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  • 1.
    Kobayashi, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Wilson Grout, Brian William
    University of Copenhagen.
    Østerberg Rump, Camilla
    University of Copenhagen.
    Experiencing variation: learning opportunities in doctoral supervision2017In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 805-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure), or the research methods—more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more open-ended research issues were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy.

  • 2. van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse
    et al.
    Admiraal, Wilfried
    Rijlaarsdam, Gert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 127, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands; University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Becoming original: effects of strategy instruction2016In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 543-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual arts education focuses on creating original visual art products. A means to improve originality is enhancement of divergent thinking, indicated by fluency, flexibility and originality of ideas. In regular arts lessons, divergent thinking is mostly promoted through brainstorming. In a previous study, we found positive effects of an explicit instruction of metacognition on fluency and flexibility in terms of the generation of ideas, but not on the originality of ideas. Therefore, we redesigned the instruction with a focus on building up knowledge about creative generation strategies by adding more complex types of association, and adding generation through combination and abstraction. In the present study, we examined the effects of this intervention by comparing it with regular brainstorming instruction. In a pretest-posttest control group design, secondary school students in the comparison condition received the brainstorm lesson and students in the experimental condition received the newly developed instruction lesson. To validate the effects, we replicated this study with a second cohort. The results showed that in both cohorts the strategy instruction of 50 min had positive effects on students' fluency, flexibility and originality. This study implies that instructional support in building up knowledge about creative generation strategies may improve students' creative processes in visual arts education.

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  • 3.
    Winberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education.
    Hedman, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Student attitudes toward learning, level of pre-knowledge and instruction type in a computer-simulation: effects on flow experiences and perceived learning outcomes2008In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 269-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes toward learning (ATL) have been shown to influence students’ learning outcomes. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the ways in which the interaction between ATL, the learning situation, and the level of students’ prior knowledge influence affective reactions and conceptual change. In this study, a simulation of acid-base titrations was examined to assess the impact of instruction format, level of prior knowledge and students’ ATL on university-level students, with respect to flow experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) and perceived conceptual change. Results show that the use of guiding instructions was correlated with a perceived conceptual change and high levels of “Challenge,” “Enjoyment,” and “Concentration,” but low sense of control during the exercise. Students who used the open instructions scored highly on the “Control flow” component, but their perceived learning score was lower than that for the students who used the guiding instructions. In neither case did students’ ATL or their pre-test results contribute strongly to students’ flow experiences or their perceived learning in the two different learning situations.

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