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  • 1.
    Brown, Gavin T. L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Swedish student perceptions of achievement practices: the role of intelligence2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 69, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of intelligence and motivational constructs in school achievement is well attested. Beliefs and attitudes about assessment (including classroom assessment, homework and tests) can be adaptive within a self-regulation of learning framework. However, the role of intelligence upon the student and parent coping with school assessment practices is less well known. This paper examines responses of Swedish Grade 6 (modal age 13) students (N = 4749) participating in the Education Through Follow-up (ETF) project to four cognitive tests and survey items concerning achievement demands. Their responses were integrated with parent perceptions of grading and school pressure. Robust factors for intelligence, student perceptions, and parental perceptions were found and introduced into a structural equation model with intelligence as the predictor. The well-fitting SEM model showed that intelligence had statistically significant predictions on all four student and three parent perceptions factors, of which two predicted student factors. However, only one prediction was substantive; intelligence on coping with school demands (beta = 0.48). Although not allowing for causal inference, the results support the claim that general cognitive abilities act as a predictor of self-regulating capability of coping with school demands.

  • 2.
    Dunkel, Curtis S.
    et al.
    Western Illinois University, Department of Psychology, IL, Macomb, United States.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The possible role of field independence/dependence on developmental sex differences in general intelligence2022In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 91, article id 101628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-life outcomes for men and women suggest the existence of cognitive sex differences, but the evidence for a sex difference in general intelligence is equivocal. Here, we examine the role of spatial ability for IQ test performance, in light of the developmental hypothesis that male performance increases more than female across adolescence. Using longitudinal data from Block and Block data set on the Wechsler scales and the rod-and-frame test (RFT) for ages 4 (N = 108), 11 (N = 101), and 18 years (N = 100), we find that males' performance becomes greater than females' with age, both on IQ and the RFT. At 18 years of age, males' mean IQ and RFT score was 116.4 and 4.05 (lower scores representing less error), as compared to111.5 and 7.85 for females. Importantly, we found that the RFT mediates the sex difference in IQ, and that the factor loadings of the RFT on the g factor increases with age, from −0.06 at age 4 to −0.52 at 11 and −0.67 at age 18. In conclusion, g becomes more integrative of spatial ability across time and this finding may explain sex differences in g after puberty and potentially has interesting implications for the understanding of the development of intelligence. One important direction for future research is to incorporate biologically based pubertal neural changes into our understanding of developmental sex differences in intelligence.

  • 3. Dunkel, Curtis S.
    et al.
    van der Linden, Dimitri
    Beaver, Kevin M.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using a prison sample to assess the association between the general factor of personality and general intelligence2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 47, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, most research has indicated that there is a positive, yet small, association between the general factor of personality (GFP) and general intelligence (g). The premise of the current study was that this relationship could be underestimated due to the measures used to compute a GFP and the failure to control for a social desirability response bias. These possible attenuating factors were examined through the analysis of an extensive data file of prisoners. The GFP was significantly correlated with g and this association was stronger with more extensive tests of g, with a California Personality Inventory based GFP in comparison to a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory based GFP, and when socially desirable responding was included as a statistical control. Additional analyses also revealed that the GFP shows Jensen Effects, the stronger the g loaded the scale the stronger its correlation with the GFP. A similar trend was found when examining the strength of the correlations between g and the personality scales. The higher a personality scale loaded on the GFP, the stronger it tended to correlate with g. The results may be informative as to the underlying basis for the GFP. 

  • 4.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Research and Development Unit, Sundsvall Hospital, Region Västernorrland, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Occupational cognitive complexity and episodic memory in old age2021In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 89, article id 101598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate occupational cognitive complexity of main lifetime occupation in relation to level and 15-year change in episodic memory recall in a sample of older adults (≥ 65 years, n = 780). We used latent growth curve modelling with occupational cognitive complexity (O*NET indicators) as independent variable. Subgroup analyses in a sample of middle-aged (mean: 49.9 years) men (n = 260) were additionally performed to investigate if a general cognitive ability (g) factor at age 18 was predictive of future occupational cognitive complexity and cognitive performance in midlife. For the older sample, a higher level of occupational cognitive complexity was related to a higher level of episodic recall (β = 0.15, p < .001), but the association with rate of change (β = 0.03, p = .64) was not statistically significant. In the middle-aged sample, g at age 18 was both directly (β = 0.19, p = .01) and indirectly (via years of education after age 18, ab = 0.19) predictive of midlife levels of occupational cognitive complexity. Cognitive ability at age 18 was also a direct predictor of midlife episodic recall (β = 0.60, p ≤ 0.001). Critically, entry of the early adult g factor attenuated the association between occupational complexity and cognitive level (from β = 0.21, p = .01 to β = 0.12, p = .14). Overall, our results support a pattern of preserved differentiation from early to late adulthood for individuals with different histories of occupational complexity.

