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  • 1.
    Bley, Jessica
    et al.
    AD Safe Experience, Volvo Cars, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    AD Safe Experience, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Lisa
    AD Safe Experience, Volvo Cars, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Design friction in autonomous drive: exploring transitions between autonomous and manual drive in non-urgent situations2023In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 2291-2305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the ongoing turn to automation, the growing trend towards the design of conditionally and highly automated vehicles (C/HAV) is evident. In a CAV, the driver no longer needs to partake in the driving. However, the vehicle might send a takeover request (TOR) when the CAV's system reaches its operational boundaries, i.e. a call for a transition from autonomous to manual drive. Previous research on TORs has focused on the context of urgent situations, e.g. hazards and unpredictable events. Furthermore, it has been noted that drivers’ situation awareness (SA) deteriorates after being in autonomous drive. However, less is known about TORs in non-urgent situations. Motivated by this need, the study explores how design friction can serve as a guiding concept for transferring control between autonomous and manual drive in non-urgent situations to increase situation awareness. Design friction is defined as elements of interactions that steer attention and guides the driver to take informed decisions. The work resulted in prototypes that leveraged design friction as part of a takeover sequence. The proposed design was empirically evaluated in a fixed-base medium-fidelity driving simulator. The results indicated that the level of friction might have been too extensive, as some annoyance was expressed. However, participants claimed to feel calm and aware of their surroundings at the moment of regaining control of the vehicle. This suggests that design friction is a promising tool for guiding concept design to enhance transitions from autonomous to manual drive.

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  • 2. Lv, Zhihan
    et al.
    Halawani, Alaa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Computer Engineering and Science Department, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron, Palestine.
    Feng, Shengzhong
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Touch-less interactive augmented reality game on vision-based wearable device2015In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 19, no 3-4, p. 551-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in creating pervasive games based on emerging interaction technologies. In order to develop touch-less, interactive and augmented reality games on vision-based wearable device, a touch-less motion interaction technology is designed and evaluated in this work. Users interact with the augmented reality games with dynamic hands/feet gestures in front of the camera, which triggers the interaction event to interact with the virtual object in the scene. Three primitive augmented reality games with eleven dynamic gestures are developed based on the proposed touch-less interaction technology as proof. At last, a comparing evaluation is proposed to demonstrate the social acceptability and usability of the touch-less approach, running on a hybrid wearable framework or with Google Glass, as well as workload assessment, user’s emotions and satisfaction.

  • 3.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaye, Jofish
    Yahoo Labs, Sunnyvale, CA USA.
    Thomas, Peter
    Brunel Univ, Melbourne, England.
    PUC theme issue: material interactions2014In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 573-576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Interaction Design Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stolterman Bergqvist, Erik
    Computing, and Engineering, Luddy School of Informatics, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.
    Automation of interaction: interaction design at the crossroads of user experience (UX) and artificial intelligence (AI)2023In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 2281-2290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction design/HCI seems to be at a crossroads. On the one hand, it is still about designing for engaging user experiences (UX). Still, on the other hand, it seems to be increasingly about reducing interaction and automating human–machine interaction through the use of AI and other new technologies. In this paper, we explore this seemingly unavoidable gap. First, we discuss the fundamental design rationality underpinning interaction and automation of interaction from the viewpoints of classic theoretical standpoints. We then illustrate how these two come together in interaction design practice. Here we examine four examples from already published research on automation of interaction, including how different levels of automation of interaction affect or enable new practices, including coffee making, self-tracking, automated driving, and conversations with AI-based chatbots. Through an interaction analysis of these four examples, we show (1) how interaction and automation are combined in the design, (2) how interaction is dependent on a certain level of automation, and vice versa, and (3) how each example illustrates a different balance between, and integration of interaction and automation. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional design space as a conceptual construct that takes these aspects into account to understand and analyze ways of combining interaction and automation in interaction design. We illustrate the use of the proposed two-dimensional design space, discuss its theoretical implications, and suggest it as a useful tool—when designing for engaging user experiences (UX), with interaction and automation as two design materials.

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