clara F.
    Laboratório de Ecologia e Conservação Marinha, Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Santos, Brazil.
    Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.
    Botanical Garden Research Institute of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Ruseckas, Arvydas
    Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom.
    Turnbull, Graham A.
    Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom.
    Samuel, Ifor D. W.
    Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom.
    Burdett, Heidi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dominance of photo over chromatic acclimation strategies by habitat-forming mesophotic red algae2023In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 290, no 2008, article id 20231329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red coralline algae are the deepest living macroalgae, capable of creating spatially complex reefs from the intertidal to 100+ m depth with global ecological and biogeochemical significance. How these algae maintain photosynthetic function under increasingly limiting light intensity and spectral availability is key to explaining their large depth distribution. Here, we investigated the photo- and chromatic acclimation and morphological change of free-living red coralline algae towards mesophotic depths in the Fernando do Noronha archipelago, Brazil. From 13 to 86 m depth, thalli tended to become smaller and less complex. We observed a dominance of the photo-acclimatory response, characterized by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency and a decrease in maximum electron transport rate. Chromatic acclimation was generally stable across the euphotic-mesophotic transition with no clear depth trend. Taxonomic comparisons suggest these photosynthetic strategies are conserved to at least the Order level. Light saturation necessitated the use of photoprotection to 65 m depth, while optimal light levels were met at 86 m. Changes to the light environment (e.g. reduced water clarity) due to human activities therefore places these mesophotic algae at risk of light limitation, necessitating the importance of maintaining good water quality for the conservation and protection of mesophotic habitats.

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  • 28.
    Zhang, Lai
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. School of Mathematical Science, Yangzhou University, Si Wang Ting Road, Yangzhou 225002, People’s Republic of China.
    Takahashi, Daisuke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Hartvig, Martin
    Andersen, Ken H.
    Food-web dynamics under climate change2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1867, article id 20171772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change affects ecological communities through its impact on the physiological performance of individuals. However, the population dynamic of species well inside their thermal niche is also determined by competitors, prey and predators, in addition to being influenced by temperature changes. We use a trait-based food-web model to examine how the interplay between the direct physiological effects from temperature and the indirect effects due to changing interactions between populations shapes the ecological consequences of climate change for populations and for entire communities. Our simulations illustrate how isolated communities deteriorate as populations go extinct when the environment moves outside the species' thermal niches. High-trophic-level species are most vulnerable, while the ecosystem function of lower trophic levels is less impacted. Open communities can compensate for the loss of ecosystem function by invasions of new species. Individual populations show complex responses largely uncorrelated with the direct impact of temperature change on physiology. Such complex responses are particularly evident during extinction and invasion events of other species, where climaticallywell-adapted species may be brought to extinction by the changed food-web topology. Our results highlight that the impact of climate change on specific populations is largely unpredictable, and apparently well-adapted species may be severely impacted.

  • 29.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Norman, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1799, article id 20142254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11 degrees C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5 degrees C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11 degrees C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

1 - 29 of 29
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