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  • 5.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forsman, Lea
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Örjan
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karabanov, Anke
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Correlations between intelligence and components of serial timing variability2009In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 37, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychometric intelligence correlates with reaction time in elementary cognitive tasks, as well as with performance in time discrimination and judgment tasks. It has remained unclear, however, to what extent these correlations are due to top–down mechanisms, such as attention, and bottom–up mechanisms, i.e. basic neural properties that influence both temporal accuracy and cognitive processes. Here, we assessed correlations between intelligence (Raven SPM Plus) and performance in isochronous serial interval production, a simple, automatic timing task where participants first make movements in synchrony with an isochronous sequence of sounds and then continue with self-paced production to produce a sequence of intervals with the same inter-onset interval (IOI). The target IOI varied across trials. A number of different measures of timing variability were considered, all negatively correlated with intelligence. Across all stimulus IOIs, local interval-to-interval variability correlated more strongly with intelligence than drift, i.e. gradual changes in response IOI. The strongest correlations with intelligence were found for IOIs between 400 and 900 ms, rather than above 1 s, which is typically considered a lower limit for cognitive timing. Furthermore, poor trials, i.e. trials arguably most affected by lapses in attention, did not predict intelligence better than the most accurate trials. We discuss these results in relation to the human timing literature, and argue that they support a bottom–up model of the relation between temporal variability of neural activity and intelligence.

  • 6.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mosing, Miriam A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Verweij, Karin J.H.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Common genetic influences on intelligence and auditory simple reaction time in a large Swedish sample2016In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 59, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence and cognitive ability have long been associated with chronometric performance measures, such as reaction time (RT), but few studies have investigated auditory RT in this context. The nature of this relationship is important for understanding the etiology and structure of intelligence. Here, we present a bivariate twin analysis of simple auditory RT and psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wiener Matrizen Test). The sample consisted of 1,816 complete twin pairs and 4623 singletons enrolled in the Swedish Twin Registry, who performed the tests online. The heritabilities were 0.54 and 0.21 for intelligence and RT, respectively, and the phenotypic correlation was −0.17, 47% of which was explained by common genetic variance. These results are comparable to those found for visual RT and for other cognitive tests, and add RT in the auditory modality to the small literature on common genetic influences across intelligence and other cognitive and chronometric variables.

  • 7. Meisenberg, Gerhard
    et al.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are cognitive differences between countries diminishing?: Evidence from TIMSS and PISA2013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 808-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive ability differences between countries can be large, with average IQs ranging from approximately 70 in sub-Saharan Africa to 105 in the countries of north-east Asia. A likely reason for the great magnitude of these differences is the Flynn effect, which massively raised average IQs in economically advanced countries during the 20th century. The present study tests the prediction that international IQ differences are diminishing again because substantial Flynn effects are now under way in the less developed "low-IQ countries" while intelligence is stagnating in the economically advanced "high-IQ countries." The hypothesis is examined with two periodically administered scholastic assessment programs. TIMSS has tested 8th-grade students periodically between 1995 and 2011 in mathematics and science, and PISA has administered tests of mathematics, science and reading between 2000 and 2009. In both TIMSS and PISA, low-scoring countries tend to show a rising trend relative to higher-scoring countries. Despite the short time series of only 9 and 16 years, the results indicate that differences between high-scoring and low-scoring countries are diminishing on these scholastic achievement tests. The results support the prediction that through a combination of substantial Flynn effects in low-scoring countries and diminished (or even negative) Flynn effects in high-scoring countries, cognitive differences between countries are getting smaller on a worldwide scale.

