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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Lundmark, Anneli
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Temporary employment, employee representation, and employer-paid training: a comparative analysis2022Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 785-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the moderating role of employee representation on the chances of receiving employer-paid training among temporary and permanent workers from a cross-country, comparative perspective. The impact of employee representation is considered at the individual level and at the country level. The statistical analyses are performed using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey and multilevel modelling. Our results suggest that temporary workers receive less employer-paid training than permanent workers. Access to employee representation increases workers' access to employer-paid training, regardless of contract type. At the country level, we found that the training-related benefits from union coverage are larger for permanent than for temporary workers. Our findings suggest that employee representation in the workplace could operate as an equalizer between temporary and permanent workers; while at the country level, the lobbying effect of union coverage is more beneficial for permanent workers. 

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  • 2.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Bernardi, Laura
    Institute of Social Sciences (ISS), University of Lausanne, Lausanne , Switzerland.
    Parental unemployment and adolescents' subjective wellbeing: the moderating role of educational policies2024Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 276-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crossover effects of parental unemployment on subjective wellbeing of children attract growing attention in research on social inequalities. Recent economic crises call for identifying policies that mitigate the adverse effects of unemployment. Building on the theoretical insights from Capability Approach, we examine the relationship between parental unemployment and subjective wellbeing of adolescents across countries with different educational policies. We use multilevel modelling and data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). We combine microdata on 45,992 adolescents in 32 countries with macro-level indicators of educational policies. We find that parental unemployment is associated with lower subjective wellbeing among adolescents, but the magnitude of this association varies depending on access to financial support for participation in education. Adolescents who receive educational allowances and who live in countries with broader access to such support are less harmed by parental unemployment.

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  • 3.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International and Social Studies, Tallinn University.
    Is it worth becoming an engineer in Central and Eastern Europe?: The evidence from Poland and Estonia2012Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 717-728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the labour market returns to field of study for tertiary graduates in two countries with post-socialist heritage: Poland and Estonia. So far, research focusing on the employment chances of graduates in Western countries has emphasized the benefits of engineering. We would like to revisit this conclusion and find out if the same can be generalized for all other societies, including Central and Eastern Europe. We use micro-level data, which include detailed information about the type of education gained and early career development. We examine the following outcomes: the chances of finding a job within the first half-year of graduation and the quality of the first job and its salary. Our findings suggest that in Estonia and Poland, the effects of completing engineering courses are quite different to Western Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of advantage for engineering graduates. We pay special attention to the role of licensing, i.e. institutional barriers to entry into the occupation of engineer.

  • 4.
    Bask, Miia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Welfare problems and social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden2005Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 73-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine social exclusion among immigrants in Sweden. The groups under scrutiny are native Swedes, first generation Swedes, naturalized Swedes, Nordic citizens and non-Nordic citizens. Specifically, because one goal of the welfare state is to break the connections between different welfare problems, we investigate the associations between welfare problems among different immigrant groups as well as among native Swedes. We find that the accumulation of welfare problems is higher among immigrant groups, but that the correlations between welfare problems are strongest among Swedes. Finally, we analyse social exclusion among immigrants using a logistic regression analysis. Because a regression analysis with explanatory variables such as demographic variables, human capital indicators and socioeconomic class cannot explain the difference between immigrants and native Swedes, it appears that discrimination is a probable explanation.

     

  • 5.
    Dollmann, Jörg
    et al.
    Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), University of Mannheim, 68131 Mannheim, Germany; German Centre for Integration and Migration Research, DeZIM, Berlin, Germany.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mood, Carina
    Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is 'immigrant optimism' in educational choice a problem? Ethnic gaps in Swedish upper secondary school completion2023Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 384-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western countries, researchers have documented ambitious educational choices among students of immigrant origin, for example, the tendency to choose academically more demanding routes than others at given levels of school achievement (e.g. grades, GPA). While this may indicate integration, some warn against an ‘immigrant optimism trap’, because choosing more demanding tracks at lower levels of GPA may increase risks of non-completion. Using longitudinal Swedish population data (n ≈ 90,000), we estimate an upper secondary ‘ethnic completion gap’ of 12 per cent to the detriment of students of immigrant background. We then address the ‘trap hypothesis’ via two analyses. The first shows that if students of immigration background would make similar educational choices as other students at the same GPA, the completion gap would shrink by 3.4 percentage points. The second analysis, based on simulations, suggests that restricting admission to academic programmes based on prior GPA, would lead to a massive relocation of low- and mid-GPA students to—usually less demanding—vocational programmes, but would only reduce the completion gap by 2.2 percentage points. These changes must be considered marginal in view of the substantial restrictions of choice that either of these measures would entail. We conclude that completion gaps are not primarily a result of unfounded immigrant optimism, and that optimistic choices are likely to be a net positive for integration by improving the chances of immigrant youth to reach tertiary-level qualifications and professional occupations.

