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  • 1.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970–19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 2.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Grahn, Pontus
    Department of Forest Economics, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Estimating cost functions for the four large carnivores in Sweden2008In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 517-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish carnivore policy goal for the four large carnivores – wolverine (Gulo gulo), wolf (Canis lupus), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and lynx (Lynx lynx) – is to ensure a minimum viable population on a long-term basis. To reach this goal the policy restricts population regulation activities, like hunting (prohibited for wolverine and wolf and restricted for brown bear and lynx) in Sweden. For owners of semi-domesticated (i.e. reindeer), and domesticated (livestock) animals this policy and the existence of individuals of these four species results in externalities associated with predation.

    This paper presents econometric estimates of the predation and the social costs for these four species, based on ecological models of functional response. The data on costs is based on compensation provided to livestock owners by the Swedish government. The paper also applies these econometric estimates to predict the social cost per species when the population goals of the Swedish carnivore policy are reached. Based on out our model the wolverine and the lynx will impose the highest marginal, as well as total costs on society, given the current policy goals. The wolf is an efficient predator, but due to its geographical distribution in Sweden, its social costs are less than anticipated. The brown bear is largely omnivorous, thus resulting in relatively low social costs.

  • 3.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics & Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Department of Forest Economics & Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Accounting for cultural heritage: A theoretical and empirical exploration with focus on Swedish reindeer husbandry2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 651-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore some of the theoretical and empirical aspects of an economy which includes cultural capital. We use a simple dynamic growth model and the concept of a social accounting matrix (SAM) to illustrate how the addition of income flows and net changes of various natural and cultural resources can be incorporated into a broader measure of welfare. The Swedish reindeer industry, managed by the indigenous Sami people, is used as an example since it is generally regarded to have significant cultural heritage value, beyond its contribution to conventional national accounts. We discuss a theoretically correct compensation to a cultural sector for preserving and maintaining a cultural heritage. Furthermore, we attempt to estimate the cultural value of the Sámi Reindeer sector in Sweden using a CVM survey. The results suggest that the willingness to pay (per year) to maintain cultural heritage at least at the current level may be quite substantive, estimates showing it can be several times the industry's turnover per year.

  • 4. Buch-Hansen, Hubert
    et al.
    Nesterova, Iana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Towards a science of deep transformations: Initiating a dialogue between degrowth and critical realism2021In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 190, article id 107188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degrowth scholarship has enjoyed considerable momentum in recent times, resulting in a growing, diverse and vibrant field of research. Against this background, it becomes pertinent to reflect on the nature of degrowth science and on the philosophical assumptions underpinning it. Advocates of the degrowth perspective have so far largely abstained from engaging in such reflections and have yet to discuss degrowth in relation to established philosophy of science perspectives. The present paper puts degrowth in a discourse with critical realist philosophy of science to provide visions as to what degrowth as a science can see itself as and strive to become. A dialogue between the two perspectives that brings into focus ontology, epistemology and axiology is initiated. It is suggested that degrowth scholarship contains many elements that are consistent with critical realism, albeit arguably in a scattered manner. While degrowth aims to enact change in the real world, critical realism offers a deep account of the real world and proposes how knowledge of it can emerge and result in transformative practice. The paper proposes that degrowth scholarship can come to be practised in a more holistic manner and thus advance by engaging with critical realism.

  • 5.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    et al.
    Global Economic Dynamics and The Biosphere Programme, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box SE-50005, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kumar, Manish
    Department of Environmental Science and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, August
    Department of Environmental Science and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Causevic, Amar
    Global Economic Dynamics and The Biosphere Programme, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box SE-50005, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Environment Institute, Box 24218, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Department of Environmental Science and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Joshi, Niraj U.
    Global Economic Dynamics and The Biosphere Programme, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box SE-50005, Stockholm, Sweden.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Economics (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Scholtens, Bert
    Department of Economics, Econometrics and Finance, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, Groningen, Netherlands; School of Management, University of St Andrews, The Gateway, North Haugh, Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Global Economic Dynamics and The Biosphere Programme, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box SE-50005, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unlocking the unsustainable rice-wheat system of Indian Punjab: Assessing alternatives to crop-residue burning from a systems perspective2022In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 195, article id 107364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crop residue burning in Indian Punjab emits particulate matter with detrimental impacts on health, climate and that threaten agricultural production. Though legal and technological barriers to residue burning exist – and alternatives considered more profitable to farmers – residue burning continues. We review black carbon (BC) emissions from residue burning in Punjab, analyse social-ecological processes driving residue burning, and rice and wheat value-chains. Our aims are to a) understand system feedbacks driving agricultural practices in Punjab; b) identify systemic effects of alternatives to residue burning and c) identify companies and financial actors investing in agricultural production in Punjab. We find feedbacks locking the system into crop residue burning. The Government of India has greatest financial leverage and risk in the current system. Corporate stakeholders have little financial incentive to enact change, but sufficient stakes in the value chains to influence change. Agricultural policy changes are necessary to reduce harmful impacts of current practices, but insufficient to bringing about sustainability. Transformative changes will require crop diversification, circular business models and green financing. Intermediating financial institutions setting sustainability conditions on loans could leverage these changes. Sustainability requires the systems perspective we provide, to reconnect production with demand and with supporting environmental conditions.