  • 8. Mosing, Miriam A.
    et al.
    Verweij, Karin J. H.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullen, Fredrik
    The genetic architecture of correlations between perceptual timing, motor timing, and intelligence2016In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 57, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychometric intelligence correlates with performance on a wide range of sensory and motor tasks that involve processing of temporal information in the millisecond-second range. For some timing tasks, e.g. reaction time and discrimination of temporal stimuli in working memory, the associations with intelligence are likely to involve top-down mechanisms such as attention. However, studies on repetitive, automatic motor timing tasks indicate that correlations between intelligence and timing also may reflect bottom-up mechanisms, i.e. basic neural properties that influence both the temporal accuracy of behavior and cognitive processes. Here, we study the genetic architecture of the associations between intelligence, perceptual timing (auditory rhythm discrimination) and motor timing (finger tapping) in a large twin cohort. Specifically, we hypothesized that the associations between these tasks on the phenotypic level involve broad pleiotropic genetic effects that influence all three tasks, as well as additional genetic effects on the covariation between perceptual and motor timing. Phenotypic associations between the variables were low to moderate, with Pearson's correlations in the range 0.17-0.32. Trivariate twin modeling showed that the associations between the three variables were essentially due to shared genetic influences. In support of the hypotheses, we found evidence for pleiotropic effects on motor timing, perceptual timing, and intelligence, as well as additional genetic covariation between the two timing tasks that was not shared with intelligence. We conclude, first, that genetic factors underlying intelligence may involve genes which influence brain properties of importance for the temporal accuracy of neural processing. We discuss possible neural substrates of such effects. Secondly, the correlation between motor and perceptual timing also partly explained by genetic influences that are unrelated to intelligence. 

  • 9.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood: associations with current g and g in youth2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 71, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated relations between general cognitive ability (g) and aspects of time perspective, i.e. habitual ways of relating to the past, present, and future, in a sample of older adults (60-90 years, N = 438). In main focus was a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective (DBTP), reflecting the differences between proposed ideal and observed score profile on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). A current g factor reflecting four cognitive markers was negatively related to DBTP (beta = -0.31), with a higher estimate (beta = -0.40) for a latent DBTP factor. For a subset of male participants (n = 129), cognitive test score from age 18 were retrieved. In that sample the g factor in youth predicted DBTP scores obtained around 52 years later (beta = -0.31, p < .01) nearly as well as current g (beta = -0.39). In line with prior studies, the Present Fatalistic dimension was a main source of the covariation of g and DBTP, but deviation scores for each of the three temporal frames (past, present, future) were significantly associated with g as well. Variations in recent stress did not account for these associations. Multi-group latent level analyses revealed a magnified g-DBTP association in old-old age (beta = -0.57 and beta = -0.81 in the old-old group for a latent DBTP factor), with a similar pattern for Present Fatalistic and Past Negative. Together, the results demonstrate a substantial association between g and time perspective in late adulthood, a relationship that may have been established early as judged from a relation to the age 18 g factor. A magnified association in in old-old age might reflect a more noticeable impact of age-related cognitive deficits on everyday functioning and thereby aspects of time perspective (e.g. increase present fatalism). Impairments in cognitive processes that allow for a flexible shift between temporal frames could also be factor, something which needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  • 10.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970-19932013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four subtests. The results revealed significant Flynn effects, with estimated gains of 1.2-1.5 IQ-units per decade. The effect seem to hold across ability levels, even though tendencies of more pronounced effects in the lower half of the ability distribution was observed. The largest gains were for visuospatial tests (Paper Form Board and Metal Folding), with little change, even slight losses during the second sub-period, for tests of verbal knowledge (Concept Discrimination and Synonyms) and a mixed pattern for a test of technical comprehension (losses followed by gains). Finally, comparisons of trends in cognitive performance and in standing height show that the gains in cognitive performance over the years from 1980 to 1993 occurred in the absence of overall gains in height which speaks against nutrition as the cause of the Flynn effects. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study2008In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 36, p. 192-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarative memory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35–80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; n = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions, regardless of age, with no evidence of narrowing gender gaps. Across the entire range of birth cohorts (1909–1969) the estimated gain approached 1 SD unit. Over most cohorts the gains were largest for semantic memory, with a tendency of decelerating gains on the memory factors, but not on Block Design, across more recent cohorts (1954–1969). Together, differences in education, body height, and sibsize predicted virtually all (> 94%) of the time-related differences in cognitive performance. Whereas education emerged as the main factor, the need to consider changes multiple factors to account for FEs is underscored. Their relative influence likely depends on which constellations of ability factors and stages in ontogenetic and societal development are considered.