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  • 6.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    University of Washington, Department of Sociology.
    Even in Sweden: The Effect of Immigration on Support for Welfare State Spending2010Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 203-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the politics of globalization and welfare state retrenchment have garnered much attention in recent years, scholarly research on public support for welfare state expenditure is comparatively sparse. Furthermore, new pressures, specifically international immigration and resulting ethnic heterogeneity, add a new challenge to the welfare state. In this article, I analyse support for social welfare expenditure in Sweden—the country that spends the greatest percentage of its GDP on social expenditure and, until recently, remained relatively ethnically homogeneous. Results from multilevel models reveal that multiple measures of immigration at the county-level have significant negative effects on support for the welfare state. Moreover, recent immigration has a negative effect on attitudes towards universal spending. Thus, this analysis provides clear evidence that ethnic heterogeneity negatively affects support for social welfare expenditure—even in Sweden.

  • 7.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mitchell, Jeffrey
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    When I was growing up: The lasting impact of immigrant presence on native-born American attitudes towards immigrants and immigration2022Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 169-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarship, including seminal research on prejudice, identifies adolescence as a critical period for the development of attitudes. Yet most sociological research on prejudice, especially in the form of anti-immigrant sentiment, focuses on the relationship between contemporaneous social conditions and attitudes towards out-groups while neglecting the demographic context during one’s impressionable years. Therefore, we design research to investigate the relationship among temporally distal and temporally proximal sub-national contexts and native-born attitudes towards immigration and immigrants. To do this, we merge geocoded data from the General Social Survey (1994–2016) with a unique US state-level dataset (1900–2015). Results from multilevel models reveal that immigrant presence during adolescence is a more consistent predictor of attitudes towards immigration and immigrants in adulthood. Thus, while the majority of sociological research on anti-immigrant sentiment asks ifsocietal conditions matter, our results suggest that a more important question is when the context matters.

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  • 8.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Valdez, Sarah
    Carlos III University, Juan March Institute.
    Neo-nationalism in Western Europe2015Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 115-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity of radical right parties in Western Europe has received widespread attention. Despite a rather large literature on parties with explicitly anti-immigrant platforms, there is surprisingly little consensus about the underlying political ideology of this party family and its supporters. Particularly lacking is cross-national research that maps party positions in two-dimensional political space over time. Using Manifesto Project Data (1970-2010), we analyze election platforms of parties the literature has identified as radical right and show that they have qualitatively changed between 1970 and 2010. Current parties differ fundamentally from their predecessors in that nationalist claims are paramount. We utilize the European Social Survey (2002-2010) to confirm that voters' attitudes are consistent with contemporary parties' platforms. Our results point to a coherent political ideology, which may partially explain these parties' recent electoral successes. Based on our combined analyses, we conclude that contemporary anti-immigrant parties constitute a new, distinct party family, which we term neo-nationalist.

  • 9.
    Erikson, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Change in social selection to upper secondary school - primary and secondary effects in Sweden2010Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 291-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) depends on two separate mechanisms: children from advantaged social backgrounds perform better at school—primary effects—and tend more than others to choose to continue in education—secondary effects. IEO in the transition from compulsory to academic upper secondary education has earlier been shown to have decreased in Sweden since the middle of the 20th century. We investigate whether this change can be accounted for by changing primary or secondary effects, or perhaps by both. The analysis is based on longitudinal data for six cohorts of children, born from 1948 to 1982. Primary and secondary effects are separated both by grade point averages and cognitive test results. The estimation of the effects is based on the comparison of actual and counterfactual transitions among children from different social classes. Results show that the decrease in IEO overall seems to be related to corresponding changes in the primary and secondary effects. Secondary effects are greater when the separation is based on cognitive ability tests rather than grades and we end by discussing the consequences of this observation for the separation of primary and secondary effects.

  • 10.
    Gebel, Michael
    et al.
    University of Mannheim.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    New inequalities through privatization and marketization?: An analysis of labour market entry of higher education graduates in Poland and Ukraine2012Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 729-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effects of privatized and marketized higher education on inequalities in education attainment and labour market outcomes in Poland and Ukraine. Drawing on representative samples of tertiary graduates, our analyses show that students from advantageous social backgrounds are more likely to enter state-funded studies. Regarding labour market chances, we find a trade-off between higher status attainment and slower labour market entry among graduates who studied free-of-charge compared with students who paid tuitions. In accordance with our hypotheses, inequality patterns are more pronounced in Poland. Particularly, graduates from the Polish ‘mass’ lower tertiary private education have the lowest chances of finding high-quality jobs. Thus, mass privatization and marketization of higher education have its drawbacks in terms of lower status returns for graduates. In both countries, however, the Bachelor–Master differentiation, as well as the academic–vocational distinction, matter more for inequalities in status attainment than the privatization and marketization of tertiary education.