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  • 6.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Wind farms - where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

  • 7.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Kedge Business School, Marseille, France.
    Givry, Philippe
    Canning, Louise
    Franklin-Johnson, Elizabeth
    Thorpe, Andrea
    Eco-efficiency of Virgin Resources: A Measure at the Interface Between Micro and Macro Levels2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 138, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-efficiency is often considered an adequate response to the problem of the scarcity of non-renewable resources. Even if a more eco-efficient use of natural resources cannot guarantee lower resource consumption, it can allow a better combination of desirable economic activity with undesirable resource use. However, more eco-efficient use of resources at the micro-level does not always lead to higher eco-efficiency at the macro-level. This is due to resource flows between actors at the micro-level. They use both virgin resources and resources that have been previously used. Virgin resources represent the relevant scarcity at the macro-level, while eco-efficiency at the micro-level typically does not discriminate between virgin and used resources. We develop an eco-efficiency formula that closes this gap. Our formula not only allows the measurement of the eco-efficiency of virgin resource use at the micro-level, but also helps to identify the drivers of the eco-efficiency of virgin resource use. Application of the formula to the case of gold in smartphones points to the very limited potential of technical improvements and shows that behavioural and collaborative endeavours promise dramatically higher improvements in eco-efficiency. This calls for a reconsideration of the focus of efforts to increase eco-efficiency for sustainable development.

  • 8.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Queen's University Management School, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.
    Hahn, Tobias
    Not measuring sustainable value at all: A response to Kuosmanen and Kuosmanen2009In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 244-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their article in this issue of Ecological Economics, Kuosmanen and Kuosmanen [Kuosmanen, T. and Kuosmanen, N., this issue. How Not to Measure Sustainable Value (and How One Might). Ecological Economics.] aim to criticise the measurement of Sustainable Value as proposed in our previous research. By adopting a production perspective and based on a productive efficiency analysis, they claim that the proposed way of measuring Sustainable Value represents an invalid simplification that rests on restrictive and unrealistic assumptions. Our response is to show that their argument rests on a fundamental misspecification of the Sustainable Value approach. We identify three conceptual misfits: a mismatch in the perspective of the analysis, a misspecification of opportunity costs and the irrelevance of production functions. Ultimately, Kuosmanen and Kuosmanen's train of thought rests entirely within the realm of productive efficiency analysis, whereas Sustainable Value builds on the foundations of financial economics and consequently adopts a macro rather than a firm perspective. It is thus not surprising that the findings of Kuosmanen and Kuosmanen appear to contradict the Sustainable Value approach. However, this is due to their fundamental misspecification of the Sustainable Value approach. As a result, rather than providing novel insights into how Sustainable Value might be measured in a better way, they do not measure Sustainable Value at all.

  • 9.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. a School of the Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Hahn, Tobias
    Sustainable Value Added - measuring corporate contributions to sustainability beyond eco-efficiency2004In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new approach to measure corporate contributions to sustainability called Sustainable Value Added. Value is created whenever benefits exceed costs. Current approaches to measure corporate sustainable performance take into account external costs caused by environmental and social damage or focus on the ratio between value creation and resource consumption. As this paper will show it is more promising to develop sustainable measures based on opportunity costs. Sustainable Value Added is such a measure. It shows how much more value is created because a company is more efficient than a benchmark and because the resources are allocated to the company and not to benchmark companies. The concept of strong sustainability requires that each form of capital is kept constant. As Sustainable Value Added is inspired by strong sustainability, it measures whether a company creates extra value while ensuring that every environmental and social impact is in total constant. Therefore, it takes into account both, corporate eco- and social efficiency as well as the absolute level of environmental and social resource consumption (eco- and social effectiveness). As a result, Sustainable Value Added considers simultaneously economic, environmental and social aspects. The overall result can be expressed in any of the three dimensions of sustainability.