  • 12.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Interindividual differences in general cognitive ability from age 18 to age 65 years are extremely stable and strongly associated with working memory capacity2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 53, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine the degree of stability of interindividual differences in general cognitive ability (g) across the adult life span. To this end, we examined a sample of men (n = 262), cognitively assessed for the first time at age 18 (conscript data). The sample was reassessed at age 50 and at five year intervals up to age 65. Scores from conscript tests at age 18 were retrieved and three of the subtests were used as indicators of g in early adulthood. At age 50–65 years, four indicators served the same purpose. At the 15-year follow-up (age 65) two working memory measures were administered which allowed examination of the relationship with working memory capacity. Results from structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated extremely high level of stability from young adulthood to age 50 (standardized regression coefficient = − 95) as well as from age 50 to age 55, 60 and 65 with stability coefficients of .90 or higher for the for the latent g factor. Standardized regression coefficients between young-adult g and the g factor in midlife/old age were .95 from age 18 up to age 50 and 55, .94 up to age 60, and .86 up to age 65. Hence, g at age 18 accounted for 90–74% of the variance in g 32–47 years later. A close association between g and working memory capacity was observed (concurrent association: r = .88, time lagged association: r = .61). Taken together, the present study demonstrates that interindividual differences in g are extremely stable over the period from 18 to midlife, with a significant deviation from unity only at age 65. In light of the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, consistent with the close association between g and working memory capacity, midlife may be characterized by neural stability, with decline and decreased interindividual stability, related to loss of parieto-frontal integrity, past age 60.

  • 13.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Midlife level and 15-year changes in general cognitive ability in a sample of men: the role of education, early adult ability, BMI, and pulse pressure2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 61, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine determinants of midlife level and long-term changes in a general cog-nitive ability (g) factor. The data were from a Swedish sample of men (n=262;M=49.9years,SD=4.0)forwhich cognitive (conscript) test scores at age 18 were retrieved. In midlife the men completed a battery of cog-nitive tests that was re-administered atfive-year intervals up to 15 years after the baseline assessment. Second-order latent growth curve models were used to examine predictors of midlife level and longitudinal changes in agfactor reflecting four cognitive measures (WAIS-R Block Design, vocabulary, action recall, and wordfluency).The results showed education (years of schooling) to be related to ability level (intercept) before (β= 0.71),but not after (β= 0.09), adjustment of an early adult (age 18)gfactor (reflecting three different cognitive mea-sures)that washighly predictive of midlifeglevel (adjustedβ= 0.89). Neither education norgat age 18 (or mid-lifeglevel) was related to long-term changes ing, though. Conversely,baseline age, BMI, and pulse pressure wereunrelated to midlife ability level, but higher baseline age, higher BMI and higher pulse pressure in midlife werepredictive of cognitive decline. Thus, whereas higher levels of initial ability or educational attainment do not ap-pear to buffer against onset of age-related decline ingin midlife and young-old age, maintenance of lower levelsof pulse pressure and body weight could possibly have such an effect. However, further research is required toevaluate the mechanisms behind the observed relationships of the targeted variables and cognitive decline.

  • 14. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Melin, Bo
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Further evidence that the worst performance rule is a special case of the correlation of sorted scores rule2021In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 84, article id 101516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the worst performance rule (WPR), the correlations between intelligence and sorted performances, for example on reaction time tasks, should strengthen from the best to the worst performance. A commonly proposed explanation for the WPR is that poor performances reflect lapses of attention that are particularly strongly related to intelligence. The correlation of sorted scores rule (CSSR), on the other hand, claims that the WPR arises due to certain statistical properties of the data. Specifically, the magnitude of intelligence-performance correlations will change with the rank order of the test when intelligence is correlated with the within-individual standard deviation (WISD) of the tests. If the latter correlation is negative, a WPR is seen, i.e. intelligence-performance correlations will be lower for tests with higher rank order. If the intelligence-WISD correlation were positive, however, intelligence-performance correlations would instead increase with test rank order. In the present study, through strategic slicing of two samples (N = 1485, and N = 43,987, respectively), we created subsamples with a large range of intelligence-WISD correlations. In accordance with the CSSR, but not the WPR, the association between intelligence-performance correlations and test rank order was found to reflect the intelligence-WISD correlation of the subsample. This supports that the WPR might be a special case of the more general CSSR and that the WPR is crucially dependent on intelligence-WISD correlations. The findings also indicate that the predictions made by the CSSR generalize to other predictors besides intelligence and to other outcomes besides reaction time.