  • 11.
    Grönlund, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    On-the-Job Training-A Mechanism for Segregation?: Examining the Relationship between Gender, Occupation, and On-the-Job Training Investments2012Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 408-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine whether the access to initial on-the-job training differs by gender and to what extent gender differences can be explained by occupational segregation, human capital, and the division of labour in the household. While much research has focussed on formal on-the-job training, I use a measure of initial on-the-job training, or the amount of formal and informal training required to perform a job well. Data come from the Swedish Level of Living Survey 2000 ( n = 2,913) and multilevel regression techniques are used. The results show that occupational segregation has a clear mediating effect on the gender difference in initial on-the-job training. The gender gap is reduced by one third when occupation is controlled for and training is related to the number of women in the occupation. Yet, a considerable gap is found also between men and women in the same occupation. This is not explained by human capital investments, nor by female overeducation in relation to the requirements of the job. The gender gap widens in the ages around 30, but factors such as motherhood, work interruptions, and housework are not related to on-the-job training, and part-time work explains very little of the gender gap.

  • 12.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Production regimes and work orientations: A comparison of six Western Countries2002Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 315-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work orientations are compared in six Western countries, using data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The main issue in the paper is whether different ‘production regimes’ correspond to levels and patterns of employment commitment and organizational commitment among the working population. It is concluded that the level of employment commitment varies with production regime, being highest in the Scandinavian countries and lowest in the liberal market economies. Organizational commitment varies in a more complex manner, with the strongest commitment found in the USA and the lowest in Sweden. Group differences in commitment display a mixed pattern, with little systematic variation between production regimes.

  • 13.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Voßemer, Jonas
    Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), Mannheim, Germany.
    Intergenerational effects of parental unemployment on infant health: evidence from Swedish register data2024Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 41-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental unemployment can have detrimental effects on life chances of the children, and thereby reinforce inequalities across generations. Despite a substantial literature documenting that the health of infants at birth can have large and long-lasting consequences, research on intergenerational unemployment effects on infant health is scant. This study fills the gap using high-quality register data from Sweden, including 1.5 million siblings born between 1996 and 2017. To account for selection into unemployment, we employ sibling comparison designs that exploit variation in siblings’ exposure to parental unemployment, thereby accounting for stable but unmeasured confounding at the level of families. We find small and not consistently significant effects of maternal unemployment, and no effects of paternal unemployment. Our results also suggest that pre-existing social disadvantages - low education, migration background, and dual parental unemployment -are not associated with more adverse intergenerational unemployment effects. The discussion of our findings situates these results in the context of a relatively generous and egalitarian welfare state.

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  • 14.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Horn, Daniel
    Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Institute of Economics,Hungary; Corvinus University Budapest, Institute of Economics, Hungary.
    National high-stakes testing, gender, and school stress in Europe: a difference-in-differences analysis2022Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 975-987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we ask if high-stakes testing affects school-related stress among students and if there are gender differences in these effects. Students’ results on high-stakes tests can have long-term consequences for their future educational trajectories and life chances. For girls, who tend to have higher educational aspirations and tend to gain more from higher education, the stakes involved may be even higher. The use of high-stakes testing has increased across Europe, but little is known about their consequences for stress or wellbeing. We combine macro-level data on high-stakes testing with survey data on more than 300,000 students aged 11–15 years in 31 European countries from three waves (2002, 2006, and 2010) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. With variation in high-stakes testing across countries, years, and grade levels, we use a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design for the identification of causal effects. We find that high-stakes testing increases the risk of moving from low to high levels of self-reported school stress by 4 percentage points, or by 12 per cent relative to baseline values. This effect is somewhat larger for girls, though not significantly so. The results are robust to a range of sensitivity analyses.

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  • 15.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rudolphi, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Weak Performance - Strong Determination: School Achievement and Educational Choice among Children of Immigrants in Sweden2011Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 487-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We ask how the advantages and disadvantages in the educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden are produced, making a theoretical distinction between mechanisms connected with school performance on one hand, and educational choice on the other. Using a new data set, covering six full cohorts of Swedish-born ninth-graders in 1998–2003 (N¼612,730), with matched school-Census information, we show that children of non-European immigrant origin are disadvantaged in their school performance but advantaged in their choice of academic upper secondary education. They have lower and more often incomplete grades, which force a sizeable proportion—10–20 per cent—into non-meritorious tracks or lead them to leave school. Given grades, children of non-European background make heterogeneous choices: many do not enrol in upper secondary education, but among those who do the propensity is high that they choose academic studies before vocational. In contrast, children of the ‘old’ (chiefly Nordic) labour immigrants are similar to the majority group in their equal preference for these two routes. A school system where choice plays a significant role appears to be advantageous for the often high-aspiring second-generation immigrant students, but greater efforts to reduce early achievement differences may still alleviate ethnic minority disadvantages.