  • 10.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    KEDGE Business School, Marseille, France.
    Hahn, Tobias
    Barkemeyer, Ralf
    The If, How and Where of assessing sustainable resource use2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 274-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's economies those who sustain the burden of resource use, those using resources and those providing resources are not necessarily identical. With this separation come three fundamental but interrelated decision-making perspectives on the sustainability assessment of resource use. These three perspectives correspond to the three assessment questions if, how, and where resources should be used. Most sustainability assessment approaches do not make their underlying assessment perspectives explicit. The goal of this paper is to provide structure and organisation to existing approaches. This structuring suggests that any discussion on the appropriateness and validity of different assessment approaches and their results must take into account the underlying assessment perspective. The three questions if, how, and where resources should be used correspond to the requirements of a sustainable resource use. While existing assessments do address the three questions in isolation, it is all the more important that the limitations and implications of focusing on a single perspective are spelled out. As the main contribution, the paper distinguishes the rationale of each assessment perspective and develops on their interlinkages and thus provides the context and structure for a more informed and fruitful debate on the assessment of sustainable resource use.

  • 11.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Kedge Business School, Marseille, France; Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Stevenson Thorpe, Andrea
    Good, Jason
    Us before me: A group level approach to the circular economy2021In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 179, article id 106838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A more efficient use of natural resources is considered a necessary condition for their sustainable use. When firms use resources circularly they aim to contribute to using resources more eco-efficiently, and thus in a more sustainable way than when adopting more linear systems. Eco-efficiency in linear systems can be determined by aggregating each individual instance of resource use. However, in circular systems this approach is problematic, as it cannot capture the dynamics of resource use that unfurl between firms that contribute to eco-efficiency. In other words, we argue that in circular systems, eco-efficiency overall is more than the sum of the eco-efficiencies of individual firms. Moreover, we counterintuitively suggest that within circular economy systems, selecting only highly eco-efficient firms can actually reduce rather than increase the degree of eco-efficiency overall. Using a lens of multi-level selection theory, we build our argument through a series of numerical examples, and in conclusion show how the assessment and management of resources must be moved from the individual to the group level.

  • 12.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. ESCP Business School, Paris, France.
    Thorpe, Andrea
    Circular economy, operational eco-efficiency, and sufficiency: An integrated view2023In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 204, no Part B, article id 107692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have proposed different approaches to reduce the use of natural resources to a sustainable level. Operational eco-efficiency, circular economy, and sufficiency are three prominent examples that follow their own specific logics. So far, these approaches have been almost exclusively discussed in isolation, with the assumption that they are independent of each other. This paper brings all three approaches together in one coherent model. Our model shows that individually each approach can reduce the use of natural resources to a sustainable level. Yet, our model also reveals how various effects arise as a direct result of combining approaches, i.e. one approach affects another when executed in tandem. Our model identifies operational eco-efficiency and circular economy as ‘no regret’ approaches, while sufficiency constitutes a ‘regret’ approach. By way of example, we show that increasing operational eco-efficiency increases the costs or ‘regret’ of sufficiency approaches, reducing their effectiveness. Sufficiency approaches and increasing operational eco-efficiency risk interfering with the careful balance that is required for optimal circularity. We find that these interactions must be carefully considered if the three approaches are to be effective in reducing resource consumption to a sustainable level.

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  • 13.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. ESCP Business School, 79 Avenue de la R ́epublique, Paris, France; Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Thorpe, Andrea
    Kedge Business School (Marseille), Domaine de Luminy – BP 921, Marseille Cedex 9, France.
    Gutberlet, Melissa
    Kedge Business School (Bordeaux), 680 Cours Lib ́eration, 33405, Talence, France; Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Definitions of the circular economy: Circularity matters2023In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 208, article id 107823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With more than 4,000 research articles in 2022 the Circular Economy is clearly a topic that meets academic interest. With resource use at an all-time, unsustainable peak it is also a topic that raises great expectations: We need the circular economy. The great hopes that we all have are further fueled by the definitions of the circular economy that we find in the literature. Put colloquially, many of these definitions depict the circular economy as a “jack of all trades”. Some definitions include waste management while others are even synonymous with sustainable development. Attempts to summarize existing definitions into one result in definitions that blur the lines between the circular economy and other concepts even further. To empower the circular use of resources we need to understand what the circular economy really is and how it relates to related concepts. The role of definitions is to draw rather than blur lines. This is where many definitions fail. In our short article “Definitions of the Circular Economy: Circularity Matters”, we develop some conditions that good definitions must meet. By way of example, we apply these conditions to a popular definition that we found in the literature and we identify some of the shortcomings of existing definitions. We develop four conditions that we believe good definitions of the circular economy must meet. Good definitions of the circular economy must (1) refer to closing resource loops, (2) mention optimizing rather than minimizing resource flows, (3) consider at least two levels, and (4) distinguish between the circular economy as a perfect ideal type and a realistic imperfect circular economy that delivers sustainability in combination with other approaches. In this short paper, we propose a definition that meets all four conditions. We see the definition we propose neither as the start nor as the end of the discussion on how to define the circular economy. We see it as a mid-way point and as an invitation to researchers to join a discussion that we believe is necessary to leverage the potential that the circular economy can have for the sustainable development of all.