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  • 15. Sorjonen, Kimmo
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Bo
    Ullen, Fredrik
    The Correlation of Sorted Scores Rule2020In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 80, article id 101454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The worst performance rule (WPR) states that participants' worst performances on multi-trial tasks, e.g. in reaction time, are more predictive of their general intelligence than are better performances. A common interpretation of the WPR is that poor performances reflect momentary lapses in attention and executive control, which occur more frequently in individuals with low IQ. Here, we first present analyses of simulated data, which indicate that WPR-like phenomena may occur as a function of certain statistical relations between the within-individual variance of multiple test scores and other measures of interest. Specifically, we propose that the WPR is a special case of the more general Correlation of Sorted Scores Rule (CSSR). According to the CSSR, a negative correlation between the test score percentile of sorted scores, e.g. in reaction time, and the test score × construct (e.g. g) correlation, will be seen if the within-individual variance on the tests has a negative correlation with the construct. However, if the latter correlation is positive, the CSSR predicts a positive association also between test score percentiles and test score × construct correlations, i.e. a “best performance rule”. Secondly, we test this hypothesis using analyses in a large cohort (N = 5467) with empirical data on reaction time and intelligence. These results replicate the main findings from the simulation study and, importantly, provide further support for the key prediction of the CSSR, i.e. that samples with a positive correlation between reaction time variance and intelligence tend to show a “best performance rule”.

  • 16.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kääriä, Lenita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bottom–up mechanisms are involved in the relation between accuracy in timing tasks and intelligence: further evidence using manipulations of state motivation2012In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence correlates with accuracy in various timing tasks. Such correlations could be due to both bottom–up mechanisms, e.g. neural properties that influence both temporal accuracy and cognitive processing, and differences in top–down control. We have investigated the timing–intelligence relation using a simple temporal motor task, isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), i.e. hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP variability is egatively correlated with intelligence and we have previously argued, based on indirect evidence, that this relation has a bottom–up component. Here, we investigate this question using an experimental within-subject design in two samples (n=38 and n=95 participants, respectively). ISIP was performed under two conditions. In the first condition (Low Motivation), the participants were told that measurements were being made to familiarize them with the task and to calibrate the equipment. In the second condition (High Motivation), the participants were told that the performance would be evaluated and used for scientific analysis, and they were given a monetary reward depending on how accurately they performed. Temporal accuracy in the ISIP was higher during High Motivation than during Low Motivation. In both samples, correlations between ISIP variability and intelligence were similar for both conditions. General linear models with ISIP variability measures as dependent variables, condition (Low Motivation or High Motivation) as a repeated-measures variable and intelligence as a betweensubject variable, revealed a significant effect of intelligence, but no effects of incentive, nor of the intelligence×incentive interaction. We conclude that motivationally driven top–down mechanisms can influence ISIP performance, but that they play no major role for correlations between temporal accuracy in ISIP and intelligence. These results provide further support for that bottom–up mechanisms are involved in relations between temporal accuracy and intelligence.

  • 17. van der Linden, Dimitri
    et al.
    Dunkel, Curtis S.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sex differences in brain size and general intelligence (g)2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 63, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing MRI and cognitive tests data from the Human Connectome project (N = 900), sex differences in general intelligence (g) and molar brain characteristics were examined. Total brain volume, cortical surface area, and white and gray matter correlated 0.1-0.3 with g for both sexes, whereas cortical thickness and gray/white matter ratio showed less consistent associations with g. Males displayed higher scores on most of the brain characteristics, even after correcting for body size, and also scored approximately one fourth of a standard deviation higher on g. Mediation analyses and the Method of Correlated Vectors both indicated that the sex difference in g is mediated by general brain characteristics. Selecting a subsample of males and females who were matched on g further suggest that larger brains, on average, lead to higher g, whereas similar levels of g do not necessarily imply equal brain sizes.