  • 16.
    Kulin, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Class, values, and attitudes towards redistribution: a European comparison2013Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 155-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the European Social Survey, we analyse the link between basic human values and attitudes towards redistribution, and how that link differs among classes and across countries. We assess whether and why the class-specific impact of self-transcendence and self-enhancement values on attitudes towards redistribution differs across a selection of European countries. The results show that the links between values and attitudes are generally stronger in more materially secure and privileged classes. However, the relative strength of the associations varies substantially across countries. Where inequality is smaller and poverty less prevalent, the link between values and attitudes becomes less class-specific. These findings provide support for our two main interpretations: (a) that welfare policies mitigate the class-specific risks that people are exposed to, which make values more salient and effective among workers; and (b) that the existence of visible and salient redistributive policies works to make clearer the cognitive link between abstract values and support for concrete policies.

  • 17.
    Mewes, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gen(d)eralized Trust: Women, Work, and Trust in Strangers2014Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 373-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question as to whether gender equality in labour force participation affects generalized trust. Following the seminal work of Rothstein and Uslaner, a first hypothesis maintains that gender employment equality positively impacts generalized trust. Based on insights from intergroup contact theory and the affect theory of social exchange, a second hypothesis argues that the relationship between gender employment equality and generalized trust holds only for women. Bayesian multilevel regression analysis based on cross-national survey data from the first five rounds of the European Social Survey (2002–2010) supports the latter hypothesis, showing that a country’s level of gender equality in labour force participation mediates the association between gender and generalized trust. In contrast, there is no evidence for a general impact of gender employment equality on trust in strangers.

  • 18.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Concentration of Unemployment Families and Social Networks: A Question of Attitudes or Structural Factors?1999Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 49-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the concentration of unemployment within families and social networks in Sweden. The study, which is based on two random samples, one consisting of some 47,000 young people and their parents and one consisting of 3,500 unemployed people, raises the question of whether unemployment concentration is mainly caused by negative values towards employment or by structural factors. The results show that it is common for people who are unemployed and have experienced longer periods of unemployment to have unemployed family members and friends. The causes of the unemployment concentration can be traced to structural factors such as class, ethnicity, age, unemployment rate and population in the district, rather than to the attitudes of the members of the unemployed group.

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  • 19.
    Velásquez, Paolo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Does higher education have liberalizing or inoculating effects?: A panel study of anti-immigrant sentiment before, during, and after the European migration crisis2022Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 605-628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has consistently shown a negative correlation between education and anti-immigrant sentiment. This association is most pronounced when distinguishing between adults with higher education and those without a tertiary degree. Yet it remains unclear whether educational attainment actually matters for attitudes, mainly due to a lack of longitudinal studies. This article investigates the so-called liberalizing effect of education on adults' attitudes towards immigrants by taking into account individual, regional, and period effects. Using 12 waves of the Norwegian Citizen Panel (2013-2020) combined with contextual data from Statistics Norway, we assess the effects of: 1) educational attainment at the individual level; 2) the expansion of higher education at the regional level; and 3) higher education during a time of social upheaval. Results from multilevel cross-classified, repeated measurement models show that within-individual and within-county changes in educational attainment have a small but liberalizing effect on attitudes. Further, individuals with at least 3-4 years of university education do not react as strongly to the highly salient European migration crisis than those with lower levels of education. This finding suggests that higher education inhibits perceptions of threat that may manifest during "big events" such as a dramatic increase in asylum seeking. We interpret these novel results as evidence of an inoculating effect, in that higher education protects individuals against whatever instinct exists to react strongly during such crises. 

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  • 20.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Methods of Empirical Social Research, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany .
    Schuck, Bettina
    Institute of Political Science, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Better Overeducated than Unemployed?: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Overeducated Labour Market Re-entry2016Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 251-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that overeducation is inferior to adequate employment. For example, overeducated workers have lower earnings, participate less often in continuing education and training, and are less satisfied with their jobs. This article changes perspectives by asking whether it is better for the unemployed to take up a job for which they are overeducated or to remain unemployed and continue the search for adequate employment. Theoretically, we rely on the established confrontation of the stepping-stone and trap hypotheses, which make opposing predictions in terms of long-term employment chances and job quality. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2012) and applying a dynamic propensity score matching approach, the analyses reveal an interesting trade-off. Although an overeducated re-entry increases the long-term employment chances persistently, it also implies strong lock-in effects into overeducation for up to 5 years after re-employment. In sum, the results support the stepping-stone hypothesis in terms of future employment chances, but also highlight non-negligible risks of remaining trapped in a job that is below one’s level of educational qualification.

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