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  • 14. Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Thorpe, Andrea Stevenson
    The symbiotic rebound effect in the circular economy2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 163, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy has emerged as an important approach in addressing how society can use its resources more efficiently. Theoretical advancements in the circular economy have yielded benefits for both practice and policymaking. However, if the eco-efficiency of resource use is to be improved, then certain challenges that face the circular economy must be resolved. One of these challenges concerns the rebound effect. By investigating resource flow with a circular (rather than linear) system, as well as within a producer-producer (rather than producer-consumer) type of relationship, we identify a rebound effect that we term ‘symbiotic rebound’. We differentiate it from other forms of rebound effect on the basis of its main driver: Opportunity costs drive a higher than expected use of resources in a circular economy, rather than the usual driver of ‘demand’, as found in other types of rebound. In identifying, describing, and illustrating a symbiotic rebound effect, we make two contributions: first to the rebound literature, and second to theory development on the circular economy.

  • 15.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Kedge Business School, Marseille, France.
    Thorpe, Andrea Stevenson
    Givry, Philippe
    Canning, Louise
    Franklin-Johnson, Elizabeth
    Longevity and Circularity as Indicators of Eco-Efficient Resource Use in the Circular Economy2018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 150, p. 297-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural resources are limited. The circular economy is one of several different concepts that has been useful in the quest to understand how resources can be used most efficiently. It proposes that closing loops and repeatedly using resources has the potential to procure maximum eco-efficiency. To track society's progress towards a circular economy, indicators and measures are needed. The majority of these aim to capture the circularity of resource flows, yet fail to simultaneously consider the length of time for which a resource is in use. More recently, a longevity indicator has been proposed, but similarly, it fails to take into account how many times a resource is used. Both longevity and circularity are needed for sustainable resource use, but to date, no measure that combines both approaches is in use. Based on existing measures we develop and further develop indicators for both circularity and longevity that focus on the contribution that organisations and other resource users make to the sustainability of resource use. By combining both indicators we enhance their explanatory power.

  • 16.
    Figge, Frank
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). ESCP Business School, Paris, France.
    Thorpe, Andrea Stevenson
    Manzhynski, Siarhei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Between you and I: A portfolio theory of the circular economy2021In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 190, article id 107190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using resources more circularly, individual resources users hope to contribute to a more eco-efficient and sustainable resource use. Whether resources are used sustainably is decided at the macro-level, raising the question if, as well as how, the efficient and circular use of resources at the micro-level adds up to their efficient and circular use on the macro-level. Currently, the link between the circular use of resources at micro- and macro-levels is under-theorized. The symbiotic relationship between individual resource users enables a reduction in the resource use at the macro-level. In this conceptual paper, we argue that an analogous link exists in finance where desirable investment return is linked to undesirable investment risk, and that via the generation of efficient portfolios, individual risks are at least partially diversified away. As our main contribution, we theorize the circular economy, both in its perfect and imperfect forms, using modern portfolio theory. Our theory identifies the drivers of circular resource use and shows under which conditions individual resource use contributes to the circular use of resources.