  • 18.
    Wallert, John
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekman, Urban
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westman, Eric
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The worst performance rule with elderly in abnormal cognitive decline2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 64, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to best performances, worst performances on multi-trial psychometric tests often show stronger correlations with other g-loaded cognitive tests, which is known as the Worst Performance Rule (WPR). While worst performances may be more sensitive or specific to cognitive decline, clinical psychometric research and neuropsychological practice tends to neglect the WPR. Here, we examined the WPR-paradigm relative to abnormal cognitive decline. Specifically, we studied the WPR with binned simple reaction time task responses when rank-correlated with five different estimates of psychometric g within a memory clinic sample (n = 103) of elderly diagnosed with either Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (n = 53) or dementia (n = 50). Three of the g-estimates were composite scores constructed from 2, 6, and 28 established test scores. Results showed a consistent WPR-pattern in the whole sample for each of the five estimates (block design rs = − 0.201 to − 0.120; digit span rs = − 0.284 to − 0.112; g2 rs = − 0.311 to − 0.162; g6 rs = − 0.314 to − 0.107; g28 rs = − 0.269 to − 0.121). Our findings contradict classical test theory, and highlight the underused potential of the WPR when assessing cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  • 19.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose
    Brown, Sacha D.
    Ross, Kari C.
    Four successful tests of the Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort hypothesis2013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 832-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort (CD-IE) hypothesis predicts that the dimension of life history speed (K) regulates the strength of the correlation among cognitive abilities, such that individuals with higher K exhibit more weakly integrated abilities than those with lower K. It is predicted that this effect takes place independently of the level of g owing to the absence of an individual differences level correlation between K and g. CD-IE was examined using two student samples: (I) an all female sample (N = 121), using the ALHB as a measure of,K and the two SILS subtests of g; and (2) a combined male and female sample (N = 346), using a shorter three-indicator ("Trifecta") measure of K. a general creativity measure comprised of two subscales (writing and drawing "creative performance"), and the APM-18 measure of fluid cognition. A third, population-representative sample was obtained from the NLSY (N = 11,907). A K-Factor was constructed from convergent measures of subjective well-being, sociability, interpersonal trust, internal locus of control, and delay of gratification, and a g-factor was constructed from the 10 subscales of the ASVAB. A fourth sample, addressing the question of ethnic differences was collected encompassing eight different ethnic groups with a combined 107 specific ability correlations with g. An aggregate K-Factor was constructed for this sample based on convergent population-level indicators of longevity, total fertility rates and infant mortality. Utilizing the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model, in student sample I a significant CD-1E effect was found on the SILS Abstract subtest (beta=-.215), but not on the SILS Verbal subtest (beta=.069). In student sample 2, CD-IE was observed on the general creativity measure (beta=-.127), but not on the fluid cognitive ability measure (beta=-.057). Significant effects were also observed on both the written and drawing creative output subscales (beta=-.189 and -.183 respectively). In sample 3 (the NLSY), generally statistically significant but small-magnitude CD-1E effects were observed among all 10 ASVAB subtests (mean effect size beta=-.032). In sample four, a near-significant CD-IE effect was detected (beta=-.167). Controlling for subtest skew reduces the mean effect sizes across individual differences samples (beta=-.071 in the student samples, -.027 in the NLSY), but boosted it to significance in the ethnic differences sample (beta=-.179). Controlling for the skew of residuals reversed the signs of the CD-IE effects on the ASVAB Words and Comprehension subscales, and also on the SILS Verbal subscale, but amplified the magnitudes of the mean effects in the student and NLSY samples (beta=-.036 and -.131), while reducing the effect size slightly in the ethnic-differences sample (beta=-.172). In the individual differences samples, these effects were demonstrated to be unconfounded with sex of respondent and also unrelated to the Jensen effect. The apparent independence of the effect from both level of g and subtestg-loading suggests intriguing commonalities with the Lynn-Flynn effect.