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  • 17.
    Helgesen, Irmelin Slettemoen
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Johannesen, Anne Borge
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, Sweden.
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Climate change and reindeer herding: a bioeconomic model on the impact of climate change on harvesting profits for Saami reindeer herders in Norway and Sweden2024In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 223, article id 108227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is warming three times faster than the global average. Rising temperatures could reduce the snow-covered season and increase plant productivity in the spring, fall and summer. While this may increase carrying capacity of pastures and growth of semi-domesticated reindeer, rising temperatures could also lead to increase the frequency of ice-locked pastures, which may negatively affect reindeer body mass, survival, and reproductive success. We create a stage-structured bioeconomic model of reindeer herding that incorporates such counteracting effects of climate change on the economics of reindeer herding in Norway and Sweden. The model is calibrated using historical data on reindeer numbers and slaughter weights, in combination with historical weather data. We find that one more day with ice-locked pastures has a greater negative impact than the benefit of earlier spring. Then the model is used to simulate possible future economic impacts of three climate change scenarios, under different assumptions about herders' information about future weather conditions. The negative impact of icing outweighs any positive impact of earlier spring for all scenarios, and the potential loss is greater the less information herders have about future weather conditions.

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  • 18.
    Holm, Stig-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Increased ecoefficiency and gross rebound effect: Evidence from USA and six European countries 1960-20022009In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 879-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increased efficiency in the use of natural resources, the use of these resources continues to increase in most societies. This paper examines the discrepancy between the potential decrease of use of natural resources, as an effect of increased efficiency, and actual use. During the period 1960–2002, this difference was found to grow faster in the USA than the mean for six West European countries. Possible reasons for this difference between the two regions are analysed. To reduce the anthropogenic flows of energy and material, and the consequent deleterious effects on the biosphere, it will become necessary to adapt consumption to degree of efficiency in the use of natural resources. Based on the comparison between the two regions, some economic aspects of this issue are discussed.

  • 19.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxideemissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden1870–19972002In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 333-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This articleexamines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO2 emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. Thebasis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator oftechnological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price asindependent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO2 emissionsis interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920–1960, with high,sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO2 emissions thanperiods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested thattime-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns.

  • 20.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Acar, Sevil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Mahmutbey Dilmenler Caddesi, No: 26, Bagcilar, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sustainability in the making? A historical estimate of Swedish sustainable and unsustainable development 1850-20002013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we estimate the long-rundevelopment of genuine savings in Sweden during the period 1850 to 2000. Bydoing so we are able to present a first analysis of long-run sustainabledevelopment during a single country’s transition to modern economic growth ratesand high income levels. We find that genuine savings may have been negative upuntil c. 1910. This suggests a period of transition to positive genuine savings in conjunction with or even preceding the transition to modern economic rates.Important contributions to the transition were increasing investments in humancapital, improved sanitary conditions, reduced depletion of forests andaccelerated investments in machinery and infrastructure.

  • 21.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850–20002018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 22.
    Lindström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    How Green Public Procurement can drive conversion of farmland: An empirical analysis of an organic food policy2020In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 172, article id 106622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a Green Public Procurement (GPP) policy decided by the Swedish government in 2006, stating objectives related to organic farming. The policy aims to increase the public sector's organic food purchases, in order to incentivise Swedish farmers to convert to organic practices, thereby contributing to national environmental quality objectives. We analyse the effect of organic food procurement on organic agricultural land, using panel data from 2003 to 2016 including information on municipalities' organic food purchases, land use, and direct subsidies aimed at organic production. Based on different specifications and mainly FGLS estimations, we conclude that the 2006 organic food policy is associated with a significant positive impact on organic agricultural land. A significant effect of direct agricultural policy in the form of subsidies is also found.

  • 23. Ouvrard, Benjamin
    et al.
    Abildtrup, Jens
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU.
    Stenger, Anne
    Determinants of forest owners attitudes towards wood ash recycling in Sweden: Can the nutrient cycle be closed?2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 164, article id 106293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass, in particular wood, has increased this last decade as a result of the European Union's objectives to reduce the use of fossil energies. This has amplified the use of whole-tree harvesting and the exploitation of forest residues from traditional timber harvest. However, these practices have some ecological consequences because they remove nutrients from the forest, thus potentially reducing soil fertility. To compensate for this nutrient loss, it has been proposed to recycle wood ash to reintroduce the exported nutrients. In this paper, we assess private forest owners' willingness to pay to spread ash in Vastmanland, Sweden, where ash recycling is not widely adopted, though an increasing supply of wood ash. In particular, we take into account behavioural motives that may explain forest owners' willingness to pay (Theory of Planned Behaviour and environmental sensitivity). We conclude that Swedish forest owners generally have a positive willingness-to-pay for wood ash application in their forests, but that this measure is highly dependent on their attitudes. We also show that a forest owner's decision to apply ash to all or a portion of his/her forest is explained by two different characteristics: the landowner's environmental sensitivity and his/her perceived control of wood ash recycling.

1 - 23 of 23
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