  • 20.
    Woodley, Michael A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Bell, Edward
    Stratford, James
    Piffer, Davide
    The relationship between microcephalin, ASPM and intelligence: a reconsideration2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 44, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that the recently evolved Microcephalin and the related Abnormal Spindle-like Microcaphaly Associated (ASPM) alleles do not appear to be associated with IQ at the individual differences level, the frequencies of Microcephalin have been found to correlate strongly with IQ at the cross-country level. In this study, the association between these two alleles and intelligence is examined using a sample of 59 populations. A bivariate correlation between Microcephalin and population average IQ of r = .790 (p ≤ .01) was found, and a multiple regression analysis in which the Human Development Index, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost due to Infectious diseases, DALY Nutritional deficiencies, and Würm glaciation temperature means were included revealed that Microcephalin remained a good predictor of IQ. Path analysis, with both direct and indirect paths from Microcephalin to intelligence, showed good model fit. These multivariate analyses revealed strong and robust associations between DALYs and Microcephalin, indicating that the former partially mediates the association between the latter and IQ. A second smaller correlational analysis involving ten country-level estimates of the frequencies of these two alleles collected from the 1000 genomes database replicated this pattern of results. To account for the findings of this study, we review evidence that these alleles are expressed in the immune system. Microcephalin is strongly associated with DNA repair, which indicates a special role for this allele in the intrinsic anti-viral immune response. Enhanced immune functioning may have advantaged both hunter–gatherer and agrarian societies coping with the heightened disease burden that resulted from population growth and exposure to zoonotic diseases, making it more likely that such growth and concomitant increases in intelligence could occur.

  • 21.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Murphy, Raegan
    School of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Were the Victorians cleverer than us?: The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time2013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 6, Special Issue: SI, p. 843-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Victorian era was marked by an explosion of innovation and genius, per capita rates of which appear to have declined subsequently. The presence of dysgenic fertility for IQ amongst Western nations, starting in the 19th century, suggests that these trends might be related to declining IQ. This is because high-IQ people are more productive and more creative. We tested the hypothesis that the Victorians were cleverer than modern populations, using high-quality instruments, namely measures of simple visual reaction time in a meta-analytic study. Simple reaction time measures correlate substantially with measures of general intelligence (g) and are considered elementary measures of cognition. In this study we used the data on the secular slowing of simple reaction time described in a meta-analysis of 14 age-matched studies from Western countries conducted between 1889 and 2004 to estimate the decline in g that may have resulted from the presence of dysgenic fertility. Using psychometric meta-analysis we computed the true correlation between simple reaction time and g, yielding a decline of -1.16 IQ points per decade or -13.35 IQ points since Victorian times. These findings strongly indicate that with respect to g the Victorians were substantially cleverer than modern Western populations.

  • 22.
    Woodley, Michael Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam, Work and Organizational Psychology, The Netherlands.
    Must, Olev
    University of Tartu, Department of Psychology, Estonia.
    Must, Aasa
    Estonian National Defence College, Estonia.
    Controlling for increased guessing enhances the independence of the Flynn effect from g: the return of the Brand effect2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 43, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cause of the Flynn effect is one of the biggest puzzles in intelligence research. In this study we test the hypothesis that the effect may be even more independent from g than previously thought. This is due to the fact that secular gains in IQ result from at least two sources. First, an authentic Flynn effect that results from environmental improvements and should therefore be strongly negatively related to the g loading (and therefore the heritability) of IQ subtests. Second, a “Brand effect”, which results from an increase in the number of correct answers simply via enhanced guessing. As harder items should encourage more guessing, secular gains in IQ stemming from this Brand effect should be positively associated with subtest g loadings. Analysis of Estonian National Intelligence Test data collected between 1933 and 2006, which includes data on guessing, g loadings and secular IQ gains, corroborates this hypothesis. The correlation between gains via the Brand effect and g loadings is .95, as predicted. There is a modest negative association between raw secular gain magnitude and subtest g loadings (− .18) that increases to − .47 when these are controlled for the Brand effect. Applying five psychometric meta-analytic corrections to this estimate raises it to − .82 indicating that the authentic Flynn effect is substantially more independent from g than previously thought.

  • 23.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Dutton, Edward
    Figueredo, Aurelio-Jose
    University of Arizona.
    Carl, Noah
    Debes, Frodi
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hertler, Steven
    Irwing, Paul
    Kura, Kenya
    Lynn, Richard
    Ulster Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    Miller, Edward
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam.
    Nyborg, Helmuth
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Chemnitz University of Technology .
    Communicating intelligence research: media misrepresentation, the Gould Effect and unexpected forces2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 70, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 23 of 23
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